Skip to main content

Full text of "Annual report of the Board of Regents of the Smithsonian Institution"

See other formats

ae cH 2 é 2\ 
o fe a} } 
s Vi 






(Publication 3034 ) 


For sale by the Superintendent of Documents, Washington, D.C. »= - - - - Price $1.75 (Cloth) 

‘apr Ce TOTS AA” 
41O erMaoa a 40 Cason” 

i | VA 1 QO aH ie IMe2 qn a " a 
AOITUTITevi 9) a 

AAT OnnWwons: . as 



erat ene, 

Pr aN ee aN, ' 

— . 
SAeaet 5 as** 



pet Ans ev ae 

{ snr toigaotd ist) 

ese ara any i 
Be sig corti ANE: 

, We linea aks ae asian tad cure ae 

Bae ley Rita Py ae ce Rt ies ee: 

1 Dp Sip bead Bp gl 5 





Washington, November 26, 1929. 
To the Congress of the United States: 

In accordance with section 5593 of the Revised Statutes of the 
United States, I have the honor, in behalf of the Board of Regents, 
to submit to Congress the annual report of the operations, expendi- 
tures, and condition of the Smithsonian Institution for the year 
ended June 30, 1929. I have the honor to be, 

Very respectfully, your obedient servant, 
C. G. Asgor, Secretary. 





IST ODNOMICIAIS Meee See Le © 2 hee ea, Spe hea ae ae are 
ive SMC HSOnIa MMS GU t LOI seg Seles ps eee te Ete 
Outstandingievents Obthesyear! = ye — a oe 2 eh ae ge ee ea 
aheTestabusbime mh lees ree ohn ee a ok eee eed 
sivep Board votsRegente = ees — bese srys se eer oe eae I el ye ai 

1 NSPS GE gap ag ey a Mp l BNEEN AES 

Ma therssoteenerall imterestey soe ele oe eee eek eS Le 

DTU OVE ECS ESN) IAN GE Rope I Al BA A ll ath) s “PS? SORE UT 

Guit. of art,.collection of John Gellatly 5202 2. un. 

Division of Hadiation and Organisms. 22 00. gos elo e es 

Rx plora ions amd held sworn kes apy cue ley tn) 2 cee ernie ye ee res 
Cooperative ethnological and archeological investigations -_-_~_-_- 

RUIOIIC ATLOMS Huey 2 4) Sa op ae ae eee ee ia ee ee 2 eee 

1 Asp] YE a Ec PH OG ASN LE a a PE 
Goyvernmentally supported. pranchesso-2- 25222525. 20 seen eee ees 
ING OT er UsVH Se Uti seta canals See epee ay ec Sug ye SI ye le 

dt’ DUPE OE Bh Bs ih |STAN ee eo Pa De Ne CI 

Hire ers GratlletayanO tag AUat ieee ees ek Spec eee eee SR gs ee 
SUICCAU Oly AMIOTICA EuDONGIOSY. c= eyo ee ok ee ee 
Taner rclo male exe lnssi epee eee ae reed re ems 0 eth sae epee eet we 
National’ ZOolOg I Galh air Rete nee a yee hee ied ie ee a 

IAS LEO PMV SICAL O DRE VE LOY Uses ee Mel ee i Se pa 
International Catalogue of Scientific Literature_____._....__-_---_-- 

1s SEES eT EY A pee ea, MSS Se A Dare MONONA A cet RR De i 68 
Appendix 1. Report on the United States National Museum__.___-_---. 
2. Report on the National Gallery of Art.o2-.......2-..=-- 
J ReDOLDIOn the: Brees Galleny Of ATGnea ee. eee ae eee 
4. Report on the Bureau of American Ethnology -----__------ 
5. Report on the International Exchanges_______.___._------ 
6. Report on the National Zoological Park_....._._._._..-..--- 
7. Report on the Astrophysical Observatory __.....---------- 
8. Report on the Division of Radiation and Organisms- - - - --- 
9. Report on the International Catalogue of Scientific Litera- 

LOR RepoOLtonuhe library] soso ae Se ee oe eee eee 

[deep oni Ont pulbliGa trom see ete ee ee ere oe ls ee eee eis 

12. Subscribers to James Smithson Memorial Edition of the 
Smithsonian Scientific Series_________ Ie A i Faget Neel iL 

Report of the executive committee of the Board of Regents______------ 
ipsoceedings of the Board of Regents.i220 500 boo ee ee ee eee 


The physics of the universe, by Sir James Jeans_____.___._.__----------- 
Counting the stars and some conclusions, by Frederick H. Seares_-_-_-_-- ~~ 
fhedingering. dryad by Paul Ru Hleyls- 2G jy ee ee lee 

+[n part governmentally supported. 


What is light? by Arthur H. Compton 
Artificial cold,’ by Gordon Biyilkes): (eee iy We ee 
Photosyrthesis; by &. CO: Caizaly: ae ee ee 
Newly discovered chemical elements, by N. M. Bligh__________________ 
Synthetic perfumes, by H. Stanley Redgrove__________________-__.-.- 
Xcraying tie carta, Dy Reginald A. Waly sae et Se see ee 
Extinction and extermination, by T."P. Tolmachofi__-~_ == == == 222 
The Gulf Stream and its problems, by H. A. Marmer_________________- 
hemmystery Ollite, "by. G. Domnane = tee tee a eee ee 
The transition from live to dead: the nature of filtrable viruses, by A. E. 

ROY C ODE ore ee ea me cece ae a ge hee 
Heritable variations, their production by X rays, and their relation to 

EV OMIELOWS iy tly ie Vee ot ee ae ee ek ne ean 
Social parasitism in birds, by Herbert Friedmann____________________- 
iow Imsectacily.) by IRS Be SMOG eG rAsS so. oe ee = fe Ne eae ne ee ere os og 
Giimate and miprations oye. (©. Curva. ee ayer eae een Anim Cond 
Ur of the Chaldees: more royal tombs, by C. Leonard Woolley________- 
The population of ancient America, by H. J. Spinden__________________ 
The aborigines of the ancient island of Hispaniola, by Herbert W. Krieger_ 
The beginning of the mechanical transport era in America, by Carl W. 

J DILET a 029 0 OMS a a ae ena cs odlecs Acacia emntahales = sina jrn siya Sy bebe Wee wee, 2). 
The servant in the house; a brief history of the sewing machine, by Fred- 

CELE il leppal Bey 10, ope Rea e p St e Steee e p  Skg  ie D, Saenh det 
Thomas Chrowder Chamberlin (1843-1928), by Bailey Willis__________- 
iBideyo INOPuchiy by  Sinionmmlexnerss: os Me eee ene ee ee 







Counting the stars (Seares): 

JEANS yoy d lee ran orale alas Rata eae sp mg iy Mp 2 tlh pA pelt eg enchant Pte LY 2 

What is light? (Compton): 

JPA Heyayh 1] tay mask aes TO va ae ie OO ay Cea ee er 

Artificial cold (Wilkes): 

LEVEY Gi) Aen al eee ee Ne UCLA Ok So SPA 

Ur of the Chaldees (Woolley): 

TEAS rays j Iba I feb A ede ey ae aa dll steepn ooh, «pall any Weare Reena 

Abrogines of Hispaniola (Krieger): 

2AM HaPeyesa le=PA7 (A I een pS Doe ee ee eee eee, 

Beginning of mechanical transport (Mitman): 

TELA Ges ili) chain nnarr cae mnet.. Feomun hal SEVEN Umer nee ar eee LENE Ne 
Jedi ets, VOTO ete a8 Ss ol) CET Rh eh sm a EN On a TE 
Pistest Ges ye ke Pees ee pl Pee ie Dee 8 ae 
LEAL aretey ‘WL 7p ies ee Some ebm peed Pv ape PO Me ie Sa Ne 
IPL CES et Ace ears eh 4 oe yer ee ae ee arate) Ue ae OS 

History of sewing machine (Lewton): 

Sed BAGG H GS Y st Least senate A a Rs i i er wat eg be fed ee ca EAN Mec g 

Chamberlin (Willis) : 

Noguchi (Flexner): 

Gemeinde ein eee 2 

th ee a ot 

ES Tu at 



1. Annual report of the secretary, giving an account of the opera- 
tions and condition of the Institution for the year ending June 30, 
1929, with statistics of exchanges, etc. 

2. Report of the executive committee of the Board of Regents, 
exhibiting the financial affairs of the Institution, including a state- 
ment of the Smithsonian fund, and receipts and expenditures for 
the year ending June 30, 1929. 

3. Proceedings of the Board of Regents for the fiscal year ending 
June 30, 1929. 

4. General appendix, comprising a selection of miscellaneous 
memoirs of interest to collaborators and correspondents of the Insti- 
tution, teachers, and others engaged in the promotion of knowledge. 

These memoirs relate chiefly to the calendar year 1929. 


June 30, 1929 

Presiding officer ex officio.—HERBERT Hoover, President of the United States. 
Chancellor.—WILLIAM Howarp Tart, Chief Justice of the United States. 
Members of the Institution: 
HERBERT Hoover, President of the United States. 
CHARLES CurTIS, Vice President of the United States. 
Witt1am Howarp Tart, Chief Justice of the United States. 
Henry L. STIMSON, Secretary of State. 
ANDREW W. MELLON, Secretary of the Treasury. 
JAMES W. Goon, Secretary of War. 
Witi1aAm D. MitcHELL, Attorney General. 
Water FI’. Brown, Postmaster General. 
CHARLES FrRANcIS ADAMs, Secretary of the Navy. 
Ray LYMAN WIxbour, Secretary of the Interior. 
ARTHUR M. Hype, Secretary of Agriculture. 
Ropert P. Lamont, Secretary of Commerce. 
JAMES JOHN Davis, Secretary of Labor. 
Regents of the Institution: 
WILLIAM Howarp Tart, Chief Justice of the United States, Chancellor. 
CHARLES CuRTIS, Vice President of the United States. 
RrEED Smoot, Member of the Senate. 
JOSEPH T. Rosprinson, Member of the Senate. 
CLAUDE A. SwaNSoNn, Member of the Senate. 
ALBERT JOHNSON, Member of the House of Representatives. 
R. WaLTon Moore, Member of the House of Representatives. 
WALTER H. Newton, Member of the House of Representatives. 
Rogert 8. BRooKkines, citizen of Missouri. 
IRwiIn B. LAUGHLIN, citizen of Pennsylvania. 
Freperic A. DreLano, citizen of Washington, D. C. 
DwicHTt W. Morrow, citizen of New Jersey. 
CHARLES Evans Hugues, citizen of New York. 
JOHN C. MrERRIAM, citizen of Washington, D. C. 
Executive committee—FrRrEDERIC A. DELANO, R. WALTON Moore, JoHN C. 
Secretary. CHARLES G. ABBOT. 
Assistant Secretary.—ALEXANDER WETMORE. 
Chief Clerk.—Harry W. Dorsey. 
Treasurer and disbursing agent.—NIcHOLAS W. DORSEY. 
Editor —WeExsSTER P. TRUE. 
Librarian.—WiLiiaAM L. CorpBin. 
Appointment ‘clerk —JamEs G. TRAYLOR. 
Property clerk.—JAMES H. HI. 

1 Resigned June 30, 1929; Hon. Robert Luce appointed on July 1, 1929, to succeed him. 



Assistant Secretary (in charge).—ALEXANDER WETMORE. 

Administrative assistant to the Secretary.—WILLIAM DE C. RAVENEL. 


OCurators.—Pavut Bartscu, Ray S. BaAssteR, THEODORE T. Betote, AusTIn H. 
WaLterR HoucH, LELAND O. Howarp, ALES HrpriéKa, Nei~ M. Jupp, HERBERT 
W. Kriecer, FrepertcK L. Lewron, Grorce P. MeRRILy, GERRIT S. MIvirr, Jr., 

Associate curators —JoHN M. ALpRrics, CHEesTrR G. GILBERT, HLLSwoRTH P. 
Davin WHITE. 

Ohief of correspondence and documents.—HERBERT S. BRYANT. 

Disbursing agent.—NIcHOLAS W. DORSEY. 

Superintendent of buildings and labor—J AMES S. GOLDSMITH. 

Editor—Marcus BENJAMIN. 

Assistant Librarian.—IsaBEL L. TOWNER. 

Photographer —ARTHUR J. OLMSTED. 

Property cierk.—WiLLIAM A. KNOWLES. 

Engineer—CLaAYToN R. DENMARK. 




Associate curator —CaRL WHITING BISHOP. 
Assistant curator.—GRACE DUNHAM GUEST. 
Superintendent.—JOHN Bunpy. 



Ethnologist’—JoHN P. Harrineton, JOHN N. B. HEwITt, Francts LA FLESCHE, 

Archeologist —FRANK H. H. Roserts, Jr. 


Librarian.—E.ia LEARY. 

Tilustrator.—Dr LANCEY GILL. 


Secretary (in charge).—CHARLES G. ABBOT. 
Ohief clerk.—CoaTEes W. SHOEMAKER. 


Director —WILLIAM M. MANN. 
Assistant director—ARTHUR B. BAKER. 

Director.—CHARLES G. ABBOT. 
Research assistant.—FREDERICK Hi. Fow 1s, Jr. 
Research assistant.—LoyaL B. ALDRICH. 
Research associate in charge.—FREDERICK S. BRACKETT. 

Consulting plant physiologist—BHarL S. JOHNSTON. 
Research assistant.—LELAND B. CLARK. 


Assisiant in charge—LkronaRgp C. GUNNELL 


fa eng 


MSS) veo 



C. G. ABBoT 

To the Board of Regents of the Smithsonian Institution: 

GENTLEMEN: I have the honor to submit herewith my report show- 
ing the activities and condition of the Smithsonian Institution and 
the Government bureaus under its administrative charge during the 
fiscal year ended June 30, 1929. The first 22 pages contain a summary 
account of the affairs of the Institution. Appendixes 1 to 11 give 
more detailed reports of the operations of the United States National 
Museum, the National Gallery of Art, the Freer Gallery of Art, the 
Bureau of American Ethnology, the International Exchanges, the 
National Zoological Park, the Astrophysical Observatory, the Divi- 
sion of Radiation and Organisms, the United States Regional Bureau 
of the International Catalogue of Scientific Literature, the Smith- 
sonian library, and of the publications issued under the direction of 
the Institution; and Appendix 12 contains a list of subscribers up to 
November 15, 1929, to the James Smithson Memorial Edition of the 
Smithsonian Scientific Series. 



The year has been gratifyingly and unexpectedly rich in progress. 
Among many items of importance it is even hard to select the great- 
est. The National Government and many friends of the Institution 
have added materially to its income——Mr. John Gellatly, of New 
York, has made the gift of his extensive collection comprising classic 
American and European paintings, outstanding specimens of jew- 
ellers’ art, tapestries, furniture, and oriental art, valued altogether 
at several million dollars, to the Smithsonian for eventual exhibition 
in the National Gallery—A new department, the Division of Radia- 
tion and Organisms, has been added to the research laboratories of 



the Institution, and already has made notable headway under Dr. 
F. S. Brackett, its director, in its preparation to add fundamental 
data to our knowledge of the dependence on radiation of the growth 
of plants and the health of animals and human beings. In “onnec- 
tion with this division, four rooms in the basement and four in the 
flag tower of the Smithsonian Building, heretofore of little value, 
have been fitted for laboratories and offices, and much modern labora- 
tory furniture and apparatus have been purchased.—Four volumes 
of the 12-volume set entitled “Smithsonian Scientific Series ” have 
been issued by the publishers in beautiful form. Many expressions 
of pleased appreciation have been received from subscribers, and the 
royalties to the Institution, as author, to be used for promoting re- 
search and publication, have exceeded anticipation. The remaining 
eight volumes of the series are far advanced in preparation, and will 
be at least equally as interesting and beautiful as those already 
issued.—Many expeditions of excellent accomplishment have gone 
forth from the National Museum, the Bureau of American Ethnology, 
the Astrophysical Observatory, and the Freer Gallery to remote quar- 
ters of the earth—Numerous monographs and original research 
articles have been published, embodying valuable results of observa- 
tion.—By cooperation with the War Department the military exhibits 
in the National Museum have been entirely rearranged. Along with 
this have gone other extensive improvements in the exhibitions.— 
Under the act of 1928, by which Congress appropriated $20,000 to 
promote cooperative investigations in ethnology and archeology in 
the several States to be expended at the discretion of the Smithsonian, 
allotments totaling over $9,000 have been made for projects in 10 
different States.—Great progress has been made in the improvement 
of the hbrary.—A new building for birds, believed to be the best 
for this purpose in the whole world, has been added to the equip- 
ment of the National Zoological Park. Congress has gratifyingly 
made provision for a new reptile house equally well designed—All 
of these and many other matters of scarcely less interest will be men- 
tioned in more detail in the pages which immediately follow, as well 
as in the special reports of the different branches of the Institution. 


The Smithsonian Institution was created by act of Congress in 
1846, according to the terms of the will of James Smithson, of Eng- 
land, who, in 1826, bequeathed his property to the United States of 
America “to found at Washington, under the name of the Smith- 
sonian Institution, an establishment for the increase and diffusion of 
knowledge among men.” In receiving the property and accepting 
the trust, Congress determined that the Federal Government was 


without authority to administer the trust directly, and therefore 
constituted an “establishment ” whose statutory members are “ the 
President, the Vice President, the Chief Justice, and the heads of the 
executive departments.” 


The affairs of the Institution are administered by a Board of 
Regents whose membership consists of “the Vice President, the 
Chief Justice, three members of the Senate, and three Members of 
the House of Representatives, together with six other persons other 
than Members of Congress, two of whom shall be resident in the 
city of Washington and the other four shall be inhabitants of some 
State, but no two of them the same State.” One of the Regents is 
elected chancellor by the board; in the past the selection has fallen 
upon the Vice President or the Chief Justice; and a suitable person 
is chosen by the Regents as Secretary of the Institution, who is also 
secretary of the Board of Regents, and the executive officer directly 
in charge of the Institution’s activities. 

The only change occurring in the personnel of the board during 
the year was the termination of the Vice Presidency of General 
Dawes, and the succession of Charles Curtis, March 4, 1929. 

The roll of the Regents at the close of the fiscal year was as fol- 
lows: William H. Taft, Chief Justice of the United States, chan- 
cellor; Charles Curtis, Vice President of the United States; mem- 
bers from the Senate, Reed Smoot, Joseph T. Robinson, Claude A. 
Swanson; members from the House of Representatives, Albert John- 
son, R. Walton Moore, Walter H. Newton;! citizen members, Robert 
S. Brookings, Missouri; Irwin B. Laughlin, Pennsylvania; Frederic 
A. Delano, Washington, D. C.; Dwight W. Morrow, New Jersey; 
Charles Evans Hughes, New York; and John C. Merriam, Wash- 
ington, D. C. 


The permanent investments of the Institution consist of the fol- 
Total endowment for general or specific purposes (exclusive of 

reer MUNUS LE eee Wien iaIy ns baat ery woah fie alldereres $1, 648, 389. 45 

Itemized as follows: 
Deposited in the Treasury of the United States, as provided by 

1 Resigned June 30, 1929; Hon. Robert Luce, of Massachusetts, appointed on July 1, 
1929, to succeed him. 



Deposited in the consolidated fund: 


Miscellaneous securities, ete., either purchased or acquired 

by gift; cost or value at date acquired 
Springer, Frank, fund for researches, etc. (bonds) 

Walcott, Charles D. and Mary Vaux, fund for researches, ete. 


Younger, Helen Walcott, fund (real-estate notes and stock 

held in trust) 

STO Geil een eS Pa a eh aah So Ne ee te 

$557,056. 95 

30, 000. 00 
11, 520. 00 

49, 812. 50 

1, 648, 389. 45 

The invested funds of the Institution are described as follows: 

United Consoli- | Separ 
Fong Tretgey | dated fund funds” | Total 
AST OTE TTATNC pW sy LR ews Oe A oe $14, 000. 00 | $48, 678.65 |_...-.-.--_- $62, 678. 65 
Bacon. Virginia euray. LUNG) ea een eee ee ene een aateares Garsgeraa cree ree 65, 494. 44 
Baird bucy Merdund bss 25. ese See ees ae eee aes WOT SH 22s Sete ae oe 1, 978. 22 
Ganfields@olleetion find.) 9-2 3 See sa ee ea OF Onde sn aaa 49, 270. 77 
Cascysylhonias iy und see eese = ne eee ene eee nee DZL2s Sou eso se ee 3, 212. 83 
Chamberlain fandss 3 225-8 Se eels eh a eee S SGnGh1e 50) 42 Ps 36, 811. 50 
Min GOWANeM tn Ge ee oan ene ee ee en ees (RRC Dee) | eae 61, 427. 74 
Mabelifund)s 5-62. 2s oe Bocce Stee See eee eases OOS OCH |= ser see | Cees oe 500. 00 
TR CHE MD One HT eee te ee se | as Cee ey eee ee. See '58259:.50)\| 22 es 2252 5, 259. 50 
Hfamiltonefunds 202.228 <a fo ee eee 2, 500. 00 20580. Meee aes 3, 026. 85 
TONY At ALOLIMO UT Cee eee ne ee See eee tte 1 5808 Obs Sen- = eee oe = 1, 580. 95 
Hodgkins fund: 
Gonoral s22 =< eas tgs ce ie Se 116 OD0800))|) 989204010) | Siena onan 155, 204. 10 
Specific so. vre nee ont oe eee nearest oe naee TODS OOO 00" Ce aaa 3 ae es 100, 000. 00 
pighes sy orucey ind. sae eeere see eee nee eee eee 7866.) 12) ||. 5 ets 282 17, 856. 12 
Miver, @atherineWrttndass= sees = 8 ane eee eee PLUUGY PL BRI meena eee eee 20, 672. 33 
Pell Comeliawuivingston, tune ss=-2 2s ee == aaa e |S eean ener BLOGs OIE eon eres 3, 156. 10 
Poore, Lucy T. and George W., fund--_-~------------ 265670. 00)|| 929, 220:470)\|-== se 22s 55, 890. 73 
Reid, Addison Ri funds 2 2222 2h ee ee 10,0003 OO); 10,569.23) (Sa e eee oes 22, 569. 23 
Rhees fund_-_-__- ppp hg Leh thE Sea ag Shs he He 590. 00 (PES B Bye tae ae oe De 1, 208. 33 
Ropbling fin Gee enns es cy fa eee whe ee heey 2) A T67 2O8593 1 2. see ee = 157, 758. 93 
Sanford, George vH., fund 2052-25 ee 1, 100. 00 1163588) aac eee 2, 263. 88 
Smithson fed ee eS ek eee ER ngs ee ae 727, 640. 00 DBO (bees ek eee S 729, 235. 75 
Sprlngersehinarikes fin dss 2 nese ae SR ae) Bo ee ae See eee ens $30, 000. 00 30, 000. 00 
Walcott,.@harles D) and Many Vaux, fund—- 2...) eo 11, 520. 00 11, 520. 00 
Younvers Helen Walcot; Unde sass ae en ee ee a eo te 49, 812. 50 49, 812. 50 
TNO tale obs ee ee ce a ee er oa ee 1, 000, 000. 00 | 557,056.95 | 91,332. 50 | 1, 648, 389. 45 

The Institution gratefully acknowledges gifts from the following 


Dr. W. lL. Abbott, for further contribution for archeological explorations 
in Dominican Republic and for expeditions to Haiti and Santo Domingo. 

Mr. Francis B. Atkinson, for general endowment fund of the Institution. 

Carnegie Corporation, for expenses of exhibition of Ranger paintings. 

I. M. Casanowicz, estate of, for general endowment fund of the Institution. 

Mrs. Laura Welsh Casey, further contribution to the Thomas Lincoln Casey 

fund, for researches in Coleoptera. 

Hon. Charles G. Dawes, for search in Spain for valuable ancient documents. 
Mr. Fairfax Harrison, for general endowment fund of the Institution. 
Hon. Irwin B. Laughlin, for general endowment fund of the Institution. 
Mr. Dean Mathey, for general endowment fund of the Institution. 


Missouri Historical Society, for further studies of the language of the Osage 

Research Corporation, further contribution for research in radiation. 

Rockefeller Foundation, for research in radiation by Dr. Anders K. Angstrém. 

Mr. John A. Roebling, further contribution for researches in solar radiation 
and study of world weather records. 

Stanco (Inc.), for botanical expedition to Peru. 

Messrs. E. H. Siegler and C. H. Popenoe, for valuable patents covering 

Freer Gallery of Art.—The invested funds of the Freer bequest are 
classified as follows: 

Court ,angd, crounds, fundiesc3 len eros? ite oth hans stegersts $574, 524. 12 
Court and grounds maintenance fundies oo eo 148, 112. 53 
SUT oie op ra GG UP ok BE tS RAR ee Pl NT Se PERRIER «01 596, 301. 18 
Residuary legacy. 2—~ 2. pa eee’ a irre sei 1 ery rs eee es 8 0, 917, 116. 19 

Motel 2 ee ee ee a a 5, 236, 054. 02 

The practice of depositing on time in local trust companies and 
banks such revenues as may be spared temporarily has been contin- 
ued during the past year, and interest on these deposits has amounted 
to $5,631.82. 

Cash balances, receipts and disbursements during the fiscal year? 

Cash epalance onvhandedune*sO; 1928. a ee a $238, 369. 41 
Receipts : 
Cash from invested endowments and from miscel- 
laneous sources for general use of the Insti- 
GUE LO 2 eae ee eet Roan se ig a Pin ate, pep eeerre Bee yarn) $61, 309. 56 
Cash for increase of endowments for specific use. 3, 000. 00 
Cash for increase of endowments for general use_ 6, 535. 00 

Cash gifts for specific use (not to be invested)____ 50, 111. 01 
Cash received ag royalties from sales of Smith- 

sonian Sctentific Series 22 — ers ee 14, 454. 01 
Cash gain from sale, ete., of securities (to be 

aT THESES (3) es ieee cee Le ates Lk ORR Uy Ree 22, 944. 95 

Cash income from endowments for specific use 
other than Freer endowment, and from miscel- 

TANCOUS SOUNCES) = 262 8ese 6a 82, 425, 70 
Total receipts other than Freer endowment______________ 240, 780. 22 
Cash income from Freer endowment: 
income from investments 282, 435.13 
Gain from sale, ete, of securities (to be 
IMIVESTS!) eee Bese be OA ee Te ieee eye 940, 476. SO 

——_———— 1, 222, 911. 93 
1, 702, 061. 57 

2This statement does not include Government appropriations under the administrative 
charge of the Institution. 

* Under resolution of the Board of Regents three-fourths of this income is credited to 
the permanent endowment fund of the Institution and one-fourth is made expendable for 
general purposes. 



Disbursements : 

General work of the Institution— 

Buildings—care, repair, and alteration_____- $11, 564. 59 
Kurniture and fixtures.) 2 746. 06 
General administration, .--.—-5--- == so 20, 652. 66 
1810) ¢2h a ee ee ee ee 3, 006. 55 
Publications (comprising preparation, print- 
ine. and GistribUbiGn) —=-=— = ee 16, 865. 75 
Researches and explorations.____________---~- 13, 707. 11 
International Wxchanges=———2-- = ss %, 921, 67 
—_—_——— _ $74, 464. 39 
Funds for specific use other than Freer endow- 
Investments made from gifts, from gain from 
sales, ete., of securities, and from savings on 
ATR CORTON 0 i Ey race A MO a 51, 860. 45 
Other expenditures, consisting largely of re- 
search work, travel, inerease and care of 
special collections, etc., from income of en- 
dowment funds and cash gifts for specific 
UT SE see te AE ERLE Re yt eS Re nites 2S 118, 498. 06 
———————._ 165, 358. 51 
Freer endowment— 
Operating expenses of gallery, salaries, pur- 
chases of art objects, field expenses, etec____ 287, 679. 63 
Investments made from gain from sale, etc., 
of securities and from income___------~_~ 957, 564. 76 
——___——_ 1, 245, 244. 39 
Balance) June sO) OOO ee ee es Ses Se 216, 994. 28 

1, 702, 061. 57 

Recapitulation of receipts, exclusive of Freer funds 

Cash balance Gn phand SUN sO ODS soe a ee ae eee ee $238, 369. 41 
Receipts : 
General uses— 
Kor addition ico endowment. 222 22a. eer $25, 254. 99 
Reserved! as. imcomesere win ee 64, 923. 06 
a 90, 178. 05 
Specific uses— 
Accretions to endowment__---__---__------- 18, 065. 47 
Gifts for specific use (not to be invested)_--- 50,111.01 
Cash income from endowments for addition 
EO CT OW TNT CM Da eae 6, 258. 39 
Cash income from endowments and from 
other sources for conducting researches, 
CXPLlOTATLONS (CLC, 282 Se eee Ee el ae 76, 172. 31 
——_—___—__ 150, 602. 18 
Total receipts, exclusive of Freer funds__--_--_---- 240, 780. 23 

#Includes salaries of secretary and certain others. 


Statement of endowment funds 

Specific pur- 
General pur- | poses other | Freer endow- 
poses than Freer ment 

Hndowment, Junelso; 192863 {Te le ers eee $995, 632.81 | $598,668.69 | $4, 268, 244. 26 
Increase trom. income. witts, etc. or ee 21, 347. 69 8, 742. 89 5, 671. 62 
Increase from gain from sales, etce.-..---------------------- 4, 443. 21 16, 366. 66 951, 893. 14 
Increase from stoekidividends- £2 LkiGs ys Lave see ok 962. 04 2, 225. 46 10, 245. 00 
Endowment, June 30} 19202-2055 = es sere 1, 022, 385. 75 626, 003. 70 5, 236, 054. 02 

The following appropriations were made by Congress for the 
Government bureaus under the administrative charge of the Smith- 
sonian Institution for the fiscal year 1929: 

SACS RAT OXPCUSCGe Pica a eee a ee Le ee $32, 500. 00 
LRSM ACTOS Obra ee 48, 208. 00 
ANSEHEN ES H dled DELON ON (Gy s-0 eee eee ee 60, 300. 00 
Cooperative: ethuolosical researches. = 2-2 =- =e aaa eee eee 20, 000. 00 
International Catalogue of Scientific Literature___________-_-_-_ 7, 460. 00 
Asirophiysicalni@ bserviator yes ete See Ses rere Sere ee eae 33, 200. 00 
National Museum: 
Harniturepands fixtures. 2.22 slp ae ee $29, 560. 00 
EL eaten Serre ML Oc Gr ee ee ee ee 84, 040. 00 
Preservation Ol COMCCLIONS net 502, 546. 00 
Buildine! repairs)2 2 seo eee) Oe ie ee eee 17, 730. 00 
Safeguarding dome of rotunda, Natural History 
ESTP NR 9 os Ee AN Dee BA ete Se Re een 80, 000. 00 
BUS OV RS a a eg oe 2, 000. 00 
TER OST Eg Spt eco Are EE SP NE eS ROR Sa ESE 450. 00 
—————-___ 716, 326. 00 
NationalaGalleny yor eAa ts te: tae We eh rs ee ee ee 31, 168. 00 
National Zoolovicalhjeark = OF iy Mie Eis ee as SEs 182, 050. 00 
National Zoological Park, building for birds--..- + _-___-_-_- 30, 000. 00 
Perini wand qin dial eee cee oe Pe Lae ee es ee 95, 000. 00 
YTD ere eM cp OP RYE MT PL et A ep RP 1, 256, 212. 0C 


Several new features have been introduced by the treasurer, Mr. 
N. W. Dorsey, and by the executive committee of the Board of 
Regents in their financial reports. Returns from royalties on the 
Smithsonian Scientific Series appear for the first time. Reported 
for six months, only, these amount to nearly $15,000. The Regents 
have directed that one-fourth of all sums to be received from such 
royalties shall be treated as income, the remainder as endowment. 

5 Work done under direction of Supervising Architect and funds disbursed by U. S. 


Tt was felt that the immediate application of a quarter of these funds 
to research would better promote progress and attract greater inter- 
est among friends of the Institution than would the assignment of 
the entire proceeds of royalties to the permanent endowment of the 

Tables have been prepared showing the condition and objects of 
the many special funds and showing the increases in general and 
special endowment from time to time during the history of the 
Smithsonian. Certain funds of fairly general application had been 
allowed to accumulate for a good many years. The chief of the 
Bureau of Ethnology having reported the critical emergency to eth- 
nology which inheres in the imminent decease of the last surviving 
members of certain Indian tribes, the secretary directed that of the 
annual income of the said funds, an amount totaling about $3,500 
should be devoted for several years to collecting this vanishing 

In accord with the recommendations of the Institution’s financial 
advisers, Messrs. Scudder, Stevens, and Clark, of New York, and 
with the approval of the permanent committee of the Board of 
Regents, a considerable part of the endowment has been held for 
several years in the stocks of widely diversified and well-established 
companies and in short-term bonds. In this way the Institution has 
been able to share in the prosperity of our country and has enjoyed 
a considerable appreciation of its funds. 

Especial mention is due the cooperation of the Research Corpora- 
tion of New York, whose grants of funds have helped greatly to 
establish the new Division of Radiation and Organisms. 


The most important art collection to be received by the Institution 
since the Freer gift came during the year from Mr. John Gellatly, 
of New York City. The collection, valued at several million dollars, 
comprises more than 100 works of American art, some choice Euro- 
pean paintings, and large collections of glass, jewels, tapestries, 
oriental specimens, and other valuable material, all provided with 
beautiful cases: Mr. Gellatly’s offer was considered by the National 
Gallery of Art Commission and its acceptance highly recommended 
to the Smithsonian Regents. The Regents acted favorably upon the 
recommendation, and subsequently Congress passed the following 
joint resolution, approved by the President on June 6, 1929: 

Whereas Mr. John Gellatly has offered to the Nation his art collection for 
eventual permanent exhibition in the National Gallery of Art under the adminis- 
tration of the Smithsonian Institution; and 


Whereas the National Gallery of Art Commission has recommended to the 
Board of Regents of the Smithsonian Institution the acceptance of this collec- 
tion on account of its high merit; and 

Whereas the said Board of Regents have approved in principle this recom- 
mendation: Therefore be it 

Resolved by the Senate and House of Representatives of the United Siates 
of America in Congress assembled, That the Smithsonian Institution is re- 
quested to convey suitable acknowledgment to the donor, and is authorized to 
include in its estimates of appropriations such sums as may be needful for 
the preservation and maintenance of the collection. 

By the terms of the deed of gift the collection is the property of the 
Smithsonian Institution in trust for exhibition in the National Gal- 
lery of Art. It will remain in the Heckscher Building in New York 
City, where it is now housed, for four years. It is hoped that by 
the end of that period the National Gallery of Art will have a suit- 
able building and the collection can then be transferred to 


In the early history of the Smithsonian Institution its operations 
were well rounded. The natural history sciences and the physical 
sciences shared nearly equally in its work. Of late years only in the 
Astrophysical Observatory, and to a minor extent in chemical in- 
vestigations in the Department of Geology of the National Museum, 
have the physical sciences been represented in the Institution’s re- 
searches. However, the work of the Astrophysical Observatory has 
developed a body of experience in the measurement of radiation and 
of heat, and a collection of large pieces of optical apparatus, which, 
combined, comprise a unique preparation for research on the rela- 
tions of radiation to life. 

It is therefore with unusual satisfaction that I record the establish- 
ment on May 1, 1929, of the Division of Radiation and Organisms. 

The staff is at present composed of Dr. F. S. Brackett, research 
associate in charge; Dr. E. 8. Johnston, consulting plant physiologist ; 
Mr. L. B. Clark, research assistant; and Miss V. P. Stanley, stenog- 
rapher and laboratory assistant. With these cooperate the staff of 
the Astrophysical Observatory. Offices have been made available by 
remodeling the flag tower of the Smithsonian Building and installing 
an elevator, and laboratories are being constructed and equipped in 
the basement. These include plant-growth chambers, spectrograph 
and photometer rooms, a physical laboratory accommodating infra- 
red spectroscopes, a chemical laboratory, and a glass-blowing room. 
At the close of the year work was nearly completed on the prepara- 
tion of these laboratories and general equipment and special apparatus 
were being arranged for. 


Investigations upon living organisms will at first be confined to the 
growth of plants under rigidly controlled physical and chemical 
conditions, the control extending to soil, gases, temperature, humid- 
ity, and intensity and color of light. General biological problems 
will be attacked through spectroscopic investigations of the compli- 
cated molecules which are a part of living organisms; that is, a study 
of the radiation arising from the internal vibrations of the molecules 
themselves. The work will be done in close cooperation with the 
Fixed Nitrogen Laboratory of the Department of Agriculture, as 
well as with men of diverse training in the biological sciences, so that 
modern specialization may be taken advantage of in these studies on 
the border line of several sciences. 


The field expeditions sent out under the administration or coopera- 
tion of the Institution as an important part of its program in the 
increase of knowledge numbered 29 during the year. They pertained 
chiefly to anthropology, geology, biology, and astrophysics, and many 
thousands of specimens and much valuable information resulted from 
them. Preliminary illustrated accounts of the work appeared in the 
annual exploration” pamphlet issued by the Institution, and brief 
notices of many of the expeditions will be found in the reports of 
certain of the bureaus under Smithsonian direction, appended hereto. 
The Institution is able to bear the expense of but a very small propor- 
tion of the explorations, the rest being supported by cooperative ar- 
rangements with other governmental and scientific establishments and 
private individuals. . 

The year’s expeditions visited such widely scattered regions as 
China, Alaska, Canada, Labrador, Haiti, Cuba, Honduras, various 
European countries, the Anglo-Egyptian Sudan, and the Philippines, 
besides 15 States in this country. Among the more extended expedi- 
tions may be mentioned Dr. Paul Bartsch’s molluscan work in Cuba; 
investigations of the ancient Eskimo culture of northwestern Alaska, 
by Dr. A. Hrdlicka and Mr. Henry B. Collins; the joint zoological 
and archeological expedition of Messrs. Miller and Krieger to the 
Dominican Republic and Mr. Arthur J. Poole’s exploration of 
Haitian caves; the zoological collecting of the Rev. David C. 
Graham and the Freer Gallery’s archeological work under Mr. Carl 
W. Bishop in China; and the botanical explorations in Honduras by 
Mr. Paul C. Standley. 


As stated in my last report, Congress in 1928 passed an act au- 
thorizing the appropriation of $20,000 for cooperative ethnological 


and archeological investigations, the Secretary of the Smithsonian 
Institution being designated to pass upon the merit of the proposed 
work and to make available from the money so appropriated a sum 
equal to that provided by any State, educational institution, or 
scientific organization in the United States, such sum not to exceed 
$2,000 in any one State in any one year. The direction of the work 
and the division of the result thereof was also placed under the 
Secretary of th he Smithsonian. During the past year 16 allotments 
for cooperative projects have been approved as follows: 


June 19. State archeologist of Tennessee, to conduct archeological investigations 
in the Great Smoky Mountains, $500. 

July 16. Indiana Historical Bureau, to make an archeological survey of the 
southeast portion of the State of Indiana, together with the excava- 
tion of a typical mound, $900. 

Nov. 12. Oklahoma Historical Society, for excavation of a group of mounds of 
the true Mound Builder type in the northern part of Le Flore County, 
Okla., $1,000. 

Nov. 20. University of California, to conduct ethnological investigations among 
the Yuma and Kamia Indians of southern California, $200. 

Nov. 20. University of California, to conduct ethnological investigations among 
the Yokuts and Western Mono of San Joaquin Valley and southern 
Sierra Nevada, $200. 

Noy. 26. University of Chicago, to excavate a series of mounds near Quincy, IlL., 

Nov. 28. University of Washington, to make a study of the Lummi Indians near 
Bellingham, Wash., $100. 


Apr. 12. University of California, for an investigation of the Nisenan or Southern 
Maidu of north central California, $300. 

Apr. 12. University of California, for an investigation of the culture of the 
Kawaiisu of south central California, $250. 

Apr. 12. University of California, for an intensive study of the basketry art of 
the Indians of northwestern California, $250. 

Apr. 12. University of Michigan, to conduct an archeological survey of Muskegon 
and Marquette River Valleys, $500. 

June 12. Colorado State Historical Society, to conduct archeological reconnais- 
sance and excavations in Montezuma County. Colo., $1,200. 

June 12. Logan Museum (Beloit, Wis.), to conduct archeological excavations in 
supposed Arikara sites, $500. 

June 12. San Diego Museum. to conduct archeological investigations and exca- 
vations in western San Diego County, Calif., $800. 

June 12. Yale University, to conduct studies of Indian music, $500. 

June 27. Indiana Historical Bureau, to continue archeological survey of the State 
of Indiana, $1,000. 


Partly through its very extensive correspondence, but chiefly 
through its publications, the Institution carries on its program of 
diffusion of knowledge. All of its 11 distinct series are scientific in 


character, except the catalogues of the National Gallery of Art. Two 
of its less technical publications, namely, the Smithsonian Annual 
Report and the annual Smithsonian Explorations and Field Work 
pamphlet, are intended primarily for the general reader who is 
interested in the progress of science. All of its publications are dis- 
tributed free to a large list of libraries and scientific and educational 
institutions throughout the world. A limited number of copies of 
papers in the Miscellaneous Collections series are held for sale at cost 

The Annual Reports of the Smithsonian Institution are perhaps 
its most widely known series. Printed each year as a general ap- 
pendix to these reports is a selection of about 30 articles chosen from 
the periodical literature of the world or specially contributed to illus- 
trate in a readable and authoritative manner the advances in all 
branches of science for the year. For example, in the report for 
1928 the following three typical articles appear: 

New Results on Cosmic Rays, by R. A. Millikan and G. H. 

The Controversy Over Human “Missing Links,” by Gerrit S. 
Miller, jr. 

Communication Among Insects, by N. E. McIndoo. 

The Institution published during the past year a total of 128 vol- 
umes and pamphlets; and 197,573 copies of Smithsonian publica- 
tions were distributed, including 26,709 volumes and separates of the 
Smithsonian Annual Reports, 31,121 volumes and separates of the 
Smithsonian Miscellaneous Collections, 3,773 Smithsonian Special 
Publications, 115,128 publications of the National Museum, and 
20,112 publications of the Bureau of American Ethnology. More 
detailed information regarding the publications is given in the report 
of the editor of the Institution, Appendix 11. 


As a means of augmenting its income for researches and publica- 
tions, the Institution entered into an agreement in 1928 with the 
Smithsonian Institution Series (Inc.) of New York to publish a 
set of 12 volumes to be known as the Smithsonian Scientific Series, 
under the editorship of the secretary. These volumes, prepared at 
the Institution, present in popular form, profusely illustrated, the 
scientific activities of the Smithsonian and the wealth of natural- 
history material in the National Museum and Zoological Park. The 
sale of the series is entirely in the hands of the New York publishers, 
the Institution appearing only in the capacity of author. 

The first four volumes appeared during the year and were dis- 
tributed to the subscribers to the James Smithson Memorial Edition 



whose names will be found in Appendix 12. These volumes were 
as follows: 
1. The Smithsonian Institution, by Webster Prentiss True. 
2. The Sun and the Welfare of Man, by Charles Greeley Abbot. 
8. Minerals from Earth and Sky. Part I, The Story of Meteorites, by George 
P. Merrill. Part Il, Gems and Gem Minerals, by William F. Foshag. 
4, The North American Indians. An account of the American Indians north 
of Mexico, compiled from the original sources, by Rose A. Palmer. 
The remaining eight volumes are in press or well advanced in 
preparation and will be issued in course of the calendar year 1930. 


The Smithsonian library is made up of 10 divisional and 36 sec- 
tional libraries. The former include the Smithsonian deposit in the 
Library of Congress, which is the main lbrary of the Institution, 
the Smithsonian office library, the Langley aeronautical library, and 
the seven libraries of the bureaus under direction of the Institution. 
The sectional libraries are smaller units maintained in the offices of 
members of the staff for use in connection with their work. The 
library as a whole comprises about 800,000 volumes, pamphlets, and 
charts. Accessions for the year included 7,244 volumes and 7,627 
pamphlets and charts, a total of 14,871 items. 

Three important changes took place in the library during the 
year: The library of the Bureau of American Ethnology, previously 
an independent library, was made a division of the Smithsonian 
library; a new divisional library was organized for the recently 
established Division of Radiation and Organisms of the Institution ; 
and the technological library was made a part of the National 
Museum library. 

The outstanding gift of the year was the Harriman Alaskan 
library, brought together by Dr. W. H. Dall and presented by Mrs. 
Edward H. Harriman. Other important gifts include 1,000 publi- 
cations from Mr. Herbert A. Gill, 500 books and periodicals on 
photography from Mr. A. B. Stebbins, and 1,500 publications of the 
Philosophical Society of Washington from the society itself. 

Items of notable progress in the reorganization of the lbrary 
under the direction of the librarian will be found in Appendix 10. 


There have grown up under the initiative of the Smithsonian 
Institution and at large expense of its private funds numerous en- 
terprises which have become public necessities. Of these, seven, by 
direction of Congress, are still administered by the Institution, 
though almost entirely supported by governmental appropriations. 


These are: The National Museum, the National Gallery of Art, the 
Bureau of American Ethnology, the National Zoological Park, the 
Bureau of International Exchanges, the Astrophysical Observatory, 
and the Regional Bureau of the International Catalogue of Scien- 
tific Literature. Besides these the Smithsonian administers the 
Freer Gallery of Art, the gift of Charles L. Freer to the Institution 
in trust for the American people. 


Of the governmental branches of the Institution the most impor- 
tant is the National Museum. On the one hand its exhibitions en- 
tertain and instruct visitors, young and old, from all parts of our 
country and the world. On the other it is the repository of an 
enormous number of specimens of fauna, flora, geology, mineralogy, 
history, ethnology, and archeology, representing not only the United 
States but other regions, including the great oceans. These collec- 
tions in many instances can no longer be duplicated, owing to the 
changed conditions now existing. They form a rich basis for re- 
search, valuable both for utilities and for pure science. The duty also 
devolves on us of continuing explorations and collecting, especially 
where the conditions tend toward the early loss of opportunities now 
available. Only in this way can the interests of the future be 

The appropriations for the maintenance of the Museum totaled 
$748,024, an increase of $97,064 over the preceding year. A large 
part of this increase was provided for much-needed adjustment in 
the salaries of the Museum staff, including a revision of the sched- 
ules of the various grades and a one-rate increase for employees 
who had attained proper efficiency ratings. Although the effect 
of this increase in salaries was immediately apparent in improved 
morale, the Museum salary rates are still below the average for 
similar organizations in the Government service, and it is urgently 
hoped that provision may be made for a further one-rate advance. 
The question of additions to the personnel is of growing impor- 
tance, as in several divisions there are no assistants in training to 
carry on the work when the older men are gone, and for certain col- 
lections of scientific material there is no specialist in charge. The 
acute housing needs of the Museum include additional wings on 
the Natural History Building to relieve the present overcrowded 
condition and a more adequate and modern building to replace the 
old Arts and Industries Building, constructed nearly 50 years ago 
and entirely unsuited to present requirements. 

The collections have been increased during the year by the addi- 
tion of 545,191 specimens, by far the largest part of these coming 
to the department of biology. Gifts to schools numbered 3,258 


specimens, and 23,326 were sent out in exchange to other organiza- 
tions and individuals. Loans to scientific workers totaled 33,723 

The department of anthropology received a large collection, gath- 
ered by Mr. H. B. Collins, jr., from islands off the coast of Alaska, 
of ivory and bone implements illustrative of Eskimo culture from 
very early times to the period of Russian exploration. A series 
of objects representing the ethnology of the Nigerian and Gold 
Coast in Africa was presented by Mr. C. C. Roberts and another 
from the region of the Belgian Kongo was given by the Rev. Ellen 
I. Burk. 

In biology there was received the valuable collection of mammals, 
birds, and insects bequeathed by the late Col. Wirt Robinson, and 
large series of birds and plants obtained in hitherto unrepresented 
areas of western China by Dr. Joseph F. Rock, presented by the 
National Geographic Society. Through the continued work of 
Dr. David C. Graham large collections of biological material from 
western China were received, and Mr. EK. C. Leonard collected large 
series of plants in Haiti through the financial assistance of Dr. 
W.L. Abbott. The division of mammals received a complete skeleton 
of an adult sperm whale, the gift of Mr. Ippei Yokoyama, president 
of the Oriental Whaling Co. Nearly 200,000 land shells were col- 
lected in Cuba by Dr. Paul Bartsch, under the Walter Rathbone 
Bacon Traveling Scholarship. 

In the department of geology a meteoric iron weighing 1,060 
pounds, from New Mexico, was purchased through the Roebling 
Fund. The mineral collections were enriched under the same fund 
by the addition of a large mass of pegmatite from Maine, a nugget 
of platinum weighing 17.274 ounces from South America, and a cut 
gem of benitoite weighing 7.67 carats, the largest known cut 
stone of this material. Through the Chamberlain Fund a number 
of interesting specimens were added to the gem collection. Among 
additions to the fossil collections may be mentioned remains of 
dinosaurs of several species brought by Mr. C. W. Gilmore from 
Montana, and specimens of Pleistocene mammals collected by Doctor 
Gidley in Florida. 

The arts and industries department received many valuable addi- 
tions, including three early types of Winton automobiles, one of 
the engines of the Army airplane Question Mark, which remained in 
the air nearly seven days, and an exhibit illustrating the entire 
process of shoemaking by machinery. The most important accession 
in the division of history was a silk dress worn by Martha Washing- 
ton, received as a permanent loan from Mrs. Morris Whitridge. 

The usual large number of field expeditions were taken part in 
by the Museum; these will be found described briefly in the report on 


the Museum, Appendix 1. Work on safeguarding the dome above 
the rotunda was completed on May 14, 1929, the work being per- 
formed under direction of the engineers in the office of the Super- 
vising Architect, Treasury Department. The auditorium and lec- 
ture rooms were used during the year for 125 meetings, covering a 
wide range of scientific and other activities. Visitors to the Museum 
for the year totaled 1,929,625, a large increase over the previous 
year. Hight volumes and 61 smaller papers were published, and 
115,128 copies of Museum publications were distributed during the 

The outstanding event of the year was the gift by Mr. John 
Gellatly of his important art collection mentioned in detail else- 
where in this report. Other than this, but few accessions came to 
the gallery, owing to the complete exhaustion of available space and 
the fact that no provision has yet been made for the erection of a 
new building. 

The eighth annual meeting of the gallery commission was held 
December 11, 1928. At a special meeting held in April, 1929, the 
commission recommended to the Smithsonian Regents the accept- 
ance of the Gellatly collection. At this meeting also the chairman, 
Mr. Gari Melchers, announced that the Carnegie Corporation had 
granted $1,000 for the purpose of assembling the art works so far 
purchased under the Ranger fund for temporary exhibition in the 
National Gallery. It is intended to hold the exhibition during 
December, 1929. 

Six special exhibitions were held in the gallery, including a group 
of four portraits by M. L. Theo Dubé; a collection of paintings 
of the Gothic cathedrals of France, by Pieter van Veen; an exhibit 
of early American miniatures, by Edward Greene Malbone; 42 
water-color paintings of scenes and figure subjects in India, by 
William Spencer Bagdatopoulos; a collection of paintings of Arctic 
and Antarctic scenes and character studies by Frank Wilbert Stokes; 
and an exhibition of paintings and sculpture by American negro 


The year’s additions to the collection by purchase include exam- 
ples of early Persian and Egyptian bookbinding; Chinese bronzes; 
Syrian glass; Persian, Turkish, and Egyptian manuscripts; Chinese, 
Japanese, Indian, and Persian paintings; Chinese, Persian, and west 
Asian pottery; and Chinese silver. 

6 The Government’s expense in connection with the Freer Gallery of Art consists mainly 

in the care of the building and certain other custodial matters. Other expenses are paid 
from the Freer endowment funds. 


The total attendance for the year was 116,303, of which number 
2,101 came to the offices for general information, to study the build- 
ing and methods, to see objects in storage, or for other purposes. 
Ten classes were given instruction in the study rooms and twelve 
groups were given docent service in the galleries. 

Gratifying progress has been made in the work of the field service. 
Dr. C. Li, of the field staff, was given every assistance by the Chinese 
Government in carrying on important archeological excavations in 
the Province of Honan. Political conditions in China have improved 
steadily during the year, and it may be confidently expected that 
the Freer Gallery’s work in the field may now be carried on without 
interruption of any kind. 


On August 1, 1928, Mr. Matthew W. Stirling assumed the office of 
chief of the Rena succeeding Dr. J. Walter Fewkes, who retired 
earlier in the year. 

The work of the bureau for the year covered widespread ethno- 
logical and archeological investigations relating to numerous Indian 
tribes. Mr. Stirling completed a survey of an interesting group of 
_ mounds in the vicinity of Tampa Bay, Fla., selecting a large mound 
at Palma Sola as a site for later intensive excavation. Doctor 
Swanton continued work on the Timucua dictionary, and Doctor 
Michelson renewed his researches among the Algonquian tribes of 
Oklahoma and the Fox Indians of Iowa. Mr. Harrington completed 
his report on the Taos of New Mexico and studied the Karuk of 
California. Doctor Roberts brought to completion his archeological 
work along the Piedra River in Colorado, uncovering 50 houses of 
the prehistoric Pueblo peoples, and prepared a report covering the 
investigation. Later in the year he began excavations at a site In east- 
ern Arizona, revealing eight pit houses occupied by Basket Maker III 
and Pueblo I peoples. Mr. Hewitt continued his ethnological work 
among the Iroquois, and Doctor La Flesche revised the manuscript of 
his Osage dictionary. Miss Densmore studied the music of various 
tribes in Wisconsin. 

The bureau published three annual reports, with accompanying 
papers, and five bulletins. A total of 20,112 bureau publications 
were distributed during the year. 


The number of packages of publications handled during the year 
was 620,485, a large increase over the number handled during the 
previous year. The total weight of the packages was 621,373 pounds, 
also an increase. These totals include both the packages sent abroad 
and those received for distribution in this country. 


The total number of sets of United States governmental documents 
forwarded to foreign depositories remains at 105, but those sent to 
Latvia and Rumania have been increased from partial to full sets, 
and in several countries the location of the depository has been 
changed. The daily issue of the Congressional Record is now ex- 
changed with 101 foreign establishments. 


The total number of animals added to the collections during the 
year was 479, including an unusual number of gifts of valuable 
specimens, while 541 were lost through death, return of animals, 
and exchange, leaving the number on hand at the close of the year 
at 2.211. These represent 579 species of mammals, birds, reptiles, 
and batrachians. Because of the restrictions of exhibition space, no 
attempt has been made to enlarge the collection for the present, 
effort being concentrated on selecting through exchange and pur- 
chase only choice and especially desirable species. As a result, the 
collection is now unusually rich in rare and interesting forms. 

The most spectacular addition of the year, and in fact of many 
years, was N’Gi, the gorilla purchased with money. remaining from 
the Smithsonian-Chrysler expedition funds. On the first Sunday» 
that he was shown at the park, despite the fact that it was a cold 
day, over 40,000 people came to see him. For the year the attend- 
ance reached a total of 2,528,710, a considerable increase over the 
preceding year. This total included 497 classes of students, aggre- 
gating 30,886 individuals. 

Work on the exterior of the new bird house, built last year, was 
completed, including the construction of outdoor cages and the lay- 
ing out of an attractive approach to the building. The roofs of sev- 
eral of the older buildings were repaired, and many of the bridle 
paths in the park were altered after consultation with those inter- 
ested in riding. 

Congress has appropriated $220,000 for the construction of a 
reptile house, which for years has been badly needed. In order to 
insure the best and most modern building for the exhibition of rep- 
tiles and batrachians, the Smithsonian Institution from its private 
funds sent the director of the park and Mr. A. L. Harris, municipal 
architect, to Europe to study the zoological parks of foreign cities. 
Twenty zoos were visited, and through the courtesy of those in 
charge many valuable ideas were obtained which will be used in the 
preliminary plans for the new reptile house. 

Of the several additional buildings needed for the proper develop- 
ment of the National Zoo the most urgent is an exhibition building 
for apes, lemurs, and small mammals. For the small mammals, 
which include some of the most interesting of all animals, there are 


at present practically no suitable quarters, and the great apes, of 
which the park has a valuble collection, are now so housed that it is 
often impossible for visitors to see them. Tentative plans for a mod- 
ern, hygienic building to remedy this situation have been prepared, 
the estimated cost being $225,000. 


The Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory, through its field sta- 
tions on Table Mountain, Calif., and Mount Montezuma, Chile, and 
the cooperating National Geographic Society station on Mount Bruk- 
karos, South West Africa, has continued the exact measurement of 
the intensity of the radiation of the sun as it is at mean solar dis- 
tance outside the earth’s atmosphere. The California and the Chile 
observations, having reached definitive status, now concur within nar- 
row limits in their determination of the sun’s variation. ‘The Monte- 
zuma values of the solar constant are published by the Weather 
Bureau on the Washington daily weather map. 

Further investigations have apparently confirmed three definite 
periodicities previously noticed in the solar variation of approxi- 
mately 11, 15, and 26 months. 

At the Mount Wilson, Calif., station, Doctor Abbot and Mr. 
Freeman repeated with richer results the bolometric determination 
of positions of solar and terrestrial absorption lines and bands in 
the infra-red solar spectrum, which formed the main subject of Vol- 
ume I of the Annals of the Astrophysical Observatory. Another 
research carried through at Mount Wilson was the observation of the 
distribution of energy in the spectra of 18 stars and of the planets 
Mars and Jupiter, accomplished by Doctor Abbot, with the aid of 
Doctor Adams, of the Mount Wilson Observatory, using the 100- 
inch telescope and a sensitive radiometer. 

Preparation of the text of Volume V of the Annals, to contain the 
numerous observations since 1920, was begun during the year, and 
it is hoped that the volume will be ready for publication in the 
fiscal year 1931. 


Publication of the International Catalogue was suspended in 1922 
because of lack of financial support, but the United States bureau, 
conforming with an agreement made with other bureaus, has con- 
tinued to keep records of current scientific periodicals and to do other 
necessary work in order that actual indexing may be resumed when 
reorganization of the catalogue becomes possible. Expenses have 
been kept at the absolute minimum consistent with maintaining the 
bureau intact. 



The assistant in charge of the bureau has during the year drawn 
up a detailed plan whereby the work of the catalogue could be re- 
organized and publication resumed. The initial capital required 
under this plan would be $75,000 for equipping a printing plant and 
maintaining the central bureau for one year. After the first year 
the enterprise would again be self-supporting through the sale of 
the catalogue to subscribers. At the close of the past year the assist- 
ant in charge was in correspondence regarding the plan with Prof. 
Henry E. Armstrong, F. R. S., chairman of the executive committee, 
in whom the 1922 Brussels Convention vested authority to consider 
and propose plans for resuming publication. 


Robert Ridgway, curator of birds, died at Olney, Ill., March 25, 
1929. He was born at Mount Carmel, Il., July 2, 1850, and was early 
attracted to natural-history subjects. When a boy of 14 years he 
came to the attention of Professor Baird, who later secured for him 
the position of naturalist on the fortieth parallel survey under Clar- 
ence King. He went to San Francisco via Panama in May, 1867, and 
spent three years in the field. He prepared a report on the collec- 
tions made by him, which was published in 1877. In the meantime, 
Professor Baird had projected a work on birds in conjunction with 
Dr. Thomas M. Brewer, and Mr. Ridgway was engaged to provide the 
technical descriptions. This work, the History of North American 
Birds, was published in three large volumes in 1874 and covered the 
land birds only. In 1884 the two volumes on water birds appeared, 
completing a memorable undertaking. 

Mr. Ridgway was employed at intervals by the Smithsonian In- 
stitution up to 1874, when he was designated as ornithologist, a posi- 
tion he held under varying titles to July 1, 1880, when he became 
curator of birds, and continued under this title until the date of his 
death. He was a very busy worker, devoted to his subject, and spent 
little time in recreation. His first published note appeared in the 
American Naturalist, in 1869, and from that date to the present his 
communications were frequent, amounting to well over 500 titles in 
all, exclusive of his more pretentious works. In 1886 he published 
a Nomenclature of Colors which was quickly adopted by naturalists 
and became the standard for descriptive work, to be replaced only 
by the same author’s Color Standards and Color Nomenclature issued 
in 1912. In 1887 his Manual of North American Birds made its 
appearance, followed by a second edition in 1896. 

For many years Mr. Ridgway had been collecting material and 
data for a technical treatise on the birds of North and Middle Amer- 


ica, a work that Professor Baird had in mind years ago, and when 
authorized by the late Doctor Goode to produce such a work he 
was well prepared. From 1901 to 1919 eight parts of this work, 
Bulletin No. 50 of the United States National Museum, were issued, 
and he was engaged on the manuscript of the ninth and tenth parts 
at the time of his death. 

In recognition of the quality of his work he received many honors 
from scientific societies both at home and abroad. Some years ago 
he was granted the Walker Grand Prize, issued by the Boston Society 
of Natural History, the Daniel Giraud Elliot gold medal, and the 
William Brewster medal and prize. He was a member or honorary 
member of various ornithological societies, the Zoological Society of 
London, the Manchester Literary and Philosophical Society, and 

Mr. Ridgway was keenly interested in field work, and made many 
trips to various parts of Illinois and Indiana. He visited Florida 
in three successive years (1895-1897), accompanied the Harriman 
Alaska expedition in 1899, and made two collecting trips to Costa 
Rica, 1904 and 1908. 


Kugene Amandus Schwarz, custodian of coleoptera in the Na- 
tional Museum, died October 15, 1928. He was born in Liegnitz, 
Silesia, April 21, 1844, and came to America in 1872, taking up 
work with Hagen at Cambridge, Mass. In 1874 he accompanied his 
friend and pupil, H. G. Hubbard, to Detroit, where they founded 
the Detroit Scientific Association and started an entomological 
museum. In this year he spent several months collecting insects in 
Florida, the first of a long series of collecting expeditions that con- 
tinued throughout his life. In 1878 he came to the Department of 
Agriculture, where he remained until his death. In 1898 he was 
appointed custodian of coleoptera in the National Museum, and here 
he introduced better standards of care and arrangement. Besides 
the extensive collection made by Hubbard and himself he secured for 
the Museum many other important collections, and he started and 
actively promoted the formation of a collection of coleoptera larvae, 
which has since grown to be probably the largest in the world. 

Doctor Schwarz was very modest and self-effacing, but during the 
last 40 years his fame as a man of great learning slowly spread 
among the entomologists of this country until it became generally 
recognized. He always willingly placed his unlimited knowledge 
and experience at the disposal of the younger generations. His 
bibliography contains nearly 400 titles, mainly on coleoptera. 


Harrison Gray Dyar, custodian of lepidoptera in the National 
Museum, died January 21, 1929. Doctor Dyar was born in New 
York, February 14, 1866, and was educated at the Massachusetts In- 
stitute of Technology and Columbia University. He came to the 
Museum in 1897 and his term of service amounted, therefore, to more 
than 30 years. During nearly all of this time he was a volunteer 
and unpaid worker, but for a few years he was on the staff of the 
Bureau of Entomology. 

Doctor Dyar was one of the authors of the large monograph of 
the mosquitoes of North America published nearly 20 years ago by 
the Carnegie Institution, and he continued from that time to be the 
principal specialist in the group in the western hemisphere. The 
monograph having been out of print for some time he completed 
quite recently a new work on the mosquitoes of both North and South 
America, which was published last year by the Carnegie Institution 
in one large volume. He gave much attention to the early stages of 
the mosquitoes, so that his classification covered these in a very 
unusual degree. 

In 1917 Doctor Dyar gave to the Museum his entire collection of 
insects, numbering some 35,000 specimens. As a result of his labors 
the National Museum has one of the largest collections of mosquitoes 
in the world and probably by far the largest one in larval stages and 
in mounted specimens of genitalia, 


John Donnell Smith, for many years honorary associate in 
botany, Smithsonian Institution, died December 2, 1928. Captain 
Smith was born in Baltimore June 5, 1829, and at the time of his 
death was the oldest living graduate of Yale University. Aside 
from distinguished service in the public welfare, his interest centered 
m the botany of Central America, in which field he was an acknowl- 
edged authority. In the course of his studies he had built up an 
extensive library and an herbarium of over 100,000 specimens, which 
were presented to the Smithsonian Institution several years ago. In 
the death of Captain Smith the world has lost a scientist of note and 
the Smithsonian Institution a distinguished friend and patron. 


Sir: I have the honor to submit the following report on the con- 
dition and operations of the United States National Museum for the 
fiscal year ended June 30, 1929: 

The total appropriations for the maintenance of the Naticnal 
Museum for this period amounted to $748,024, an increase of $97,064 
over the appropriations for the year 1928. Of this increase it is 
gratifying to record that a large part was provided for much-needed 
adjustment in the salaries paid to the Museum staff. This adjustment 
came partly through the operation of the Welch Act regulating gov- 
ernmental salaries in general, under which there was a revision of the 
schedules of the various grades, and partly through allowance by the 
Congress of additional funds to permit a 1-rate increase under the 
provisions of the reclassification act for those employees who had 
attained the proper efficiency ratings. An increase of $3,000 pro- 
vided for additional storage facilities for the steadily increasing 
study collections. The addition of three employees, namely, an 
engineer, a fireman, and an elevator conductor, required for the 
adequate operation of the heating and lighting plant and for the 
proper maintenance of elevator service, necessitated $3,840 more. 
There was added also the new position of assistant curator in the 
division of mammals, where assistance was urgently required. An 
allowance of $1,200 provided for the purchase of uniforms for guards 
and elevator conductors on day duty in our buildings. An increase 
of $4,610 under the item for building repairs covered an additional 
painter, the purchase of further paint materials, and allotment for 
replacement of cement work on the private roadways leading ts the 
east service entrance of the Natural History Building. The sum of 
$500 was added to the appropriation for the purchase of books for 
the Museum libraries and $2,500 to the allotment for printing and 
binding for the Museum. 

In the first deficiency act for the fiscal year 1928 there was pro- 
vision of $80,000 for safeguarding the dome of the rotunda of the 
Natural History Building, the work to be performed under the 
direction and supervision of the Supervising Architect, Treasury 
Department, and the money to be available until June 80, 1929. 



The increase in salaries has been most gratifying and has brought 
needed relief in economic situation for many Museum employees. 
The effect of this betterment has been immediate in increased morale 
in an organization whose employees have always been constantly 
devoted to its best interests. To consider this matter further, it may 
be pointed out that the reclassification act at present calls for advance 
in salary until the average salaries paid under the various grades 
reach the average fixed by law for these grades. At the present time 
the majority of Museum employees stand at the second salary rate in 
their respective grades, permitting an advance of one more step ac- 
cording to the provision of the reclassification act. As the salary 
rates are still below the average for similar organizations in the 
Government service, it is urgently desired that further provision for 
this 1-rate advance be made. The present moneys in the various 
appropriations above the salary roll do not permit these advances. 
Should this additional amount be made available the salary status 
under the different appropriations will be rendered more or less stable 
without necessity for further considerable increases in salary allot- 
ment under present circumstances. There will remain only the need 
of adjustment of classification in some instances and the additions of 
new personnel required in many cases. It is earnestly hoped that 
the promotions required may be made in the fiscal year 1931. 

The question of further additions to personnel remains one of 
importance, as there is a growing necessity for further workers both 
on the scientific staff and on the clerical force. Relief has been 
obtained in some instances, particularly in two divisions where 
assistants have been provided for the older men now in charge, with 
the intention that they may be in training to carry on when the 
older members are gone. Several cases of this kind remain still to 
be cared for, and there are in addition certain collections for which 
the Museum now has no specialist in charge. At the present time 
it is necessary to employ for short periods temporary cataloguers, 
typists, and laborers to assist in the regular work. ‘These persons 
should be available on the permanent staff, since the work is spe- 
cialized and requires considerable training for adequate and proper 
performance. This training it is not possible to give during a period 
of temporary appointment. 

In the annual report for last year attention was called to the neces- 
sity for further space to house the steadily growing collections which 
increase annually in spite of efforts to eliminate material that is not 
required for permanent preservation. The whole collection forms a 
valuable part of the riches of our National Government—a part 
that will increase steadily in value because each year more and more 
objects become impossible to duplicate through the destruction by 


our advancing civilization of an increasing number of natural forms. 
Proper provision must be made to secure everything of importance 
obtainable while there is yet opportunity. 

Needs for housing in the National Museum, as outlined last year, 
include additional wings on the Natural History Building to pro- 
vide for relief from the present congestion, which in many cases is 
now acute. Of equal importance and necessity is more adequate pro- 
vision for the collections in arts and industries at present housed in 
the old National Museum Building, which when constructed in 1881 
was adequate for the needs of those days, but which is not designed in 
a manner commensurate with present requirements. This building 
should be replaced by another much larger structure that will pro- 
vide proper housing for the objects in this collection. These have 
great importance to the American Nation as a record of industrial 
development, commerce, and engineering in all its lines. The series 
of Patent Office models alone, representing the basic principles from 
which our important economic advances have grown, is of itself of 
sufficient importance to warrant the proposed building. With these, 
coupled with related historic objects of all kinds drawn from other 
sources, it results that the national collections contain materials that 
can not be duplicated in any other museum of the kind in the country 
or in the world. With provision being made for industrial museums 
in other sections of the country we should prepare at once for more 
adequate housing for the national collections of this kind in 

The collections of history at present are placed in part in the 
Natural History Building and in part in the building given over 
principally to arts and industries. The historical materials concern 
persons and events of supreme importance to our Nation, since they 
treat of the very birth, growth, and expansion of our country. As 
such they are of absorbing interest to every patriotic American and 
should be displayed to the fullest advantage. At the present time 
the limits of space are such that many interesting objects can not be 
placed on public display and it is necessary at times to decline 
materials that should be accepted, because of lack of proper facilities 
for their preservation. 

Preparation of plans and other necessary arrangements for housing 
space will require considerable time. With our need now acute the 
preliminaries necessary before actual construction may be begun. 
should not be postponed. The present interest of the public demands 
prompt action in these matters. 

The steadily growing attendance in the Museum halls is in itself 
sufficient indication of the interest of the American public in the 

Cee wae 


National Museum and its collections. More adequate housing 
facilities can not but add to this interest and will assist in making 
Washington even more attractive to the hundreds of thousands of 
our countrymen who journey each year to visit the seat of government 
of our great Nation. 


Additions to the collections of the National Museum during the 
fiscal year have reached the large total of 545,191 separate objects, by 
far the greater part of these coming to the department of biology. 
This increment, while not quite equal to that of last year, is on a 
parity with that received in the last few years. The collections of the 
National Museum are now universally recognized as of such great 
value and importance as to draw to them donations of the most valu- 
able kind in the form of collections gathered under private or other 
auspices which it is desired to place where they will have assurance 
of proper care and permanent preservation. Recognition that in the 
National Museum there may be found these conditions is highly 
gratifying. Material of various kinds sent for examination and 
report during the year amounted to 1,314 lots, including many thous- 
ands of separate things. Gifts to schools and other educational insti- 
tutions included 3,258 specimens, while in exchange with other 
scientific organizations and individuals there were sent out 23,326 
specimens, these being duplicate materials for which others were 
received in return. Loans of all kinds to scientific workers outside 
of Washington included 33,723 specimens, many of them highly 

Following isa digest of the more important accessions for the year 
in the various departments and divisions of the Museum. 

Anthropology.—An expedition under direction of Henry B. Col- 
lins, jr., to St. Lawrence Island in Bering Sea, including work on 
the islet of Punuk, brought the largest selection of historical-archeo- 
logical materials ever obtained by the Museum in one season from 
the Bering Sea area. In it are found many hundreds of ivory and 
bone implements illustrative of the culture of the Eskimo from very 
early times down to the period of Russian exploration. The carvings 
shown are of three distinct types, indicating as many cultural stages 
in the development of the people who made them. The entire collec- 
tion is one almost without parallel in our history and will be of great 
importance in elucidating the period of habitation at the village sites 

Among other valuable collections there has come a series represent- 
ing the ethnology of the Nigerian and Gold Coast in Africa, the gift 
of C. C. Roberts. <A further collection from Africa of considerable 


importance in ethnology is one from the region of the Belgian Congo 
received as a gift from the Rev. Ellen I. Burk. 

There was received also a number of miscellaneous materials 
secured by Dr. David C. Graham in connection with his work in 
western China, principally in the Province of Szechwan. 

An exchange of specimens with A. S. Kenyon, of Melbourne, Aus- 
tralia, brought a miscellaneous collection of decorative art work on 
wood, stone, and shell, and in basketry, as well as stone and wooden 
message sticks and an assortment of throwing sticks, including 
decorated boomerangs. 

Archeological materials include an old type of reed basket from a 
rock shelter in Russell County, Ky., secured by purchase; flint and 
stone implements and bone and copper beads presented by Mr. 
Charles Beckman, from various sites along the Columbia River in 
Washington; and a series of stone implements collected by Dr. 
Walter Hough, head curator, in the vicinity of Abilene, Tex. 
Among Old World specimens there may be mentioned a series of 
nearly 500 that come from the work of Dr. George Grant Mac- 
Curdy, director of the American School of Prehistoric Research, 
from localities in Dordogne, France, received as a loan from the 
Archeological Society of Washington. Skulls and skeletons of 
ancient Eskimo from the Collins collection on St. Lawrence Island 
form one of the most important additions to the division of physical 
anthropology in this department. There were received also 10 masks 
taken from living Labrador Eskimo, obtained in exchange from 
Prof. V. Suk, of the University of Brno, Moravia. 

Biology.—Noteworthy among receipts in this department have 
been the highly valuable collections of mammals, birds, and insects 
left to the Museum by bequest by the late Col. Wirt Robinson, long 
a valued contributor to the Institution. There may be mentioned 
also large collections of birds and plants obtained by Dr. Joseph F. 
Rock in western China from areas previously unrepresented in our 
halls, which were received as a gift from the National Geographic 
Society, under whose auspices the field work was performed. 

Excellent collections from western China in many branches of 
biology, principally in birds, mammals, insects, crustaceans, and 
fishes, were obtained through the continued efforts of Dr. David C. 
Graham, who has long been a resident in the Province of Szechwan, 
and who has been most assiduous in obtaining representatives of the 
fauna in that area for the National Museum. From farther south, 
in Siam, there were obtained large and valuable series of mammals, 
birds, reptiles, insects, mollusks, and miscellaneous invertebrates col- 
lected through the efforts of Dr. Hugh M. Smith, honorary curator 
in zoology on the staff of the Smithsonian Institution, who is now 


fisheries advisor to the King of Siam. The material obtained this 
year, supplementing that mentioned in previous reports, has included 
a number of forms, particularly in birds, that have been new to 

Collections from Haiti, through the financial assistance of Dr. 
W. L. Abbott, have included large series of plants from the north- 
western part of that country secured by E. C. Leonard, of the division 
of plants, in the prosecution of his field studies cae a flora of the 
island. At the same time there were obtained further collections of 
bones of extinct animals from cave deposits through the field re- 
searches of A. J. Poole and W. M. Perrygo, of the Museum staff, who, 
in addition, collected series of birds and aapiies to supplement niki 
collections in these same fields. Doctor Abbott further presented an 
excellent collection of Siamese mammals which were obtained during 
an expedition under his auspices. 

One of the most valuable accessions in the division of mammals 
has been the complete skeleton of an adult sperm whale, presented 
by Mr. Ippei Yokoyama, president of the Oriental Whaling Co., 
through the interest of Prof. Chiyomatsu Ishikawa. It was brought 
to this country under the direction of the Japanese ambassador, the 
Hon. Katsuji Debuchi. Another accession in this division consisted 
of 27 mammal skulls from India, received as a gift from Gen. Wiliam 

Under the Bradshaw Hall Swales fund the division of birds secured 
by purchase 45 specimens of species not previously represented in its 
series. Through the Smithsonian Institution there were obtained by 
purchase from J. A. Reis, jr., 177 skeletons of birds from Cameroon, 
numbering about 116 species, a valuabie addition to the skeleton col- 
lection. Eggs of the California condor, a bird nearly extinct in the 
wild state, were obtained from the National Zoological Park. 

Dr. Homer W. Smith, of New York City, presented specimens of 
the lung fishes of Africa. 

One of the important accessions in the division of insects has 
been a collection of Lepidoptera received as a permanent deposit 
from the Brooklyn Museum, which included more than 66,000 speci- 
mens, with types of about 650 species. 

The division of mollusks obtained about 200,000 land shells from 
Cuba, collected by Dr. Paul Bartsch, traveling under the Walter 
Rathbone Bacon Traveling Scholarship. 

Geology—tThe meteorite collection has secured through purchase 
under the Roebling fund an iron weighing 1,060 pounds from the 
Zui Mountains south of Grant, N. Mex. A smaller specimen of the 
same type, also purchased from the Roebling fund, was secured from 
Red River County, Tex., while a third came from near Lawrence, 


Through the income of the Roebling fund the mineral collections 
have grown in a highly gratifying manner during the past fiscal 
year. A striking addition to the exhibit series is a large mass of 
pegmatite from Newry, Me. Another purchase of importance was 
that of a nugget of platinum weighing 17.274 ounces from South 
America. There may be mentioned further a cut gem of benitoite, 
weighing 7.67 carats, being the largest known cut stone of this 

Through the Chamberlain fund there have come to the gem col- 
lection a carved statuette of rose quartz, a Chinese carving of tourma- 
line, a yellow topaz weighing 34 carats, a cameo of Hungarian opal, 
and a cut gem of pollucite. 

Fossil materials include large lots of invertebrates obtained by 
exchange, gift, and collection, among them three rare star fishes and 
five crinoids from the Ordovician of Minnesota, purchased under the 
Springer fund. From field work by Mr. C. W. Gilmore in Montana 
there have come remains of dinosaurs of several species previously 
not in the Museum, and there may be mentioned also specimens of 
Pleistocene mammals collected by Doctor Gidley in Florida. 

Aris and industries —vV aluable additions in this department have 
included three early types of Winton automobiles; one of the engines 
of the Army aircraft Question Mark used during an endurance test 
that continued nearly seven days; and a working model of the tele- 
phone transmitter and receiver obtained from the American Tele- 
phone & Telegraph Co. 

A horse-drawn brougham, a fine example of the work of the famous 
nineteenth-century coach builder, Healey, of New York, was presented 
by Mr. William P. Eno, an interesting object in this day of motor 

An exhibition now being organized dealing with mechanical power 
has received a number of accessions, among them an electrically op- 
erated model of the original Pearl Street electric power station in 
New York City. 

In the division of textiles a number of manufacturers have con- 
tinued their cooperation through the contribution of exhibition ma- 
terial of modern textiles. An interesting exhibit received from the 
United Shoe Machinery Corporation illustrates the entire range of 
shoemaking by machinery. 

An important addition to the section of photography was the first 
portrait taken on an autochrome plate by the inventor of the process, 
Antoine Lumiére. Four photographs donated by Philip P. Quayle, 
of the Peters Cartridge Co., of bullets fired from a gun, record 
the bullet in silhouette, and a representation of the sound waves 


History.—The most important accession in this division was a silk 
dress worn by Mrs. Martha Washington, received as a permanent loan 
from Mrs. Morris Whitridge in memory of her sister, Miss Sallie 
Pinkerton Mackenzie. This has been installed in its proper place in 
the series of dresses of the mistresses of the White House shown in 
the costumes collection. 

For the military collections there was obtained a series of uniforms 
owned and used by Maj. Gen. Leonard Wood, United States Army, 
from 1898 to 1921, presented by Mrs. Leonard Wood. ‘The naval col- 
lections received a model of the schooner Hannah, of Marblehead, 
the first armed vessel to sail at public expense during the War of the 

Through the cooperation of the American Numismatic Association 
a number of valuable additions were made as loans to the numismatic 
collection. These included 133 specimens from many countries. ‘The 
Bureau of the Mint, United States Treasury Department, continued 
its cooperation in building up this collection by the transfer of 85 
coins struck by the United States Mint in 1928, as ‘well as other 

The philatelic collection was increased by 5,775 specimens, of which 
the greater part was received from the International Bureau of the 
Universal Postal Union at Berne, Switzerland, through the Post 
Office Department. 


The military exhibits concerned with the World War, assembled 
after the close of that conflict, through necessity of available space 
were installed originally in widely separated halls—in part in the 
Natural History Building and in part in the Arts and Industries 
Building on the opposite side of the Smithsonian Park. These 
exhibits, whose assembling was possible only through the interested 
cooperation of the War Department, for years have been an attractive 
subject to large numbers of our visitors. For sometime past ways 
and means for a better coordinated installation of this material have 
been under consideration. The War Department, taking renewed 
helpful interest in these exhibits, in 1928 appointed Maj. Louis A. 
O’Donnell, United States Army, to cooperate with the Museum au- 
thorities in the preparation of plans for their better display. On 
September 28, 1928, the War Department further announced an ad- 
visory committee to assist Major O’Donnell by consultation and co- 
operation as follows: Lieut. Col. Harry B. Jordan, General Staff 
Corps; Lieut. Col. Paul D. Bunker, Coast Artillery Corps; Maj. John 
W. Lang, Infantry; Maj. Marion O. French, General Staff Corps; 
and Capt. Edwin M. Scott, Quartermaster Corps. Through plans de- 


vised by Major O’Donnell and approved by the assistant secretary, 
certain material was returned to the War Department as no longer 
needed for exhibition, an artillery park was arranged in the open on 
ground belonging to the Smithsonian Institution, the military collec- 
tions were concentrated in one connected series in the Arts and 
Industries Building with the majority of the other historical collec- 
tions, and definite arrangements were made for building up all the 
military collections along agreed lines. 

In connection with the assembling of these military exhibits in ~ 
the Arts and Industries Building there was required reorganization 
of part of the display in the divisions of mineral and mechanical 
technology and the transfer to the Natural History Building of the 
lace collections. All this has been accomplished and installation 
made of a considerable part of the military material. Work on the 
rest is progressing and will be continued along the plans definitely 
outlined. <A part of the contemplated display will necessitate assist- 
ance in the way of additional funds, which it is hoped may be pro- 
vided without too great delay. 

The actual process of transfering the military collections from 
one building to the other began about April 1, 1929, and was a 
task of considerable magnitude, as it necessitated the transfer of 
materials covering approximately 22,000 square feet of floor space. 
The greater part of the work was accomplished by the staff of the 
division of history with the Museum labor force. The War Depart- 
ment cooperated measurably by the detail of five enlisted men and 
a truck to aid in the transfer. 

This brief review of what has been accomplished will serve as 
partial acknowledgment of the great assistance rendered by Major 
O’Donnell during his connection with the Museum. On June 15 
Major O’Donnell was transferred to other duties and was succeeded 
by Lieut. Col. Arthur Hixson, United States Army, as representative 
of the War Department. 


Various researches in the field have been carried on under the dif- 
ferent departments of the Museum, principally through funds pro- 
vided by the Smithsonian Institution through its private income or 
through the contributions of friends interested in certain projects. 
Limited assistance in a few instances has been given from the annual 
appropriation for the Nationai Museum but this aid has comprised 
only a small part of the total amounts utilized, by far the greater part 
of which have been obtained from other sources. Additional money 
- for such investigations is an urgent need that should be given atten- 
tion. Comparatively small sums are sufficient for most of the Mu- 


seum’s projects, so that much good may be accomplished with slight 
outlay. A brief account of field activities of the present year 

During the spring of 1929 Dr. Walter Hough carried on archeo- 
logical studies in west central Texas with a view to extending the 
known Pueblo or pre-Pueblo culture areas. In the same region 
he uncovered evidence relative to aboriginal man’s early history. 

From January to May, 1929, through the interest of Dr. W. L. Ab- 
bott, Herbert W. Krieger continued archeological investigations in 
’ the northern part of the Dominican Republic. The immediate cul- 
ture problem that occupied his attention was to determine whether 
the area anciently occupied by the Ciguayan Indians of Samana 
extended as far west as the valley of the Rio Yaque del Norte. A 
second problem was the attempt to extend the area known to have 
been anciently occupied by the pre-Ciguayan cave dwellers of the 
northern Dominican Republic. Results appear to indicate that the 
pre-Ciguayans had occupied the entire island, but that the Ciguayan 
Indians never reached as far west as the Yaque River. The work 
included further reconnaissance along the north shore of the Samana 
Peninsula and the collection of biological material from former 
Indian village sites for the department of biology. 

Henry B. Collins, jr., was in the field from July to October, 1928, 
engaged in investigations of the ancient Bering Sea culture on the 
islands of Punuk and St. Lawrence, with the aim of tracing early 
chapters in the history of western Eskimo culture. Material collected 
shows that there are three stages through which the art of St. Law- 
rence Island may be traced. An earlier stage, found only on the 
northern and western parts of the island on deeply patinated objects, 
consists of gracefully delineated straight and curved lines; an inter- 
mediate stage is simpler in design; while the third, the well-known 
modern and simplified art, is found at all recent sites. At Cape 
Prince of Wales nothing of any real antiquity was found. Results 
generally suggest a direct Asiatic source rather than a local cultural 
development for the well-known Eskimo arts. In May, 1929, Mr. 
Collins again left for field work to continue through the summer in 
the Bering Sea region. Dr. Ale’ Hrdlitka also proceeded to Alaska 
to continue his studies on early Eskimo anthropology. 

Mr. Neil M. Judd was in Arizona during the summer of 1929, 
engaged in preparation of reports covering the 1920-1927 Pueblo 
Bonito explorations of the National Geographic Society, and super- 
vising the society’s 1929 beam expedition. This latter had for its ob- 
ject the collection of timbers from pre-Spanish Pueblo villages that 
will aid in completing a tree-ring chronology by means of which it is 
believed that absolute dates may be determined for many of our . 
southwestern ruins. 


At the end of May, 1928, Paul Bartsch, curator of mollusks, travel- 
ing under the Walter Rathbone Bacon Scholarship, began the faunal 
study of certain groups of land and fresh-water mollusks of the West 
Indies, the work for that season being prosecuted in Cuba, where he 
was assisted materially by Dr. Carlos de la Torre, president emeritus 
of the University of Habana. During four months Doctor Bartsch 
covered thoroughly all of the Provinces of Cuba, except that of 
Oriente, collecting over a quarter of a million specimens of mollusks, 
including large numbers of new races and species from places hitherto 
unexplored. The rainy season was chosen for this field work in spite 
of its discomforts, for it is at this time that land mollusks are most 
active. The collections obtained will yield much information bearing 
on problems of distribution, both present and past, and will throw 
light on the derivation of the molluscan fauna of the Antilles. Inci- 
dentally, Doctor Bartsch secured for the Museum important collec- 
tions of birds, insects, batrachians, mammals, and crustacea. 

Through the interest of Dr. W. L. Abbott, A. J. Poole, aid in the 
division of mammals, and W. M. Perrygo, of the taxidermist force, 
traveled in Haiti for a period of about four months, working the 
caves of Haiti proper and those of the island of Gonave for extinct 
animal bones. In addition to cavern exploration an important part 
of the work was the collection of birds to supplement distributional 
data already available, and there were obtained also mammals, 
mostly bats, as well as fishes, reptiles, marine invertebrates, mollusks, 
insects, and miscellaneous ethnological and anthropological materials. 

One of the important expeditions undertaken during the year by 
friends of the Museum was that of the auxiliary yacht Mary Pinchot 
to the South Seas under the leadership of the Hon. Gifford Pinchot. 
The vessel left New York City in April for a cruise of about 10 
months, with Dr. A. K. Fisher, of the Biological Survey, as natural- 
ist, to obtain material desired for the National Museum. In the 
collections made in the first few weeks there have been received a 
skull of the little-known long-beaked porpoise Prodelphinus plagio- 
don and 10 forms of birds new to the Museum collections. Further 
shipments of important material are expected as the cruise continues. 

Dr. Joseph F. Rock, traveling under the auspices of the National 
Geographic Society, visited the Kingdom of Muli, or Mili, in south- 
western Szechwan, China, as well as adjacent parts of the Province 
of Yunnan, exploring also to the northwest of Muli in the hitherto 
unvisited snow range of Konka Risonquemba, rising to a height of 
25,000 feet, and mountains to the east and northeast. From this 
work there have been obtained important collections of birds and 
plants, the specimens coming to the Nationai Museum through the 
gift of the National Geographic Society. 


Dr. Hugh M. Smith, in the course of fisheries investigations in 
Siam, visited the northern part of that country in November and 
December of 1928 and made hurried collections on Doi Angka and 
Doi Sutep, two previously unexplored peaks of the Khun Tan 
Mountains. Material secured has been of particular interest and 
has resulted in the discovery of new and rare species, among them 
seven new forms of birds. 

Dr. David C. Graham continued work in the vicinity of Suifu, 
in the Province of Szechwan, China, and in July, 1928, set out on 
a journey to Ningyuenfu, by way of Yachow, spending about two 
months on the trip. Though bandits threatened at most of the 
interesting points, many valuable specimens were obtained. 

During brief field investigations into the hosts of certain para- 
sites in Virginia and North Carolina, Dr. H. E. Ewing, of the 
Bureau of Entomology, was accompanied by C. S. East, of the pre- 
parator staff, who collected a small series of birds for skeletons. 

Dr. J. M. Aldrich, of the division of insects, began work in May, 
1929, on type specimens of diptera in the British Museum, and later 
did some collecting of northern insects, principally diptera, in Nor- 
way and Sweden. 

Dr. Waldo L. Schmitt and C. R. Shoemaker, in the course of an 
examination of the crustacean fauna of the region about the United 
States Bureau of Fisheries station at Beaufort, N. C., secured more 
than 1,800 specimens of marine invertebrates. Mr. J. O. Maloney, by 
invitation of Mr. Copley Amory, was detailed for part of the sum- 
mer of 1928 to proceed to Canada in continuation of the biological 
survey of Mr. Amory’s estate on the north shore of the Gulf of St. 
Lawrence, near the Matamek River. Doctor Bartsch visited the 
Marine Biological Laboratory at the Tortugas, Fla., from August 
17 to August 30, 1928, in connection with work on the crossbreeding 
of Cerions, an investigation carried on in cooperation with the 
Carnegie Institution of Washington. While at the Tortugas Doctor 
Bartsch spent a day under water with the diving hood and the 
undersea camera going over fields photographed formerly in order 
io have a continuous record of life on the reefs. 

From December, 1928, to the latter part of May, 1929, Mr. E. C. 
Leonard was engaged in botanical field work in northwestern Haiti, 
through the generous support of Dr. W. L. Abbott. Large collec- 
tions (nearly 15,000 specimens) were obtained, which will be of very 
material assistance in making known the flora of Hispaniola, a proj- 
ect upon which Mr. Leonard has been engaged for several years. 
During the last three months of the fiscal year Mr. E. P. Killip, ac- 
companied by Mr. A. E. Smith and Mr. W. J. Dennis, honorary 
collaborators, has prosecuted botanical explorations in eastern Peru 


and adjacent regions. Reports from the field indicate that a large 
amount of herbarium material is being obtained that will be exceed- 
ingly valuable in current studies of the flora of western South 

In July and August, 1928, Dr. A. S. Hitchcock, custodian of 
grasses, visited Newfoundland and Labrador for the purpose of 
studying and collecting grasses. A large illustrative series of speci- 
mens and much useful information regarding the range of species 
in these little-explored regions were obtained. Mr. Jason R. Swallen, 
assistant in the grass herbarium, spent the summer of 1928 in field 
work in the southwestern United States. Many of the rarer grasses 
were collected, as well as other material relating to current studies. 

Dr. George P. Merrill, head curator of the Department of Geology, 
was detailed in September, 1928, to visit various mineral localities in 
the New England States. He first worked at the pegmatite deposits 
at Newry, Me., where the fine block of material mentioned elsewhere 
in this report was obtained. The historically interesting gem locality 
at Paris Hill was next given attention; then various localities in New 
Hampshire, all of exceptional interest. Following this, the feldspar 
prospects at Bellows Falls, Vt., were examined. The acquisition of 
the feldspar vein at Newry, Me., was considered to have more than 
compensated for the trip. 

The explorations of Dr. W. F. Foshag were still under way at the 
close of the year. He reports interesting collections, particularly 
some borate minerals from various localities in southern California 
and Nevada. A part of this material has reached the Museum, but 
the recording will go over until the entire collection is received. 

Messrs. James Benn and B. O. Reberholt were on several occasions 
detailed to collect geological specimens in adjacent localities in Mary- 
land and Virginia where desirable materials could be obtained. 

Stratigraphic studies of the Cambrian as developed in the larger 
mountain range of Wyoming were the main object of an expedition 
in 1928 by C. E. Resser. Nearly three months were spent in this 
investigation, in the course of which several mountain ranges were 
explored. Collections of fossils were limited, the rocks in many 
cases being of such shallow-water origin that the fossils have been 
destroyed. Much valuable information relating to stratigraphy was 

Since the field exploration undertaken by C. W. Gilmore and his 
party in the Two Medicine formation in Montana extended well into 
the present year, but brief mention was made of it in last year’s 
report. The expedition, which was in the field from May 12 to July 
15, 1928, covered the Bad Land areas along the Milk and Two Medi- 
cine Rivers, on the Blackfeet Indian Reservation. Considerable 



success attended the work, the collections being sufficient in scope 
to be fairly representative of the fauna of the formation. The mate- 
rial as a whole is a most important addition to our series, in which 
practically all of the forms found were previously unrepresented. 
Scientifically it will be of interest, not only for the new species 
found, but for its decided contribution to the meager knowledge of 
the fauna of the formation, placing this on a basis that will permit 
of its comprehensive comparison with other Upper Cretaceous 
formations of contiguous areas. 

Upon completion of the above work Mr. Gilmore visited the Bear 
Creek Coal Field in southern Montana for the purpose of securing 
some of the Paleocene mammal remains occurring in the Eagle Mine 
at that place. Lack of time prevented search being made for these 
minute fossils on the ground, but 400 pounds of the fossil-bearing 
matrix were boxed and shipped to the Museum. 

In the early spring of 1929 work was again taken up at Mel- 
bourne, Fla., by Dr. J. W. Gidley, in continuation of the project 
relative to the presence of early man in Florida. About six weeks 
were spent in this work, for which generous financial assistance was 
furnished by Mr. Childs Frick. Again important evidence was 
gathered indicating the presence of man in Florida contemporaneous 
with an extinct fauna of the Pleistocene, while the mammal remains 
obtained will be useful in determining the exact phase of the Pleisto- 
cene represented—a still unsettled part of the general problem under 
investigation. In this connection it may be mentioned that assistance 
is being rendered by Dr. Thomas Barbour, of the Museum of Com- 
parative Zodlogy, in continuing collecting activities in this area. The 
material thus obtained is being placed at the disposal of Doctor 
Gidley for study. 

Almost at the end of the fiscal year Doctor Gidley was detailed 
to visit fossil-bearing beds discovered by a United States Geological 
Survey party at points in Idaho. Since operations had hardly 
begun at the close of the year, a statement regarding them will go 
over until next year. 

In cooperation with the Peabody Museum of Yale University, 
Mr. N. H. Boss was detailed late in March, 1929, to engage in further 
exploration of a cave in New Mexico where a giant ground sloth was 
found last year, as well as to search other similar caves in the region. 
Following these operations, Mr. Boss joined Mr. Gilmore in an ex- 
pedition to the San Juan Basin, N. Mex., to collect dinosaur and 
other vertebrate remains. As this work is expected to continue into 
the next fiscal year, no detailed report on either expedition will be 
given at this time. 


Mr. Remington Kellogg and Norman H. Boss continued explora- 
tions of the Miocene along Chesapeake Bay from time to time. At 
little expense to the Museum, various fossil cetacean remains were 
added to the collection. 


Usual repairs have been required to keep the buildings housing 
the national collections in proper condition during the year. In 
the Natural History Building exterior woodwork in the east court 
was painted; the walls and ceilings in 24 rooms on the ground and 
third floors were repainted, a necessary renovation that has been 
postponed for years and now must be completed in order to properly 
protect the surfaces in question. A section of concrete roadway op- 
posite the east wing was renewed and temporary repair work was 
done on the roadways of the north entrance and on the west side of 
the building. The need for planting shrubbery to relieve the barren- 
ness of the approach to the north entrance of this building has long 
been felt, so that it is pleasant to report that in the fall of 1928, 
through cooperation of the Office of Public Buildings and Public 
Parks, two beds of evergreens were planted, one on either side of the 
drive, greatly improving the appearance of this side of the building. 

Work on safeguarding the dome above the rotunda began on Sep- 
tember 12, 1928, and was finally completed on May 14, 1929, the 
work being performed under the efficient direction of the engineers 
in the Office of the Supervising Architect of the Treasury Depart- 
ment. Two great bands of steel were placed around the four huge 
piers that support the dome, one at the level of the floor of the 
attic and one near the tops of the piers and ceiling above. Between 
them steel beams were installed extending vertically from band to 
band behind the piers, with a series of screw jacks between the beams 
and the piers proper. Tension was placed on these jacks in such 
a way as to bring even strain all around, holding the piers from any 
possibility of spreading at the top. The delicate operation of ad- 
justing the screw jacks, which required nearly three weeks for com- 
pletion, was performed with the cooperation of a corps of engineers 
from the Bureau of Standards. Work of cleaning the stone surfaces 
in the rotunda and the painting necessary following the work out- 
lined above was still in progress at the close of the fiscal year. The 
rotunda has been closed to the public since December 1, 1927, but will 
be opened early in the next fiscal year. In the Arts and Industries 
Building the café at the west entrance was remodeled, walls and 
ceilings in various rooms were painted, and necessary refinishing on 
exterior surfaces was carried on so far as was practicable. 


In the herbarium hall in the Smithsonian Building cork carpet was 
laid on the floors, and exposed floors were painted, together with the 
walls and ceilings in various other rooms. An old stone walk on the 
south side of the building in bad condition was replaced by concrete. 
Grills were installed in window openings on the north and south sides 
in the new gallery of the herbarium hall. 

The roof of the aircraft building was painted, as well as the exte- 
rior of the south shed. 

The power plant was in operation from September 30, 1928, until 
May 28, 1929. The consumption of coal was 3,361 tons, an amount 
slightly less than that used in 1928. The average cost of coal was 
$5.36 per ton, somewhat less than that for last year. The Steamboat 
Inspection Service of the United States examined the boilers during 
the summer and reported them in good condition. The elevators 
have been regularly inspected by the District of Columbia inspector. 
The total electric current produced amounted to 648,863 kilowatt- 
hours, manufactured at a cost of 1.89 cents per kilowatt-hour, includ- 
ing interest on the plant, depreciation, repair, and material. The 
amount of electric current produced represents approximately an 
increase of 45,000 kilowatt-hours over any previous year. Demands 
for electric current are steadily increasing and further provision is 
required to be made before long for this current since our plant is 
now practically at the maximum peak of production. The ice plant 
manufactured 409 tons of ice at an average cost of $1.80 per ton, 
which is at a cost considerably less than for the past year due to 
the fact that there has been very little need for repairs. 

During the year 30 exhibition cases and bases, 179 pieces of storage, 
laboratory and other furniture, and 1,476 drawers of various kinds 
were added, practically all of these being manufactured in our shops. 


The lecture rooms and auditorium of the National Museum dur- 
ing the present year were used for 125 meetings, covering a wide 
range of activities.. Government agencies that utilized these facili- 
ties for hearings, meetings, lectures, and other special occasions 
included the Forest Service, the Bureau of Fisheries, the Geological 
Survey, the Public Health Service, and the Extension Service of 
the United States Department of Agriculture. The Forest Service 
arranged a series of addresses during the year on various matters 
connected with their work. 

Scientific societies that met regularly in the auditorium or small 
lecture room included the Entomological Society of Washington, 
the Society for Philosophical Inquiry, the Anthropological Society 
of Washington, the American Horticultural Society, and the Hel- 


minthological Society. Meetings were held also by the Washing- 
ton Society of Engineers, the Wild Flower Preservation Society, 
the Potomac Garden Club, the Biological Society of Washington, 
the Botanical Society of Washington, the Aero Club of Washington, 
and the Vivarium Society. The National Association of Retired 
Federal Employees held regular meetings through the year, as 
did various groups of Boy Scouts for special addresses. 

On February 22 there was a patriotic meeting under the auspices 
of the Masonic Clubs of the District of Columbia, addressed by 
Congressman C. A. Woodrum, of Virginia, on George Washington, 
with music furnished by the Masonic band. Groups of pupils from 
the public schools, Divisions I to [X, were addressed on May 28 by 
Dr. H. A. Smith, of the Department of Agriculture, on the pro- 
tection of forests. On May 29 the Veterans of Foreign Wars of the 
United States, Federal Post No. 824, United States Department of 
Agriculture, held memorial services in the auditorium. Groups of 
students from Howard University were convened for special ad- 
dresses on medical subjects on several occasions. 

The biennial conference of the Division of Scientific Inquiry of 
the Bureau of Fisheries of the United States Department of Com- 
merce took place from January 2 to 5, inclusive. The fiftieth 
anniversary celebration of the Geological Survey, United States 
Department of the Interior, was held on March 21. 

The sixth National Oratorical Contest took place on April 25; and 
the fifth annual National Spelling Bee on May 21, the first prize being 
won by Miss Virginia Hogan, representing the Omaha World Herald. 
The Public Health Service, United States Treasury Department, held 
the twenty-seventh annual conference of State and Territorial health 
officers on June 3-4. 

Boy scout executives of the scout councils held their third regional 
scout seminar on October 22-23. The third regional scout executive 
seminar of the Boy Scouts of America came on January 14. On 
January 30 the Early Birds, an organization interested in aeronautics, 
convened for an illustrated lecture. 

A memorial meeting was held October 16 to commemorate the serv- 
ices to science of the late Dr. Eugene A. Schwarz. A memorial meet- 
ing came also on March 26 in commemoration of the life and work 
of the late Dr. Robert Ridgway, curator of birds in the United States 
National Museum. 

An exhibit of the work of students in the department of architec- 
ture of George Washington University was held from April 21 to 
May 6. From May 15 to 27 there was displayed an exhibition by 
negro artists, assembled under the auspices of the Harmon Founda- 
tion and shown under the patronage of the committee on race reletions 
of the Washington Federation of Churches, 


The exhibition halls of the National Museum were open during the 
year on week days from 9 a. m. to 4.30 p. m., and in addition the 
Natural History Building, the Arts and Industries Building, and the 
Smithsonian Building were opened Sunday afternoon from 1.30 to 
4.30. All buildings were closed on the day before Christmas, Christ- 
mas Day, New Year’s Day, and Inauguration Day. On Saturday, 
March 2, by special request of the committee in charge of inaugural 
arrangements, all buildings were held open until 5 p. m. to allow 
persons assembled for the inaugural ceremonies a better opportunity 
to view the exhibits. The flags on all buildings were flown at half- 
mast on March 26, 1929, out of respect to the late Marshal Foch, 
and on Memorial Day, May 30, from 8.30 a. m. until noon. 

Visitors to the Museum during the year totaled 1,929,625 persons, 
an increase of more than half a million over the previous year, an 
indication of the increasing interest of all Americans in the Capital 
City, and of the attractions found in the exhibitions of the National 
Museum by the traveling public. Attendance in the several buildings 
of the National Museum was recorded as follows: Smithsonian Insti- 
tution, 277,295; Arts and Industries, 868,952; Natural History, 650,- 
815; Aircraft, 182,563. The average daily attendance for week days 
was 5,175 and for Sunday 6,330. The latter figure is a definite 
indication of the public desire for the opening of our exhibits on 
Sunday afternoons. 

During the year the Museum published eight separate volumes 
and 61 miscellaneous papers, while the distribution of literature 
amounted to 115,128 copies of its various books and pamphlets. 
Additions to the Museum library included 2,247 volumes and 748 
pamphlets obtained partly by exchange, partly by donation, and in 
small part by purchase from the modest sums available for that 
purpose. The library of the National Museum, as separate from that 
of the Smithsonian Institution proper, has now 74,562 volumes and 
107,629 pamphlets. Though many of the accessions for the present 
year, as usual, came through exchanges of publications, there may be 
noted the gift of 1,000 volumes, pamphlets, and manuscripts of a 
miscellaneous character from Mr. Herbert A. Gill, of Washington, 
D. C., these pertaining in large part to the work of the late Dr. 
Theodore Gill, at one time librarian and associate in zoology of the 
Smithsonian Institution. Five hundred books and periodicals on 
photography, both American and British, some of them old and rare, 
came from Mr. A. B. Stebbins, of Canisteo, N. Y. The first four 
volumes of the Smithsonian Scientific Series, Patrons’ edition, were 
presented by the Smithsonian Institution. Thirty publications were 
given by the American Association for the Advancement of Science, 


The Museum maintains 36 sectional libraries in connection with its 
various scientific divisions. The library during the year made sub- 
stantial progress in organization and increased efficiency along the 
lines of a program of development initiated five years ago. 

Dr. J. A. Stevenson, of the Bureau of Plant Industry, United 
States Department of Agriculture, was given honorary appointment 
as custodian of the C. G. Lloyd mycological collection. Mr. Albert 
C. Smith and Mr. W. T. Dennis, who accompanied Mr. E. P. Killip 
on a botanical expedition to Peru, were given honorary appointments 
as collaborators in the division of plants. In the division of insects 
the interest and valuable aid of Mr. J. T. Barnes were recognized by 
his appointment to the honorary position of collaborator in the 
section of lepidoptera. 

Mr. Conrad V. Morton and Mr. Egbert H. Walker were appointed 
aids in the division of plants. Dr. Remington Kellogg was made 
assistant curator in the division of mammals by transfer from the 
Biological Survey, United States Department of Agriculture, this 
position being one newly established this year. Mr. Frank A. Taylor, 
in the division of mineral and mechanical technology, was advanced 
from aid to assistant curator. Miss Ethel A. L. Lacy was appointed 
librarian in immediate charge of the accessions department of the 
library. Mr. W. L. Brown was advanced to the position of chief taxi- 
dermist, with general oversight of the work of the taxidermy shop. 

Two employees left the service through the operation of the retire- 
ment act—William H. Kimball, finance clerk, after a total Govern- 
ment service of about 46 years, nearly 45 of which were in the Na- 
tional Museum, and Robert Stokes, laborer, on June 11, 1929, after a 
service of 28 years. 

The Museum lost through death during the year six of its active 
workers and four members of its honorary scientific staff. Dr. 
Robert Ridgway, curator of birds, died March 25, 1929. Capt. John 
Donnell Smith, associate in botany, died on December 2, 1928. Dr. 
KE. A. Schwarz, custodian of coleoptera, died on October 15, 1928. 
Dr. Harrison G. Dyar, custodian of lepidoptera, died January 21, 
1929. Mr. H. K. Harring, custodian of rotatoria, died on December 
19, 1928. Other losses by death included Mr. Charles E. Mirguet, 
taxidermist, on February 20, 1929; Mrs. E. Bennett Decker, clerk- 
illustrator, August 29, 1929; Eustance S. Brannon, watchman, on 
September 30, 1928; Frank Smith, laborer, on November 16, 1928; 
and William T. Murray, laborer, on June 9, 1929. 

Respectfully submitted. 

Assistant Secretary. 
Dr. Cuartres G. AxBgor, 
Secretary, Smithsonian Institution. 


Sir: I have the honor to submit herewith a report on the activities 
of the National Gallery of Art for the fiscal year ending June 30, 

The year is made notable by the gift of an important collection 
of art works by Mr. John Gellatly, of New York. Through the 
instrumentality of Mr. Gari Melchers, chairman of the Gallery Com- 
mission, the donor indicated his desire, certain conditions being 
complied with, to present to the Nation for permanent assignment to 
the National Gallery of Art his collection of art works, comprising 
more than 100 choice examples of American painting in oil and water 
colors, large collections of jewelry, tapestries, glassware, and other art 
works, having an estimated value of several millions of dollars. 
After a preliminary hearing before the executive committee of the 
Board of Regents of the Institution, Mr. Frederic A. Delano, Hon. 
Reed Smoot, and Dr. John C. Merriam, a special meeting of the 
gallery commission was called April 13, 1929, to consider the offer. 
After hearing in some detail of the collection offered, of the condi- 
tions imposed by the donor, and the responsibilities necessarily as- 
sumed by the Institution and the Nation, acceptance was recom- 
mended to the Board of Regents. Subsequently the Congress 
passed a joint resolution which was approved by the President, June 
6, 1929, authorizing the Institution to convey appropriate acknowl- 
edgments to Mr. Gellatly and to include in its estimates sums neces- 
sary for the accommodation and maintenance of the collection. The 
collection is at present installed in the Heckscher Building in New 
York City, where it is to remain for four years. <A portfolio of 
45 plates illustrating the collection was subsequently presented by 
Mr. Gellatly to the Institution and assigned by Secretary Abbot to 
the care of the National Gallery. 


The eighth annual meeting of the gallery commission was held in 
the Regents’ room of the Institution at 10.380 a. m., December 11, 
1928. The members present were Messrs. James E. Fraser, J. H. 



Gest, John E. Lodge, Charles Moore, James Parmelee, E. C. Tarbeil, 
W. H. Holmes, and C. G. Abbot, secretary of the Smithsonian Insti- 
tution. In the absence of the chairman of the commission, Mr. Gari 
Melchers, Mr. Charles Moore was elected temporary chairman. 

The minutes of the previous annual meeting were read and ap- 
proved, followed by the reading and approval of the secretary’s 
report on the activities of the gallery for the year. 

The committee on resolutions on the death of Dr. Charles Doo- 
little Walcott, Secretary of the Institution, appointed at the annual 
meeting of December 6, 1927, presented the following, which was 
adopted : 

Whereas the National Gallery of Art Commission of the Smithsonian Insti- 
tution, having learned of the death on February 9, 1927, of Dr. Charles D. 
Walcott, Secretary of the Smithsonian Institution and ex officio a member of 
this commission, has adopted the following resolution : 

Resolved, That we here record our profound sorrow at the passing of this 
distinguished man of science, whose achievements as the head of the Smith- 
sonian Institution expanded its renown and added greatly to the sum of human 
knowledge; but particularly are we desirous of expressing our sense of the 
loss of one who was also keenly alive to the importance of developing the art 
side of, the Institution’s activities, and to whose foresight is due the establish- 
ment of this commission as a means of insuring a high stardard of excellence 
for the art works acquired by the National Gallery of Art. 

Resolved, That these resolutions be incorporated in the present annual report 
of the commission to the Board of Regents and that a copy of them be trans- 
mitted by the Secretary of the commission to the family of Doctor Walcott. 

Dr. C. G. ABBOT, 
Dr. W. H. HoLMEs, 

The chairman asked Mr. Lodge in regard to the relationship of 
the Freer Gallery to the National Gallery, and Mr. Lodge explained 
that, as he understood it, Mr. Freer had desired that his gift should 
be regarded as a branch of the National Gallery, to be separately 
provided for and installed. 

The chairman called attention to a project advocated by persons 
interested in the promotion of American art, which project favors 
the establishment of a fund to be devoted to the aid of young, prom- 
ising artists. The suggestion was favorably commented upon and 
the feasibility of securing support of the undertaking was discussed 
at some length. The cheivan was authorized to alee the matter up 
with such persons and institutions as he might find sympathetic. 


The paintings purchased during the year by the council of the 
National Academy of Design as provided by the Henry Ward Ranger 


bequest are as follows, including the names of the institutions to 
which they have been assigned: 

Title Artist Date of purchase Assignment 

69. South Dakota Evening__| Jes W. Schlaikjer_._.._____ December, 1928 _| Vassar College, Poughkeep- 
sie, N. Y. 

“Onebitth akes-=2225--25-5- HdgariPay ne. 9221s ee eee Gomes as tes The James Lee Memorial 
Academy of Arts, Mem- 
phis, Tenn. 

71. The Harvest Moon-_---- Charles Melville Dewey--| January, 1929___| Not reported. 

72. The Golden Hour-_-__-__-_- George Elmer Browne....- March, 1929_____ Michigan State College of 

Agriculture and Applied 
Sciences, East Lansing, 


(jy AM eG is ybha doen eye eae Ernest L. Blumenschein, |__-__ (6 Ko eer at The Brooklyn Institute of 

N. A. Arts and Sciences, Brook- 

lyn, N. Y. 

74. Hemlock Grove____----- Emil Carlsen, N. A--..-_-|----- (oleh a Ges Femee5t 4 The Portland Society of Art, 
Portland, Me. 

75. Summer Plumes-_-_-_._--- Gustave) Cimiotties 22 snes GosALiae Ts The Newark Museum Asso 
ciation, Newark, N. J. 

7O.tushinesleetee. =) 2. e Malcolm Humphreys-----|_--.- Golsseeeeaere Not reported. 

The paintings purchased from the Ranger fund during the last 
fiscal year and unassigned at its close (1927-28) have subsequently 
been assigned as follows: 

63. Cypripedia, by Sergeant Kendall, N. A.; to the California Palace of the 
Legion of Honor, San Francisco, Calif. 

The project of assembling the Ranger purchases thus far made for 
temporary exhibition in the National Gallery of Art has been con- 
sidered from time to time, but action has been delayed, due to the 
lack of funds requisite for expenses of packing and shipping. At 
the special meeting of the commission, held April 13, 1929, Mr. Gari 
Melchers, chairman, made the welcome announcement that the Car- 
negie Corporation of New York had generously allowed $1,000 for 
this purpose. It was deemed advisable by members of the commis- 
sion present to hold the exhibition not later than December 1, 1929, 
and Secretary Abbot volunteered to take up at once the necessary cor- 
respondence with the National Academy of Design and with the 
several institutions holding the works. 


Six loan exhibits of art works added greatly to the interest of the 
year’s activities; these, briefly summarized, are as follows: 


Four portraits by the distinguished French painter, M. L. Theo 
Dubé, membre Societaire de la Société des Artistes Francais, were 


exhibited in the middle room of the gallery from November 16 to 
December 14, 1928. The group included two compositions—A 
Tramp and Coquetry, and portraits of President Woodrow Wilson, 
1913, and Senator Mascurand, of France. 


A noteworthy collection of paintings of the Gothic cathedrals of 
France, 27 in number, by Pieter van Veen, Dutch-American painter, 
was exhibited under the patronage of his excellency the French am- 
bassador in Washington, the Hon. Paul Claudel, from December 8 
to 31. A printed illustrated catalogue of the collection was supplied 
by the artist and cards of invitation were issued for a special view 
on December 8. 


A very important exhibit of early American miniatures, the life 
work of Edward Greene Malbone (1770-1807), was shown in the 
middle room of the gallery from February 23 to April 21, 1929. 
Cards of invitation to the opening were issued. The collection was 
assembled as the result of extensive correspondence and appeal and 
arranged for exhibition by Mr. Ruel P. Tolman, curator of graphic 
arts in the National Museum. Mr. Tolman prepared also the illus- 
trated catalogue supplied by the gallery. 


A collection of 42 masterly water-color paintings by William 
Spencer Bagdatopoulos, English painter and etcher, of scenes and 
figure subjects in India, was shown in the northeast room of the 
gallery February 15 to March 15, 1929. A catalogue of the collec- 
tion was furnished by the artist. 


On March 2 the gallery received and placed on view in the south 
room an important collection of paintings by Frank Wilbert Stokes. 
Mr. Stokes is probably the only person who has visited and painted 
in both polar regions. His collection is the fruit of four separate 
expeditions and numbers 500 works covering a wide range of subject 
matter. ‘The selections forwarded and placed on view in the gallery 
comprise 17 landscapes, 10 portrait studies of Eskimo, and 10 minor 
landscape studies. Mr. Stokes’s work has the full approval of Com- 
mander R. E. Byrd, United States Navy, with whom he visited the 
scenes and people portrayed. The collection remains on view at the 
close of the year. 



An exhibition of 64 paintings and several pieces of sculpture, the 
work of American negro artists, was shown in the foyer of the 
museum from May 16 to 27, 1929. This collection was shown in New 
York City in connection with the annual William E. Harmon awards 
for distinguished achievement among negroes. It was brought to 
Washington under the patronage of the committee on race relations 
of the Washington Federation of Churches and under the immediate 
supervision of Dr. Anson Phelps Stokes, canon of Washington 
Cathedral, chairman of the committee, and Dr. Emmett J. Scott, sec- 
retary-treasurer of Howard University, secretary. Invitation cards 
were issued by the gallery and a catalogue of the collection was sup- 
_ plied by the committee. 


The two-feathered Serpent Column models, the mutilated originals 
of which are still in place in the portal of the Pyramid Temple known 
as the “ Castillo,” or castle, in Chichen Itza, Yucatan, were removed 
from the lobby to the second floor, thus taking their place with the 
archeological collections to which they pertain. The space at the east 
end of the lobby thus made vacant is now occupied by the handsome 
mantelpiece and fireplace, by Richardson, transferred to the Museum 
when the residence of Benjamin H. Warder was dismantled in 1924. 


In April, 1929, a large portion of the Alfred Duane Pell collection 
which, due to lack of space in the National Gallery, had been installed 
ou ane in the Arts and Industries Building, was transferred to 
the Pell alcove at the north end of the gallery. ie series of busts of 
Sévres biscuit ware belonging to the collection, remains for the pres- 
ent in the Arts and Tmeiuceries Building. A eheloen: of this mate- 
rial, 996 numbers, was compiled by Miss Helen A. Olmsted, of the 
Ree tenest of ies and industries, National Museum, under the 
expert supervision of Dr. S. W. aoe 


Accessions of art works by the Smithsonian Institution, subject to 
transfer to the National Gallery on approval of the advisory com- 
mittee of the National Gallery of Art Commission, are as follows: 

Portrait bust in bronze of the Hon. Elihu Root, by James Earle 
Fraser, N. A. A replica of the bust made for the Carnegie Corpora- 
tion of New York. (Donor not ascertained.) 


Four specimens of modern Japanese cloisonné; gift of Seth B. 
Robinson, jr., and T. Dudley Robinson, of New York City. 

The John Gellatly collection of art objects, presented to the Nation 
for eventual assignment to the National Gallery of Art. Accepted 
by Congress under a joint resolution approved by the President on 
June 6, 1929. This collection is now housed in the Heckscher 
Building, 730 Fifth Avenue, New York City, where it is to remain for 
four years, becoming then available for transfer to the gallery. 


A painting entitled “ Mist in Kanab Canyon, Utah,” by Thomas 
Moran, 1892; lent by Mrs. Bessie B. Croffut, Washington, D. C. 

A painting entitled “A Rainy Day,” by Peter Moran; lent by the 
Misses Grandin, Washington, D. C. 

Two paintings by Gilbert Stuart—portrait of Thomas Amory, of 
Boston, and portrait of George A. Otis; lent by Mrs. O. H. Ernst 
and Miss Helen Amory Ernst, of Washington, D. C. 

Portrait bust in marble of Mrs. Nicholas Longworth, by Moses W. 
Dykaar; lent by the sculptor. 

Portrait bust in bronze of Hon. Wade H. Ellis, by Joseph Anthony 
Atchison; leit by the sculptor. 

Three paintings by old masters—Madonna and Child, by Alonzo 
Cano (1601-1667) ; The Madonna, by Carlo Dulci (1616-1686) ; and 
Saint with Book, by Giuseppe Ribera (Spagnoletto) (1588-1656) ; 
lent by Mr. and Mrs. Maxim Karolik, Washington, D. C. 

Portrait of Mrs. Charles Eames, by Gambardella; lent by Mrs. 
Alistair Gordon Cumming, Washington, D. C. 


Two landscape models by G. C. Curtis, sculptor, 1902, showing 
the park scheme of the city of Washington, lent to the gallery in 1917 
by the National Commission of Fine Arts, were withdrawn by the 
commission through Mr. H. P. Caemmerer, secretary and executive 

The collection of paintings, landscapes, colonial mansions, etc., 
by John Ross Key, originally received January 15, 1927, as a tem- 
porary exhibit by the artist’s widow, and retained at her request 
and the request of certain Members of Congress, in order that it 
might be available for inspection by a suggested congressional com- 
mittee, was withdrawn by Mrs. John Ross Key April 25, 1929. 

The painting Love and Life, by George Frederick Watts, a gift 
of the artist to the American people in 1893 and shown at the World’s 
Columbian Exposition at Chicago, accepted by act of Congress July 
23, 1894, and transferred from the White House to the National 


Gallery March 21, 1921, was recalled to the White House by Presi- 
dent Herbert Hoover on March 11, 1929, where it has an honored 
place in his study. 

An early painting by George Inness, lent to the gallery by Col. 
Henry C. Davis, United States Marine Corps, was withdrawn by 
Mrs. Davis, his widow, of Coronado, Calif. 

An Italian masterpiece, The Immaculate Conception with the 
Mirror, by Murillo, lent to the gallery by Mr. DeWitt V. Hutchins 
on April 28, 1928, was withdrawn by Mr. Hutchins and shipped by 
his order to Thomas J. Kerr, New York City, on June 24, 1929. 

The portrait bust in plaster of President James Monroe, by Mrs. 
Margaret French Cresson, was withdrawn by the sculptor. 

The portrait of Surg. Bailey Washington, jr., United States 
Navy, (1787-1854), by an artist unknown, was withdrawn by Mr. 
John Washington Davidge upon order from the owner, Miss Alice M. 
Reading, of Reading, Calif. 


At the request of Mrs. Herbert Hoover, two paintings belonging 
to the William T. Evans collection of contemporary American paint- 
ings—The Flume, Opalescent River, Adirondacks, by Alexander 
Wyant, and Castle Creek Canyon, South Dakota, by Frank De 
Haven—were lent to the White House, for temporary embellishment 
of the state dining room, on May 23, 1929. 


Four large ebonized kensington cases of the gem type have been 
added to the gallery furnishings; these are for the accommodation 
of that portion of the Alfred Duane Pell collection recently trans- 
ferred from the Arts and Industries Building. Four No. 500 “ win- 
dow spot reflectors” have been installed in the skylight over the 
middle room of the gallery for the better lighting of the art works 
on dark days. 


The gallery library has been increased by gift, purchase, and sub- 
scription in volumes, pamphlets, periodicals, ete. 

A gift made possible through a fund in Yale University estab- 
lished by Canon Anson Phelps Stokes, consisting of a set of 14 etch- 
ings made for the Yale University Press by Louis Orr, entitled 
“ Ports of America,” was added to the library pending other assign- 
ment when the various departments of the gallery are more fully 


Hoitmes, W. H. Report on the National Gallery of Art for the year ending 
June 30, 1928. Appendix 2, report of the secretary of the Smithsonian 
Institution for the year ending June 30, 1928, pp. 52-62. 

Catalogue of A Group of Original Paintings of the Gothie Cathedrals of 
France, by Pieter van Veen, on view in the National Gallery, Natural History 
Building, United States National Museum, December 8 to December 31, 1928. 
Under the patronage of his excellency the French ambassador, Hon. Paul 
Claudel. Washington, 1928; 6 pp.; 2 plates. 

Catalogue of A Collection of Water-Color Paintings of India, by W. S. 
Bagdatopoulos, on view in the National Gallery of Art, United States 
National Museum Building, February 15 to March 15, 1929. Washington, 
1929, 4 pp. 

Catalogue of Miniatures and Other Works, by Edward Greene Malbone, 1777- 
1807. February 23—April 21, 1929. Washington, 1929, 21 pp.; 5 plates. 

Catalogue of An Exhibition of Paintings and Sculpture by American Negro 
Artists, at the National Gallery of Art, Smithsonian Institution, Washington, 
D.C. May 16—-May 29, 1929. Washington, 1929; 15 pp.; 11 illustrations. 

Respectfully submitted. 

W. H. Hotness, Director. 
Dr. C. G. Axsort, 

Secretary, Smithsonian Institution. 


Sir: I have the honor to submit the ninth annual report on the 
Freer Gallery of Art for the year ending June 30, 1929: 


Additions to the collections by purchase are as follows: 








Persian, sixteenth-seventeenth century. Turkish school. Red leather, 
with decorations in stamped arabesques on gold. 

. Egyptian, fifteenth century. Brown leather, decorated in blind and gold 


Egyptian, fourteenth century. Dark-brown leather, decorated in blind and 
gold tooling. 

Egyptian, fifteenth century. Red leather, decorated in blind and gold 

Persian, sixteenth century. Light-brown leather, lined with rose-red 
leather. Decorations in blind and gold tooling, and in stamped ara- 
besques on gold and blue grounds. 


Chinese, sixth century or earlier. Period of the Six Dynasties. A large 
mirror, the back decorated with engraved silhouettes of gold and silver 
set in lacquer. 

Chinese, seventh-tenth century. T’ang period. A mirror with phoenix 
and running animal figures in relief on the back. 

Chinese, sixth-seventh century. Sui period. A mirror with formalized 
design of palmettes in circles in relief on the back. 

Chinese, third century B. C.(?). Han period or earlier. A sword, with 
ornamental designs inlaid in gold on the pommel, and in gold and 
turquoise on the guard, while both sides of the blade carry inscriptions, 
also inlaid in gold. 


Syrian, thirteenth-fourteenth century. A pilgrim bottle, of transparent 
blown glass, decorated with polychrome enamels and gold. 


Persian, seventeenth century. By Kemal ad-Din. A page of calligraphy 
in four colors on a pinkish-cream paper. Ornaments of floral ara- 
besques on a gold ground. Signed. 
















Persian, seventeenth century. By Kemal ad-Din. A page of calligraphy 
in three colors on a pinkish-cream paper. Ornaments of floral ara- 
besques on grounds of gold and blue. 

Persian, seventeenth century. A page of calligraphy in three colors on 
blue paper with a floral ornament in gold. 

Turkish, sixteenth century. A page. of nastalig script in white on a green 
ground. The writing is cut from paper and mounted. Ornamental 
band in colors and gold. 

Turkish, sixteenth century. A page of nastaliq script in white on a blue 
ground. The writing is cut from paper and mounted. Ornamental 
band in colors and gold. 

. North African, sixteenth century. Two sheets of parchment (from a 

book) with Maghribi writing on both sides in brown and blue. Orna- 
ments in gold and color. 

. Persian, eleventh-twelfth century. A sheet of paper (from a book) with 

Kufie script on both sides in black, red, and gold. Page ornaments 
in gold and black. 

. Hgyptian(?), eighth-ninth century(?). A sheet of parchment (from a 

book) with Kujic script on both sides in black and red. Ornaments 
in gold, black, and red. 

. Egyptian(?), eighth-ninth century(?). A sheet of parchment (from a 

book) with Kufie script on both sides in black and red. 

. Egyptian, thirteenth century. A frontispiece of a Koran with naskh 

script in black on paper. Borders, medallions, and small ornaments in 
gold and black. 

. Egyptian, thirteenth century. A frontispiece of a Koran with naskh 

script in black on paper. Borders, medallions, and small ornaments 
in gold and black. 


Chinese, dated in correspondence with A. D. 797. A fragment of a 
Buddist seripture from Tun-huang, with figures of Buddhas and 
Bodhisattvas. In colors on paper. 

Japanese, eleventh century. Fujiwara Buddhist. Hdérdkakwu Mandara: 
The Buddha and attendant divinities. In color and gold on silk; 
mounted as a panel. 

Indian, seventeenth century. Mughal. A prince and an ascetic. In colors 
and gold on paper. 

Indian, seventeenth century. A pilgrim and an ascetic in conversation. 
In delicate color on paper. 

Persian, thirteenth century. Mongol school. Twenty-two illustrations 
on loose leaves of a Shah Namah, rencered in colors, black, gold, and 
Silver (oxydized). 

Persian, sixteenth-seventeenth century. Turkish school. A court scene. 
in bright colors and gold on paper. 

Persian, about 1600. Shih ’Abbias school, in the style of Yusuf. A man 
playing on a lute. In full color and gold on paper. 

Persian, seventeenth century. Two pheasants. In full color and gold 
on paper. 

Persian, middle fifteenth century. Timurid school. A warrior of Timtr. 
Drawn in black and slight tint, with ornamental details in gold. 




29.80. Indian, early seventeenth century. Mughal, time of Jahangir. A love 
scene. In colors and gold on paper. 

29.81. Indian, middle seventeenth century. Mughal, time of Shah Jahan. 
Portrait of Asalat Khan. In white, black, color, and gold on paper. 


29.6. Chinese, T’ang dynasty. A cylindrical jar with ribbed sides and three 
stump feet, glazed in blue outside and in yellow inside. 

29.7. Chinese, Sung dynasty. Chtin ware. A fiowerpot with 12 lobed sides 
and festooned rim; glazed in deep strawberry-red and blue. 

29.12. Chinese, Sung dynasty. Chien ware (Honan type). A covered jar, 
glazed in black with a painted ornament in metaliic brown. 

29.13. Chinese, Sung dynasty. Tzt chou ware. A vase with trumpet-formed 
mouth, with a floral ornament in black on a white ground. 

29.14. Chinese, Sung dynasty. Ying ching ware. A covered box, glazed in 
pale greenish-blue, with a stamped phoenix design on the cover in 
slight relief. * 

29.15. Chinese, T’ang dynasty. A figure of a dog, biting at one leg, seated on 
a hollow base; glazed in white with a mingled overflow of blue and 

29.9. Persian, eleventh—thirteenth century. Rhages. A jug with a bottle 
neck, painted with fisure designs, over glaze, in blue, green, black, and 

29.10. Persian, eleventh—thirteenth century. Rhages. A jug with a wide cylin- 
drical neck, glazed in white, and decorated in applied relief outlined 
with red, with other adornments of red, green, and blue enamels and 

2911. West Asian. Rakka. A plate, glazed in white, with a sphinx figure in 
slight relief, enameled in green, dark blue, and brown. 


29.5. Chinese, ninth century. T’ang dynasty. <A covered box, with a delicate 
floral design engraved upon it. 

29.16. Chinese, ninth century. ‘T’ang dynasty. A cup with a delicate floral 
design engrayed upon the outside. 

Curatorial work within the collection included documentary study 
of Chinese and Japanese inscriptions on several new purchases and 
on various objects already included in the collection. Many objects 
have been submitted for an expert opinion upon them or for trans- 
lation of their Chinese, Japanese, or Tibetan inscriptions. The total 
number of such reports covers 681 objects and 56 photographs and 
tracings. The collection known as “A gold treasure of the late 
Roman period,” a group of Byzantine objects of the fourth to sixth 
century, has been catalogued, and the collection of antique glass, 
which was listed in the Freer inventory, 8. I. 189, as “ Egyptian 
glass,” has been classified for the first time and duly catalogued. 
This collection contains 1,271 manufactured objects, ranging from 
vases of several inches in height to minute beads and embracing 


many types of early glass from Egypt, Syria, and elsewhere. In 
addition to these there are 80 small rods used in the making of 
mosaics, and 44 shells, probably from ancient graves and used as 
amulets, making a total of 1,395 objects. In this work the curator 
had the assistance of Dr. Gustavus A. Eisen, author of Glass, New 
York, 1927. 

Repairs tending to the preservation of objects in the collection 
have been completed as follows: 

(1) Resurfacing: 

2 oil paintings by Whistler. 
(2) Remounting: 

1 Japanese screen. 

1 Japanese panel. 

2 Chinese makimono. 

1 Chinese panel. 

(8) Mending of breaks: 

17 pieces of Chinese bronze. 
pieces of Chinese jade. 
pieces of Chinese pottery. 
pieces of Egyptian glass. 
piece of Hgyptian bronze. 
piece of Korean pottery. 
piece of Japanese pottery. 
2 pieces of Chinese stone sculpture. 

et et EL OO Or 

These pieces were broken when purchased and have ‘been put in 
condition for the first time. 
Changes in exhibition during the year have involved 106 different 
objects, itemized as follows: 
25 Chinese bronzes. 
6 Chinese paintings. 
2 Chinese stone sculptures. 
28 Chinese pottery. 
6 Japanese screens. 
5 Japanese paintings. 
15 Near Eastern pottery. 
19 Near Hastern paintings. 


During the year there have been added to the main library 231 
volumes and to the library of the field staff 114, making a total of 
845 volumes; 41 unbound periodicals and 129 pamphlets to the main 
library and 53 periodicals and 62 pamphlets to the field hbrary, 
making totals of 94 periodicals and 191 pamphlets. Thirty-four vol- 
umes of Aokka were rebound and 9 other volumes. The field library 
sent 39 volumes to the bindery. A list of new accessions to the 
library, in its two divisions, accompanies this report as Appendix A, 
Parts I and II (not printed). 


Two hundred and eighty-one new negatives of objects have been 
made. Of these, 139 were made for registration photographs and 142 
in response to special orders. The total number of reproductions 
available, either as carbon photographs or as negatives from which 
prints can be made upon request, is now 2,689. 

Three hundred and forty-two lantern slides have also been added 
to the collection, making a total of 829 available for study and for 

The total numbers of sales of reproductions, at cost price, are as 
follows: Photographs, 2,156; post cards, 18,834; lantern slides, 60; 
negatives, 5. Two hundred and eighty-five lantern slides have been 
loaned for lecture purposes. 

Of booklets issued by the gallery, the following number were sold 
at cost price: 

BR. 'G: A. pamphlets. 22222. --2225 25-2 Se 2 ee ee ee 148 

Synopsis.o£ History folders)... 2- 2455 ht eee ie 8 eee ee 154 

Mist of American paintings... een SS ee ee eee 69 

Annotateds@utlines' of Study=2.. 2-880 See ee te eae eee 21 

Gallery. books... 2. 2) 3. oe a PERE he Bese Eo Soe 277 

Moor: plans=.-2 22. 2-4 Bk ee een Ofek 28 ee ee 17 

The shop has been occupied constantly with the usual repair work, 
the making of stands, frames, and easels for exhibition galleries, and 
of furniture and equipment for the building. A detailed report of 
shopwork, including painting, accompanies this report as Appendix 
C (not printed). 


The gallery has been open every day, with the exception of Mon- 
days, Christmas Day, and New Year’s Day, from 9 until 4.30 o’clock. 
The total attendance for the year was 116,303. The aggregate Sun- 
day attendance was 41,411, with an average Sunday attendance of 
796. The week-day attendance amounted to 74,892, with an average 
of 290. Of the 2,101 visitors who came to the offices, 207 came for 
general information, 20 to study the building and museum methods, 
54 to submit objects for examination, 327 to see objects in storage, 
166 to study in the library, 75 to see the facsimiles of the Washing- 
ton Manuscripts, 7 to make photographs and sketches in the exhibi- 
tion galleries, 17 to make tracings from illustrated books in the 
library, and 228 to purchase photographs. Ten classes, in groups 
ranging in number from 3 to 15, were given instruction in the study 
rooms, and 12 groups ranging from 1 to 40 persons were given docent 


service in the galleries. On November 19, 1928, Mr. Bishop lectured 
in the auditorium on The Development of Chinese Arts, with lan- 
tern-slide illustrations, before an audience composed of the art sec- 
tion of the Twentieth Century Club and the department of fine 
arts of the District Federation of Women’s Clubs. 


The work of the field staff has been carried on during the past 
year without interruption, in this country as well as in China, and 
gratifying progress has been made in both. 

The labor involved has now reached very considerable portions 
and, is steadily growing in amount. In addition to that of a routine . 
nature, it has come to include the handling of a large correspondence 
with individuals and organizations in this country and abroad, the 
writing of articles and the delivering of lectures designed to pro- 
mote an intelligent interest in the civilizations of the Far East, and 
the maintenance of a cordial understanding with the Chinese Gov- 
ernment. Negotiations with the latter’s National Research Institute 
have been brought to a highly satisfactory conclusion and have 
already borne abundant fruit. The plan inaugurated by the Amer- 
ican Council of Learned Societies for the undertaking of a world- 
wide survey of the resources at present available for the prosecution 
of Far Eastern research has also received active assistance from 
our field staff and is to be put in execution in the near future. 

Every effort has likewise been made to bring our field brary of 
reference, with its books, periodicals, pamphlets, clippings, photo- 
graphs, maps, etc., to a high state of efficiency and usefulness. The 
labor devoted to this task has already amply justified itself. 

Dr. C. Li, of our field staff, who was in this country last summer, 
returned to China in the autumn by way of Europe, Egypt, and 
India. As a direct result of our understanding with the Chinese 
Government the latter extended to him on his arrival every assist- 
ance in the planning and prosecution of important archeological 
excavations in the Province of Honan, one of the principal centers 
of the archaic Chinese civilization of the protohistoric period. A 
full report of his finds during the past spring is awaited with inter- 
est and should throw much new light on a hitherto dark page of 
culture history. 

It is highly gratifying to note that political conditions in China 
have undergone a steady improvement during the past year. AJ 
present indications appear to unite in justifying the confident ex- 
pectation that our work in the field will be carried on without inter- 
ference or interruption of any kind. 


During the winter season Mr. Bishop gave the following lectures, 
in addition to that mentioned above: 

Archeological Research in China, before the Cosmos Club, Washington, 
October 22. 

Exploring and Excavating in China, at the Museum of the University of 
Pennsylvania, January 19. 

The Bronze Age in China, at the Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York, 
on February 9. 

Travels in China, at the Chevy Chase School, Chevy Chase, Md., March 3. 

An account of the activities of our field staff, briefly outlined 
above, is given in detail in Appendix B, submitted herewith (not 


Mr. Archibald G. Wenley, field assistant, arrived from Paris, 
France, on September 21, and spent a few days at the gallery before 
going to Japan. The past eight months he has been stationed at 

Dr. Chi Li arrived in Peking on November 21 and has since been 
engaged in archeological research. 

Mr. Y. Kinoshita, of the Boston Museum of Fine Arts, worked at 
the gallery from January 14 to June 27 on the preservation of 
oriental paintings. 

Mr. S. Mikami, of New York, worked at the gallery in three 
periods between March 25 and June 27 on repairs to various objects 
of jade, bronze, stone, glass, and pottery. 

Dr. G. A. Eisen, of New York, spent two weeks in April at the 
gallery, classifying the collection of ancient glass. 

Respectfully submitted. 

J. EK. Lopes, 
Curator, Freer Gallery of Art. 
Dr. C. G. Asgor, 

Secretary of the Smithsonian Institution. 


Str: I have the honor to submit the following report on the field 
researches, office work, and other operations of the Bureau of Ameri- 
can Kthnology during the fiscal year ended {une 30, 1929, conducted 
in accordance with the act of Congress approved May 16,1928. The 
act referred to contains the following item: 

American ethnology: For continuing ethnological researches among the 
American Indians and the natives of Hawaii, the excavation and preservation 
of archeologic remains under the direction of the Smithsonian Institution, in. 
cluding necessary employees, the preparation of manuscript, drawings, and illus 
trations, the purchase of books and periodicals, and traveling expenses, $60,300 

Mr. M. W. Stirling entered upon his duties as chief of the bureau 
August 1, 1928, succeeding Dr. J. Walter Fewkes, who retired 
January 15, 1928. 

During the months of September and October Mr. Stirling worked 
with a group of Acoma Indians who were visiting Washington and 
secured from them in as complete form as possible the origin and 
migration myth of that very conservative tribe. This myth not only 
describes the emergence of the first human beings from the under- 
world but also explains the origin and functions of the pantheon of 
demigods and heroes connected with the legend. The myth likewise 
explains the origin and function of the clans and the medicine societies 
and the reason for the many ceremonies practiced. In connection 
with this work phonographic records were made of 66 songs, many 
of which have been transcribed by Miss Frances Densmore, as de- 
scribed in her report. This information fills an important gap in 
our knowledge of the oldest inhabited pueblo in the United States. 

Mr. Stirling spent the months of March and April in Florida, 
where a survey was made of the mounds in the vicinity of Tampa 
Bay. An interesting discovery was made of a series of mounds 
composed of mixed sand and shell, constructed at a distance of about 
4 miles inland, parallel to the shore, and in each instance directly 
back of a large shell mound located on the salt water. Preliminary 
excavations were made at Cockroach Point, Palma Sola, and Safety 
Harbor. The shell mound at Cockroach Point is the largest on the 
west coast of Florida and is composed entirely of shell and bone, 
refuse from the meals of the Indians who formerly occupied the 



site. Collections of shells and bones were made in the different levels 
of the mound, together with human artifacts associated with them, 
with a view to establishing a culture sequence. 

The site at Safety Harbor was determined to be of the same 
culture as that excavated at Weeden Island during the winters of 
1923 and 1924. 

The large sand mound at Palma Sola proved to be of exceptional 
interest and was selected as a site for intensive excavation next 

During the latter part of April Mr. Stirling visited Chicago for 
the purpose of delivering lectures before the Geographic Society of 
Chicago and the anthropologists of Chicago and vicinity. From 
Chicago he went to Memphis, Tenn., where he attended the meeting 
of the Tennessee Academy of Sciences and addressed the society at 
their annual banquet. Proceeding from Memphis to Macon, Ga., 
he visited the large mounds on the site of Old Ocmulgee Town, tra- 
ditional founding place of the Creek Confederacy. 

During the third week in May Mr. Stirling attended the con- 
ference of Mid-Western Archeologists, which was held at St. Louis 
under the auspices of the National Research Council, and as repre- 
sentative of this body went to Montgomery, Ala., to deliver an ad- 
dress at the unveiling of a monument by the Alabama Anthropologi- 
cal Society on the site of old Tukabatchi. 

He also attended the meeting of the American Association for the 
Advancement of Science in New York in December, 1928, as repre- 
sentative of the United States Government. 

Dr. John R. Swanton, ethnologist, was engaged during the year in 
completing the proof reading of his bulletin on the Myths and Tales 
of the Southeast, which has been released for publication. 

Considerable material was added to his manuscript paper entitled 
“Source Material for Choctaw Ethnology.” Part of this was col- 
lected from the archives of the State Department of Archives and 
History at Jackson, Miss., and some from the eastern Choctaw at 
Philadelphia, Miss., in July, 1928. Also, a great deal more work 
was devoted to the projected tribal map of aboriginal North America 
north of Mexico and to the accompanying text, including the in- 
corporation of some valuable notes furnished by Mr. Diamond 
Jenness, chief of the division of anthropology of the Geological 
Survey of Canada. 

Work was continued throughout the year on the Timucua diction- 
ary which, in spite of the elimination of a large number of cards on 
account of closer classification and the correction of errors, still fills 
14 trays. 

Shortly after July, 1928, Dr. Truman Michelson, ethnologist, left 
Washington to renew his research among the Algonquian Tribes of 


Oklahoma. He first studied the linguistics, sociology, and physical 
anthropology of the Kickapoo. Kickapoo in certain respects is very 
important linguistically. While working on Arapaho he was able 
to formulate many phonetic shifts of complexity. Even so, the 
amount of vocabulary that can be proved to be Algonquian is very 
small. The grammatical structure is, however, fundamentally Algon- 
quian. It is also true that there are a few traits which are dis- 
tinctly un-Algonquian; for example, the order of words. 

The first week in August Doctor Michelson went to Tama, Iowa, 
to renew his work among the Foxes. He there restored phonetically 
some texts previously obtained in the current syllabic script and 
worked out some translations. He also obtained some grammatical 
notes on these texts. Some new Fox syllabic texts were collected 
and new and important ethnological data were obtained. 

Doctor Michelson returned to Washington in September. He cor- 
rected proofs of Bulletin 89, Observations on the Thunder Dance of 
the Bear Gens of the Fox Indians, and prepared for publication by 
the bureau a memoir entitled “ Notes on the Great Sacred Pack of the 
Thunder Gens of the Fox Indians.” Early in June Doctor Michelson 
left for Oklahoma, where he obtained more Kickapoo linguistic notes, 
further elucidating the relation of Kickapoo to Fox. From this it 
appears that; Kickapoo diverges more widely in idiom than hitherto 
suspected. He also secured some Kickapoo texts in the current 
syllabic script and obtained new data on social organization. Some 
brief Shawnee linguistic notes were collected. These show that while 
Shawnee is in certain respects very important for a correct under- 
standing of Fox phonology, as a whole it is not as archaic. It is also 
now clear that Shawnee is further removed from Sauk and Kickapoo 
than he had previously surmised. Doctor Michelson witnessed sev- 
eral Kickapoo dances and attended a Shawnee ball game. 

In June, 1929, Mr. John P. Harrington, ethnologist, completed his 
report on the Taos Indians, who inhabit a large pueblo on an eastern 
affluent of the Rio Grande in north-central New Mexico. These are 
the northernmost of the New Mexico Pueblo Indians and are 
peculiarly interesting because of the long intimate relations they 
have had with the Jicarilla Apaches, Utes, Comanches, and other 
tribes of Great Plains culture. During the period of Spanish 
domination in New Mexico the Taos had to play the double and dif- 
ficult rdle, because of their frontier position, of persuading the 
Spanish that they were really on their side, and the Plains Indians 
that they were really on theirs. The relations with the Plains 
Indians existed far back in Taos history and amounted at times to the 
incorporation of large bodies of these Indians in the blood which went 
to make up the present-day Taos. And there is a still more remote 


and fundamental connection with one group of Plains Indians, 
namely, the Kiowa. The Taos language, which was the language of 
one of the ancient groups which contributed to the composition of 
Taos, has been determined to be a dialect of Kiowa, which seems to 
indicate that this contingent of the Taos population at least, like the 
Kiowas themselves, once lived in the northern region of the Rocky 
Mountains, probably in what is now Canada. 

Grasping still another opportunity to check the old and new 
information on this region, studies on the related Karuk Indians of 
the central Klamath River region of California were resumed during 
field work on the coast and were continued throughout the year, 
resulting in an accumulation of carefully analyzed material, a large 
part of which is now ready for publication. The work consists of 
many divisions of information, including the grammar of the lan- 
guage, its sounds, its peculiar musical intonations, and the system of 
long and short consonants and vowels; the history of the tribe, which 
remained intact and unspoiled up to 1850; the census, with the peculiar 
old personal names; the villages, which were strung out along the 
river and its tributary creeks; the construction of the living houses 
and sweat houses, and the description of all the manufactures, and 
the process of making the objects, all in Indian; the social life, an 
organization without chiefs; the great festivals and the various 
dances; feuds, wars, and peace making; sucking and herb doctors, 
and the sources of their power; medicine formulas and myths, all in 
the language, for any other record of them would be inadequate. 
This information is accompanied by photographs and phonograph 
records and is rapidly approaching completion for publication as a 
report of the bureau. 

Early in June Mr. Harrington went to Chaco Canyon, N. Mex., 
for the purpose of making further study of the Pueblo Indian lan- 
guages, notably the relation of Zuni and Keresan to the newly 
discovered Kiowan family. Cooperating with students of the Uni- 
versity of New Mexico attending the university summer school being 
held at Chaco Canyon under the joint auspices of the State University 
and the School of American Research, a minute comparison was 
made of the Taos and Zufi languages, resulting in the discovery of 
the genetic relationship of these two languages, a relationship which 
ean be traced through hundreds of words of similar sound and 
identical construction, which was long ago hinted at by the discovery 
of such words as lana, big, and papa, older brother, which are the 
same in sound and meaning in both languages. About 200 kymo- 
eraph tracings were made. Similar genetically related words and 
features were also discovered in the Keresan language. Cooperating 
in this work were Miss Sara Goddard, Miss Clara Leibold, Miss Anna 


Risser, Miss Janet Tietjens, Miss Winifred Stamm, Mr. Reginald 
Fisher, and several other students. The results are ready for publi- 
cation, including the kymographic alphabet, which is mounted and 
ready for the engraver. 

The months of July and August, 1928, were spent by Dr. F. H. H. 
Roberts, jr., archeologist, in completing archeological investiga- 
tions along the Piedra River in southwestern Colorado. During 
that time the remains of 50 houses belonging to the first period 
of the prehistoric Pueblo peoples were excavated and examined. 
As a result of those researches it was possible to determine a 3-stage 
chronoldgical development of the house types in the district as well 
as to postulate very definite reconstructions of the dwellings. An 
additional discovery was that in the arrangement of the structures 
the builders had developed the prototype of the unit house which 
was the characteristic building of the following stage, the Pueblo II | 
period. Besides the work in house remains, a number of burial 
mounds were explored and many skeletons and objects of the mate- 
rial culture of the people were obtained. The latter include a large 
number. and variety of pottery specimens, many of which repre- 
sent an entirely new feature in the ceramic industry, bone and 
stone implements, and ornaments. The work as a whole gives a 
clear-cut picture of the life and conditions prevailing at a time 
of instability and disturbance due to an influx of new peoples, with 
its attendant cultural transition. 

On the completion of the work along the Piedra River one week 
was spent in a reconnaissance of the Governador district in north- 
ern New Mexico. The Governador region includes the Governador, 
Burns, La Jara, and Frances Canyons. The latter are of special 
archeological and ethnological interest, because it was to that sec- 
tion that a large group of the Pueblo Indians from the Jemez 
villages fled after they had been disastrously defeated in the Battle 
of San Diego Canyon during the month of June, 1696, by Spanish 
forces engaged in the reconquest of the Southwest. The ruins of 
the dwellings built by the refugees are in a good state of preserva- 
tion and furnish excellent information on the methods and styles of 
house building prevalent at that time. At the close of the Gov- 
ernador explorations Doctor Roberts returned to Washington, reach- 
ing there the middle of September. 

During the autumn illustrations were prepared to accompany a 
manuscript entitled “ Recent Archeological Developments in the 
Vicinity of El Paso, Tex.,” which was published in January, 1929, 
as volume 81, No. 7, of the Smithsonian Miscellaneous Collections. 
Proof of another paper entitled “Shabik’eshchee Village, A Late 
Basket Maker Site in the Chaco Canyon, New Mexico,” was corrected, 


and this appeared in June, 1929, as Bulletin 92 of the Bureau of 
American Ethnology. 

Considerable time was spent in the laboratory of the division of 
American archeology of the United States National Museum in 
working over the collection made during the excavations along the 
Piedra River. <A portion of this work included the restoration, from 
fragments found in the various houses, of a number of unusually 
fine culinary and storage jars and a series of decorated bowls. 

From January to June a 545-page manuscript on the work in 
southwestern Colorado was prepared. Accompanying this report 
are 40 text figures drawn by Doctor Roberts. The figures include 64 
drawings, consisting of maps of the San Juan archeological area 
and the Piedra district, outlines of the various village and house 
groups, restorations of the different forms of dwellings, details in 
building construction, outline groups of pottery forms, and designs 
from decorated ceramic containers. 

On May 11, 1929, Doctor Roberts left Washington for Denver, 
Colo., where one week was spent in studying museum specimens. 
From Denver he proceeded to Gallup, N. Mex., where he outfitted 
for work in the region of the Long H Ranch, eastern Arizona, 45 
miles from the Pueblo of Zuni. After conducting a reconnaissance 
a site was chosen on the Long H Ranch, 1 mile northwest of the 
ranch buildings, and a series of excavations started. As work pro- 
gressed it was found that the site was one which had been occupied by 
Basket Maker III and Pueblo I peoples and that it showed the transi- 
tion from the one period to the other. At the end of June, eight fine 
examples of pit houses had been uncovered. Excellent data on the 
type and character of this form of structure were obtained and sev- 
eral new features in the method of house grouping were observed. 
The burial mounds of three house clusters were examined and 30 
interments exhumed. The latter were accompanied by mortuary 
offerings of pottery; bone and shell implements; shell beads, brace- 
lets, and pendants; and turquoise ornaments. With the various ob- 
jects found in the houses the total number of specimens reaches 300. 
The work has furnished valuable information on a little-known phase 
of the prehistoric sedentary cultures of the Southwest. 

During the year Mr. J. N. B. Hewitt, ethnologist, continued his 
studies on the Iroquois. In 1900 and immediately subsequent years 
Mr. Hewitt undertook seriously to record in native texts the extant 
rituals, ordinances, and laws pertaining to the institutions and struc- 
ture of the League or Confederation of the Five (later Six) Tribes 
or Nations of the Iroquois of New York State. At that time there 
were still living two or three men among the Iroquois of Canada 
who grasped more or less fully the intent and purpose of the various 


institutions of this league, and Mr. Hewitt had then acquired a 
conversational knowledge of the two languages in which these rituals, 
ordinances, and laws were chiefly expressed, to wit, the Mohawk and 
the Onondaga. The use of the Cayuga, Oneida, and Seneca was 

From these men Mr. Hewitt obtained standard texts in the native 
tongues of the informants. The death of two of these informants 
made a study of the material furnished by them difficult. Resort 
was had then to other less noted informants in these matters, and 
there was obtained a large number of versions of portions of the 
standard texts already mentioned, which disclosed views and state- 
ments which it seemed impossible to harmonize with those appearing 
in the standard texts. It was imperative that the value of these dis- 
cordant statements should be ascertained where possible and that 
palpable omissions from the standard texts should be utilized. The 
task was to ascertain in these analytical studies what was transmitted 
tradition and what was the personal opinion of the informant, unwit- 
tingly expressed. 

This work of comparison was undertaken to secure the best possible 
translations, interlinear and free, of the several native texts thus 
studied. The texts of the Installation Chant, the Eulogy of the 
Founders, of the Traditional Biography of Deganawida which de- 
scribes in great detail the years of difficult work which had to be done 
to establish the League of the Five Tribes of the Iroquois in the Stone 
Age of America, and also the native text of the Requickening Address 
of Installation, were subjected to this kind of study. 

Mr. Hewitt represented the Smithsonian Institution on the United 
States Geographic Board. In addition to attending the meetings, he 
spent about three days in researches for the executive committee. 

As custodian of manuscripts of the bureau, Mr. Hewitt did some 
classificatory linguistic work on new items acquired. 

Mr. Hewitt left Washington on May 6, 1929, to continue his 
studies among the Iroquoian Tribes dwelling in Canada and in the 
State of New York. His work consisted chiefly in literal and free 
translation of formal native diction embodying legislative, rituslis- 
tic, and forensic thought; and also in the coordination of divergent 
traditional statements of traditionally historical events, in eliminat- 
ing the incongruous, and in conserving the congruous. He secured 15 
parcels of wampum strings, severally bearing the name of one of 
the burdens of the ritual, the Requickening Address of Installation. 

Dr. Francis Le Flesche, ethnologist, during the last fiscal year 
completed Wa-sha’-be A-thi", an Osage war ceremony, composed of 
270 pages of manuscript, with diagrams and illustrations; also the 
Wa’-wa-tho", a ceremony pertaining to the peace pipes, composed 


of 129 pages of manuscript, with illustrations. In this paper is a 
full and detailed description of the discoidal pipes, ancient and 
modern, found in the Eastern States, many of which may be found 
in the various museums. 

With the assistance of Mrs. Grace D. Woodburn, he has revised 
the work on the Osage Dictionary. There are approximately 19,000 
words of the Osage language in common use among the tribe with 
English equivalent; about 17,000 English words with Osage tran- 
scriptions are given. The words, with their meanings, can not be 
given positively, but a clear idea of usage has been made. About 35 
illustrations have been completed for this work. 


The study of Indian music has been continued during the past 
year by Miss Frances Densmore, a collaborator of the bureau. 
Material has been submitted on the songs of the Menominee, Winne- 
bago, Pawnee, Yuma, Acoma, and the Indians living on the Fraser, 
Thompson, and Squamish Rivers in British Columbia; also on a small 
group of songs recorded at Anvik, Alaska, and obtained through 
the courtesy of Rev. John W. Chapman. A comparison of the songs 
in this wide territory has been important in the development of the 

Kight manuscripts have been submitted with the following titles: 
“Menominee Songs of Pleasure, Dances, and Manabus Legends”; 
“Songs of Indians Living on the Fraser, Thompson, and Squamish 
Rivers in British Columbia”; “ Origin Song of the Dice Game and 
Other Winnebago Songs”; “ Winnebago Songs Connected with the 
Recent War ”; and 17 analytical tables comparing Pawnee with songs 
previously analyzed; “ Winnebago Songs Connected with Legends, 
Games, and Dances”; “ Acoma Songs of the Flower Dance and Corn 
Dance”; “Acoma Songs Used in Treating the Sick and Other 
Acoma Songs”; and “A Comparison Between Yuma, Acoma, and 
Alaskan Indian Songs,” with 18 tables of analysis of Yuma songs. 
The number of songs transcribed and analyzed is 117, and a large 
number of dictaphone song records were studied without transcrip- 
tion. Miss Densmore corrected the proof of her book on Papago Music 
and the galleys of Pawnee Music; the final work of preparing the 
Pawnee material for publication was also done during this year. 
A large amount of work was done upon the preparation of Menomi- 
nee and Yuma material for publications. Catalogue numbers have 
been assigned to all transcribed songs, except the Acoma, the highest 
catalogue number in her series being 1848. 

During August and September, 1928, a field trip was made to 
the Winnebago and Menominee Tribes in Wisconsin. A large dance, 
continuing three days, was held by the Winnebago near Black River 


Falls. This dance was witnessed, as well as numerous incidents of 
life in the camp, and about 50 photographs were taken. 

At the conclusion of this gathering Miss Densmore went to 
Keshena, Wis., for further work among the Menominee. The manu- 
script already prepared was read to reliable members of the tribe and 
details were added. An interesting opportunity for seeing Menomi- 
nee dances was afforded by the annual Indian fair which continued 
four days. Among the old dances presented were those in imitation 
of the fish, frog, crawfish, rabbit, partridge, and owl. The songs 
of these dances, together with their action and origin, were recorded. 
The Manabus legend concerning the first death was obtained, to- 
gether with its songs, and the work included the recording of other 
old material. 

A drum-presentation ceremonial dance, commonly called a dream 
dance, was held at the native village of Zoar on September 2 to 5. 
This was attended each day and closely observed, Miss Densmore 
remaining 10 hours beside the dance circle on the third day of the 
ceremony. Many photographs were taken. 

On September 14 Miss Densmore proceeded to ‘Tomah, Wis., and 
resumed her study of Winnebago music. Additional songs of the 
war-bundle feast, also called the winter feast, were recorded, together 
with several old legends and their songs, and the origin of the bowl- 
and-dice game, with its song. The legend of this game origin had 
previously been obtained among the Menominee. Numerous photo- 
graphs were taken, and two drumming sticks were obtained, one 
being decorated with otter fur and used a generation ago by the 
leader at the drum. 

During October, 1928, Miss Densmore went to Washington, D. C., 
and recorded 27 Acoma songs from Philip Sanche, who, with several 
Acoma Indians, was engaged in work for the chief of the Bureau 
of American Ethnology. A larger number of Acoma songs had 
previously been recorded for the chief of the bureau and these records 
were studied, 16 being transcribed as representative examples. 


The editing of the publications of the bureau was continued 
through the year by Mr. Stanley Searles, editor, assisted by Mrs. 
Frances §. Nichols, editorial assistant. The status of the publica- 
tions is presented in the following summary: 


Forty-first Annual Report. Accompanying papers: Coiled Basketry in British 
Columbia and Surrounding Region (Boas, assisted by Haeberlin, Teit, and 
Roberts) ; Two Prehistoric Villages in Middle Tenuessee (Myer). 626 pp 
137 pls. 200 figs. 1 pocket map. 



Forty-third Annual Report. Accompanying papers: The Osage Tribe: Two 
Versions of the Child-naming Rite (La Flesche) ; Wawenock Myth Texts from 
Maine (Speck) ; Native Tribes and Dialects of Connecticut, a Mohegan-Pequot 
Diary (Speck) ; Picuris Children’s Stories (Harrington and Roberts) ; Iro- 
quoian Cosmology—Second Part (Hewitt). 828 pp. 44 pls. 9 figs. 

Forty-fourth Annual Report. Accompanying papers: Exploration of the Burton 
Mound at Santa Barbara, Calif. (Harrington) ; Social and Religious Beliefs 
and Usages of the Chickasaw Indians (Swanton); Uses of Plants by the 
Chippewa Indians (Densmore); Archeological Investigations—II (Fowke). 
55d pp. 98 pls. 16 figs. 

Bulletin 84. Vocabulary of the Kiowa Language (Harrington). 255 pp. 1 fig. 

Bulletin 86. Chippewa Customs (Densmore). 204 pp. 90 pls. 27 figs. 

Bulletin 87. Notes on the Buffalo-head Dance of the Thunder Gens of the Fox 
Indians (Michelson). 94 pp. 1 fig. 

Bulletin 89. Observations on the Thunder Dance of the Bear Gens of the Fox 
Indians (Michelson). 78‘pp. 1 fig. 

Bulletin 92. Shabik’ eshchee Village: A Late Basket Maker Site in the Chaco 
Canyon, New Mexico (Roberts). 164 pp. 31 pls. 382 figs. 


Forty-fifth Annual Report. Accompanying papers: The Salishan Tribes of the 
Western Plateaus (Teit, edited by Boas); Tattooing and Face and Body 
Painting of the Thompson Indians, British Columbia (Teit, edited by Boas) ; 
The Ethnobotany of the Thompson Indians of British Columbia (Teit, edited 
by Steedman) ; The Osage Tribe: Rite of the Wa-xo’-be (La Fliesche). 

Bulletin 88. Myths and Tales of the Southeastern Indians (Swanton). 

Bulletin 90. Papago Musie (Densmore). 

Bulletin 91. Additional Studies of the Arts, Crafts, and Customs of the 
Guiana Indians, with special reference to those of Southeastern British 
Guiana (Roth). 

Bulletin 98. Pawnee Music (Densmore). 


The distribution of the publications of the bureau has been con- 
tinued under the charge of Miss Helen Munroe, assisted by Miss 
Emma B. Powers. Publications were distributed as follows: 

Report? volumes, and Separates ge Ai. Wee NN EE eee ee 7, 605 
Bulletins; andr (geparategei uma ego tock cet ier Ee ee 11, 890 
Contributions to North American Ethnology________________----_---__ 34 
Miscellaneous) spublications)s 2 Yaeiin 1120 kere, ed A ee 583 

MO tA utes oa eee Ey EAL alee a ES, SD cer DOE 20, 112 

This is an increase of 10,986 publications distributed, due to the 
fact that five more publications were distributed to the mailing list 
than in the previous year. The mailing list, after revision during 
the year, stands at 1,642. 

Following is a summary of work accomplished in the illustration 

branch of the bureau under the supervision of Mr. De Lancey Gill, 
illustrator : 


Photographs retouched and lettered and drawings made ready for 

COTA TVR eR ee Soe dE a eget edad Wid on ieee 874 
Drawings prepared, including maps, diagrams, ete___________-________ 53 
Hn ravers pProoks eriticized miss tes. ett Senttalned ils Sa rayon Th 690 
Printed editions of colored plates examined at Government Printing 

OPTIC CEE eee ee eee eee we eee ee PBS ee meer 23, 000 
@orrespondeneesattiended, t02 2-2 ee ee ee eee 125 

Photographie laboratory work by Dr. A. J. Olmsted, National Museum, 
in cooperation with the Bureau of American Ethnology: 

TINO EU GI CS ee ree tes ct Se ea 8 a fre EE A SAN Rs So eR 143 

PES SIT Us ee tare ne en Sa re ey Nn eee Oa oy a ee 275 

Himes tdeveloped fron held "exposiress-22 522242. 2e6 2a wee eee 12 

The reference library has continued under the care of Miss Ella 
Leary, librarian, assisted by Mr. Thomas Blackwell. The library 
consists of 28,512 volumes, about 16,377 pamphlets, and several 
thousand unbound periodicals. During the year 591 books were 
accessioned, of which 112 were acquired by purchase and 479 by gift 
and exchange; also 200 pamphlets and 4,100 serials, chiefly the pub- 
lications of learned societies, were received and recorded, of which 
only 112 were obtained by purchase, the remainder being received 
through exchange. The catalogue was increased by the addition of 
1,400 cards. Many books were loaned to other libraries in Wash- 
ington. In addition to the constant drafts on the library of the 
bureau, requisition was made on the Library of Congress during the 
year for an aggregate of 200 volumes for official use, and in turn the 
bureau library was frequently consulted by officers of other Govern- 
ment establishments, as well as by students not connected with the 
Smithsonian Institution. 

While many volumes are still without binding, the condition of 
the library in this respect has greatly improved during the last few 
years; 431 volumes were bound during the year. 


100,592. Several thousand anthropological specimens and small collections of 
mammals, plants, mollusks, and minerals from various localities in Alaska, 
secured by Henry B. Collins, jr., during 1928. (3,730 specimens. )- 

102,768. Small collection of archeological objects gathered by Charles T. Earle 
at an aboriginal camp site at Shaws Point, Fla. (26 specimens.) 

102,769. Two textile fragments collected in the Canyon de Chelly, Ariz., by 
Dr. W. H. Spinks. (2 specimens.) 

102,896. Collection of 61 ethnological specimens secured from the Hupa In- 
dians of California by E. G. Johnson. (61 specimens.) ha 

103,344. Two specimens of sheet mica collected from unidentified mounds in 
Ohio by the late Dr. B. H. Davis and presented to the bureau by Miss Betsey 
B. Davis. (2 specimens.) 



103,964. Pair of charms used by the Karuk Indians of northern California to 
ward off pains and bewitchments. Made by Mrs. Phoebe Maddux, of the 
Karuk Tribe. (2 specimens.) 

105,865. Collection of ethnological objects gathered from the Hupa Indians 
of California by HE. G. Johnson and purchased from him by the bureau. 
(27 specimens. ) 


Office equipment was purchased to the amount of $292.70. 

The correspondence and other clerical work of the office has been 
conducted by Miss May S. Clark, clerk to the chief, assisted by Mr. 
Anthony W. Wilding, assistant clerk. Miss Mae W. Tucker, stenog- 
rapher, assisted Dr. John R. Swanton in his work of compiling a 
dictionary of the Atakapa and compiled two catalogues of the manu- 
scripts in the archives of the bureau—one arranged according to 
author and the other numerically. Mrs. Frances S. Nichols assisted 
the editor. 

During the course of the year information was furnished by mem- 
bers of the staff in reply to numerous inquiries concerning the North 
American Indian peoples, both past and present, and the Mexican 
peoples of the prehistoric and early historic periods to the south. 
Various specimens sent to the bureau were identified and data on 
them furnished for their owners. 

Personnel_—Mr. M. W. Stirling was appointed chief of the bureau 
August 1, 1928. Dr. J. Walter Fewkes retired as associate anthro- 
pologist of the bureau November 14, 1928. 

Respectfully submitted. 

M. W. Srirune, Chief. 

Dr. C. G. AxBsor, 

Secretary, Smithsonian Institution. 


Sir: I have the honor to submit the following report on the opera- 
tions of the International Exchange Service during the fiscal year 
ending June 30, 1929: 

The appropriation made by Congress for the support of the Ex- 
change Service for 1929 was $50,355, an increase of $3,500 over the 
amount for the preceding year. Of this increase, $2,147 was pro- 
vided for in a deficiency bill to cover the additional sum required to 
meet the provisions of the Welch Act amending the classification act 
of 1923, $1,000 to meet the extra cost for freight, and $353 to ad- 
vance to the next step in their respective grades those of the employees 
of the exchange office eligible for promotion. 

The total number of packages handled was 620,485, an increase of 
78,262 over the previous year. ‘This is the second largest increase in 
the number of packages passing through the service in any one year 
since its organization in 1850. ‘The greatest increase in packages was 
in 1927, when it was over 100,000. The total weight of the packages 
handled was 621,373 pounds, an increase of 27,252. 

The number and weight of the packages of different classes are 
given in the following table: 

Packages Weight 
Sent |Received| Sent | Received 
Pounds | Pounds 

United States parliamentary documents sent abroad_._______-- 239, 096 \\oH2- zee OD) A404 | Bex ces ee ie! = 

Publications received in return for parliamentary documents__-|--..------ SATBN| _Detee eae 23, 051 

United States departmental documents sent abroad_____-._---_ 183;676;|besss- see 152, 6964)=2- 222-222 

Publications received in return for departmental documents____|--_.------ O698 it see ae ees 23, 671 

Miscellaneous scientific and literary publications sent abroad_-_| 139,520 |.__....-___ 2165780) |zonee=e ee 
Miscellaneous scientific and literary publications received 

from abroad for distribution in the United States._...._...___|.------__- \eneG; S22) |P=aeee== 102, 766 

TS ch a ee a ne Ee eS 562, 192 58, 293 | 471, 885 149, 488 

GHAI) WOE oe ese ce secces cones saab Te Ses SSS 620, 485 621, 373 

Tt will be observed from the above table that many more pack- 
ages are sent abroad than are received, yet the disparity is not as 
great as appears from the figures. Packages sent abroad in many 



instances contain only a single publication, while those received in 
return often comprise several volumes. Furthermore, a number of 
foreign correspondents forward their publications directly to their 
destinations in this country by mail. 

During the year there were shipped abroad 2,823 boxes, a decrease 
of 49 from the number sent last year, although the total weight of 
the consignments shipped to foreign countries was practically the 
same for the two years. Of the total number of boxes shipped 
abroad 604 contained full sets of United States official documents 


1850 te ISH 

EacH CoLumN Equal To 200,000 Pounps 

Ra EL Wd a al a ee A 
feos Severs HOE OAL SU aaee tote SIN | a el eel 
1960 b 1864+ aa i 

1965 te 1869 HH 
fae ba 
1975 ts 1879 HERE a 
este | | Lt | 
1890 1894 
1895 G 1894 hal EES ea Ae 
1900 ta 1904 Da A a 
1905 G 1909 egal see ae 
1910 & (91¥ En ac a les) tex) 
15 & 1919 Spt 
1926 t 1924 a a ats ES Yea on [eae ERE 

Ps Fe a 

fis oe 

z I 452 YS5 
lige 2461 SIF 

1945 b 1929 

Ficurp 1.—Diagram showing the relative weight of packages transmitted through the 
International Exchange Service between the years 1850 and 1929, divided into periods 
of five years each 

for foreign depositories and 2,219 included departmental and other 
publications for the depositories of partial sets and for miscellaneous 
establishments and individuals. 

In addition to the forwarding of consignments to foreign ex- 
change agencies in boxes, it is necessary, for the reasons given in 
previous reports, to mail a number of packages directly to their 
destinations. There were forwarded in this manner during the 
year 60,856 packages. 

The number of boxes sent to each foreign country is given in the 
following table: 



Consignments of exchanges forwarded to foreign countries 

Country Nombes Country Banibes 
“Argentina S20 2. oan Seve et tet Sk Gat |\wikeat yin 8 2< me _eeeneee i: ads esa eb oh 11 
ATS ETIG Se See oa eer ne eae e aera twee ee 58 | MG@xiCO-2<22.. camas'secccas eneoctaasthcte se 11 
PES 00 eee ee ee 649) Netherland s2eiino2s eon senn eae 85 
15) of: A | cece eee ©) CEE eee Bee eee eee 40' |) New: South Wialesi2ccb2 <<- Ses see oaks 37 
Bulgarians. 22 (ha Sed Be ee Eee fn. DHisNew,neelanG=s<22225 52-5 a ee 26 
British Colontest: si. tipi sie 148) MINOGW Ay sto seeee one ees aoe 55 
Wandda est oe Be en co eee 6 445 )\, Palestin@-2-<. 222: ee se bse ee a ee 106 
(GLE tan ie ERR SRN NR RE a DRAM CEES 2 se Bae ao res eee 21 
Ching Sate: AUT errr oes Gig MP oland sect Ohler 45 
Polomblae=seLee tages ondt oh 2 \EPortapgall. 25.2244. 2eq27-t astlascesd_2 24 
(CORE eye = — es ee ee 29) <@wmeensiand 24-0. 5-25 ee eels 31 
CONT Ys ob ets snd ik See eet | Ta | Rammanighs 22 SPA AL Te 28e See eet 24 
@vechosloyakisursss-2422se~- sen ceteeue ee G40 WHRTISS geeeeees os ee ee Ses eee 133 
Deri sr ks eee eer ee Paes 49\\\\"SouthvAustralia==2-c2s=s _ Sue ee ee 25 
LO ag 0 ae ee ee ee ee TREN) FSO oe eee S 38 
TRC) at ER ea a a ee ee eee SoS Wed On=—e 22256 2a ee eee a 69 
(RUST se ee ANSE EL ee Ls 147) Switzerland: 2-2°2+ -4e2. 27s Seek 77 
LONE CS 58 es ee ee oe ed a 174:,||, Pasmania-s. 4-225 sa be LE eee oe 23 
ISeroiany ee se aoe sae ae ete eee en S800||)Darkeyzess Se... So tae ee. Se Ree ns 11 
Great Britain and Ireland.._____.-_-___-- 382 || Union of South Africa.._.......---..--.- 36 
(CMG See ee oe Se ee ee Sone | Ay || Uruguay. aoe ee ee eae 20 
1B RENT Ana a a ee a a eet ak Va SU RVOUOZUGIAS tate na ane cee cee ee ae 21 
IOV AUTaS EES SEES ee. Soe 2 | Wictorids. 22 foes. NIE eee ot 51 
SERTIM Gary 2 ees 8 she ote 2 hey Se ae ek 35i/\| Western Australias-<--5.22 523 eee oe 23 
TTR IE: eae Ba te EA edloa ie esa ih esiey emperors baal ROSIGWIAten oa eee hee eee ee ee 16 
Tt aliges ee PEEP os ee YE ES 102 
Japan eeeewes ase kc eee Bele ee 87 Motel si sf nto cose oe 2, 823 

For many years prior to 1926 the interchange of publications be- 
tween China and the United States was conducted under the direc- 
tion of the Shanghai Bureau of Foreign Affairs. The Chinese Bu- 
reau of Exchanges was under the direction of the Ministry of Edu- 
cation at Peking from May, 1926, to June, 1928, when operations 
were suspended owing to the reorganization of the Chinese Govern- 
ment. The Metropolitan Library, in which was then deposited the 
full series of United States governmental documents sent to China, 
temporarily took over the work of the bureau. The exchange work 
was carried on by that library until February, 1929, when a com- 
munication was received from the National Research Institute, 205 
Avenue du Roi Albert, Shanghai, stating that the Nationalist Govern- 
ment had transferred the Bureau of International Exchanges from 
Peking to Shanghai and had placed the bureau under its direction. 
Shipments therefore have been made in care of the National Re- 
search Institute since March, 1929. 

In June, 1925, the Egyptian Government, which had not at that 
time become a party to the Brussels convention, discontinued its 
exchange bureau in the Government Publications Office, and it was 
necessary to send packages intended for correspondents in Egypt 
directly to their destinations by mail. In June, 1927, as stated in the 


report for that year, the Egyptian Government formally adhered 
to the Brussels convention and established as its agency the Bureau 
of Publications under the Ministry of Finances at Cairo. Complete 
arrangements for the taking over of the exchange work by that 
bureau, however, were not perfected until September, 1928, when 
shipments in boxes to Egypt were resumed. | 

A few days after the close of the fiscal year the Government 
printer of South Australia advised the Institution that his Govern- 
ment, at the invitation of the League of Nations, had established 
under his direction the South Australian Government Exchanges 
Bureau to take over the exchange work conducted for many years by 
the Public Library of South Australia. 


There has been no increase in the number of sets of United States 
governmental documents forwarded to foreign depositories, the total 
number being 105. However, there has been a change in the number 
of depositories of the full and partial sets, two of the latter, those 
for Latvia and Rumania, having been increased to full sets. The 
number of full sets, therefore, is now 62 and partial sets 48. 

At the request of the German Government the depository of Amer- 
ican official documents has been changed from the Deutsche Reichs- 
tags-Bibliothek to the Reichstauschstelle im Reichsministerium des 
Innern, Berlin. 

The partial set depository in Guatemala has been changed from 
the Secretary to the Government to the Secretaria de Relaciones Ex- 
teriores de la Republica de Guatemala; and the depository in Hon- 
duras from the Secretary of the Government to Ministerio de Rela- 
ciones Exteriores. 

The depository of the full set of governmental documents sent to 
Italy has been changed from the Biblioteca Nazionale Vittorio 
Emanuele to the Ministero della Pubblica Istruzione, Viale del Re, 

The Nationalist Government of China has changed the depository 
of United States official documents in that country from the Metro- 
politan Library in Peking to the Ministry of Foreign Affairs at 

A list of the foreign depositories is given below: 


ARGENTINA: Ministerio de Relaciones Exteriores, Buenos Aires. 
Buenos Arres: Biblioteca de la Universidad Nacional de La Plata, La 
Plata. (Depository of the Province of Buenos Aires.) 


AUSTRALIA: Library of the Commonwealth Parliament, Canberra. 

New SoutH WALES: Public Library of New South Wales, Sydney. 

QUEENSLAND: Parliamentary Library, Brisbane. 

SoutH AUSTRALIA: Parliamentary Library, Adelaide. 

TASMANIA: Parliamentary Library, Hobart. 

Victorta: Public Library of Victoria, Melbourne. 

WESTERN AUSTRALIA: Public Library of Western Australia, Perth. 
AUSTRIA: Bundesamt ftir Statistik, Schwarzenbergstrasse 5, Vienna I. 
Bexicium: Bibliothéque Royale, Brussels. 

Brazit: Bibliotheca Nacional, Rio de Janeiro. 
CANADA: Library of Parliament, Ottawa. 

MANITOBA: Provincial Library, Winnipeg. 

OnrTaArio: Legislative Library, Toronto. 

QugEBEC: Library of the Legislature of the Province of Quebec, Quebec. 
CHILE: Biblioteca del Congreso Nacional, Santiago. 

CHINA: Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Nanking. 

CoLtomBIA: Biblioteca Nacional, Bogota. 

Costa Rica: Oficina de Deposito y Canje Internacional de Publicaciones, San 
José. . 

Cupa: Secretaria de Estado (Asuntos Generales y Canje Internacional), 

CZECHOSLOVAKIA: Bibliothéque de l’ Assemblée Nationale, Prague. 

DENMARK: Kongelige Bibliotheket, Copenhagen. 

EXcypt: Bureau des Publications, Ministére des Finances, Cairo. 

EstTonra: Riigiraamatukogu (State Library), Tallinn (Reval). 

FRANCE: Bibliothéque Nationale, Paris. 

Paris: Préfecture de la Seine. 

GERMANY: Reichstauschstelle im Reichsministerium des Innern, Berlin © 2. 

BavEN: Universitiits-Bibliothek, Freiburg. (Depository of the State of 


Bavaria: Bayerische Staatsbibliothek, Munich. 

Prussia: Preussische Staatsbibliothek, Berlin, N. W. 7. 

Saxony: Sichsische Landesbibliothek, Dresden—N. 6. 

WouRTEMBERG: Landesbibliothek, Stuttgart. 


ENGLAND: British Museum, London. 

Guascow: City Librarian, Mitchell Library, Glasgow. 

Lonpon: London School of Economics and Political Scienee. (Depository 

of the London County Council.) 

GREECE: Bibliotheque Nationale, Athens. 
Hungary: Hungarian House of Delegates, Budapest. 
InpIA: Imperial Library, Calcutta. 
IrisH Free Stare: National Library of Ireland, Dublin. 
IraLty: Ministero della Pubblica Istruzione, Rome. 
JAPAN: Imperial Library of Japan, Tokyo. 
Latvia: Bibliothéque d’Etat, Riga. 
Mexico: Biblioteca Nacional, Mexico, D. F. 
NETHERLANDS: Royal Library, The Hague. 
NEW ZEALAND: General Assembly Library, Wellington. 
NORTHERN IRELAND: Ministry of Finance, Belfast. 
Norway: Universitets-Bibliotek, Oslo. (Depository of the Government of 



Peru: Biblioteca Nacional, Lima. 

PoLAND: Bibliothéque du Ministére des Affaires Htrangéres, Warsaw. 

PortugaL: Biblioteca Nacional, Lisbon. 

Rumania: Academia Romana, Bucharest. 

Russr1a: Shipments temporarily suspended. 

Spain: Servicio del Cambio Internacional de Publicaciones, Cuerpo Faculta- 
tivo de Archiveros, Bibliotecarios y Arquedlogos, Madrid. 

SWEDEN: Kungliga Biblioteket, Stockholm. 

SWITZERLAND: Bibliotheque Centrale Fédérale, Berne. 

SWITZERLAND: Library of the League of Nations, Geneva. 

TURKEY: Ministére de l’Instruction Publique, Angora. 

Union oF SoutH Arrica: State Library, Pretoria, Transvaal. 

Urucuay: Oficina de Canje Internacional de Publicaciones, Montevideo. 

VENEZUELA: Biblioteca Nacional, Caracas. 

Yugos.tavia: Ministére de l’Hdueation, Belgrade. 

VIENNA: Wiener Magistrat. 
Boutvia: Ministerio de Colonizacién y Agricultura, La Paz. 
Minas GerasEs: Directoria Geral de Estatistica em Minas, Bello Horizonte, 
Minas Geraes. 
Rio DE JANEIRO: Bibliotheca da ASsemblea Legislativa do Estado, Nictheroy. 
ALBERTA: Provincial Library, Edmonton. 
BRITISH COLUMBIA: Legislative Library, Victoria. 
NEw Brunswick: Legislative Library, Fredericton. 
Nova Scotra: Provincial Secretary of Nova Scotia, Halifax. 
Prince Epwarp Istanp: Legislative Library, Charlottetown. 
SASKATCHEWAN: Government Library, Regina. 
BRITISH GUIANA: Government Secretary’s Office, Georgetown, Demerara. 
BULGARIA: Ministére des Affaires Etrangéres, Sofia. 
Cryton: Colonial Secretary’s Office (Record Department of the Library), 
Danzic: Stadtbibliothek, Free City of Danzig. 
DoMINICAN ReEpPuBLIc: Biblioteca del Senado, Santo Domingo. 
Hovuapor: Biblioteca Nacional, Quito. 
FINLAND: Parliamentary Library, Helsingfors. 
ALSACE-LORRAINE: Bibliothéque Universitaire et Régionale de Strasbourg, 
BREMEN: Senatskommission fiir Reichs- und Auswiirtige Angelegenheiten. 
Hamsure: Senatskommission fiir Reichs- und Auswiirtige Angelegenheiten. 
Hesse: Landesbibliothek, Darmstadt. 
LUseck: President of the Senate. 
THURINGIA: Rothenberg-Bibliothek, Landesuniversitit, Jena. 
GUATEMALA: Secretaria de Relaciones Exteriores de la Repfiblica de Guate- 

Hartt: Secrétaire d’Etat des Relations Extérieures, Port au Prince. 
HoNpvuRAS: Ministerio de Relaciones Exteriores, Tegucigalpa. 
Ionnanp: National Library, Reykjavik. 


BomsBay: Undersecretary to the Government of Bombay, General Depart- 
ment, Bombay. 
Burma: Secretary to the Government of Burma, Education Department, 
Mapras: Chief Secretary to the Government of Madras, Public Depart- 
ment, Madras. é. 
UNITED PROVINCES oF AGRA AND OUDH: University of Allahabad, Allahabad. 
JAMAICA: Colonial Secretary, Kingston. 
LIBERIA: Department of State, Monrovia. 
LirHUANIA: Ministére des Affaires Htrangéres, Kaunas (Kovyno). 
LourENco Marquez: Government Library, Lourengo Marquez. 
Matta: Minister for the Treasury, Valetta. 
NEWFOUNDLAND: Colonial Secretary, St. John’s. 
NICARAGUA: Superintendente de Archivos Nacionales, Managua. 
PANAMA: Secretaria de Relaciones Hxteriores, Panama. 
ParaGuay: Seccién Canje Internacional de Publicaciones del Ministerio de 
Relaciones Exteriores, Estrella 563, Asunci6n. 
SALVADOR: Ministerio de Relaciones Hxteriores, San Salvador. 
Sram: Department of Foreign Affairs, Bangkok. 
Straits SETTLEMENTS: Colonial Secretary, Singapore. 


The total number of establishments to which the daily issue of the 
Congressional Record is forwarded is 101, the same as last year. 

The second convention concluded at Brussels in March, 1886, pro- 
vided not only for the immediate exchange of the official journal but 
for the parliamentary annals and documents as well. Heretofore, 
however, the countries taking part in this interparliamentary 
exchange have restricted it to the official journal. During the year 
the French Chamber of Deputies, to which the Congressional Record 
has been forwarded for some time, proposed to this Government that 
the full provisions of the convention be entered into between France 
and the United States. This proposal was accepted, and there is 
now forwarded to the French Chamber direct by mail, immediately 
upon publication, the bills, reports, documents, and slip laws of 
both the Senate and House of Representatives. 

There is given below a complete list of the countries now taking 
part in the immediate exchange, together with the names of the 
establishments to which the Record is forwarded: 


Biblioteca del Congreso Nacional, Buenos Aires. 
Camara de Diputados, Oficina de Informacién Parlamentaria, Buenos Aires. 
Buenos Aires: Biblioteca del Senado de la Provincia de Buenos Aires, 
‘La Plata. 


Library of the Commonwealth Parliament, Canberra. 
New South Wales: Library of Parliament of New South Wales, Sydney. 
Queensland: Chief Secretary’s Office, Brisbane. 
Western Australia: Library of Parliament of Western Australia, Perth. 
AustTrIA: Bibliothek des Nationalrates, Vienna I. 
BELGIUM: Bibliothéque de la Chambre des Représentants, Brussels. 
Botiv1A: Biblioteca del H. Congreso Nacional, La Paz. 
Bibliotheca do Congresso Nacional, Rio de Janeiro. 
Amazonas: Archivo, Bibliotheca e Imprensa Publica, Mandéos. 
Bahia: Governador do Hstado de Bahia, Sao Salvador. 
Espirito Santo: Presidencia do Hstado do Espirito Santo, Victoria. 
Sao Paulo: Diario Official do Estado de Sao Paulo, Sao Paulo. 
Sergipe: Director da Imprensa Official, Aracaju, Estado de Sergipe. 
Library of Parliament, Ottawa. 
Clerk of the Senate, Houses of Parliament, Ottawa. 
CHINA: Metropolitan Library, Pei Hai, Peking. 
Costa Rica: Oficina de Depésito y Canje Internacional de Publicaciones, San 
Biblioteca de la Camara de Representantes, Habana. 
Biblioteca del Senado, Habana. 
CZECHOSLOVAKIA: Bibliothéque de Assemblée Nationale, Prague. 
Danzig: Stadtbibliothek, Danzig. 
DENMARK: Rigsdagens Bureau, Copenhagen. 
DomINIcAN ReEpustic: Biblioteca del Senado, Santo Domingo. 
DutcH Hast Indies: Volksraad von Nederlandsch-Indié, Batavia, Java. 
Heyer: Bureau des Publications, Ministére des Finances, Cairo. 
EstTontA: Riigiraamatukogu (State Library), Tallinn (Reval). 
Chambre des Députés, Service de l’Information Parlementaire Htrangére, 
Bibliothéque du Sénat, au Palais du Luxembourg, Paris. 
Deutsche Reichstags-Bibliothek, Berlin, N. W. 7. 
Anhalt: Anhaltische Landesbiicherei, Dessau. 
Baden: Universitits-Bibliothek, Heidelberg. 
Braunschweig: Bibliothek des Braunschweigischen Staatsministeriums, 
Mecklenburg-Schwerin: Staatsministerium, Schwerin. 
Mecklenburg-Strelitz: Finanzdepartement des Staatsministeriums, Neu- 
Oldenburg: Oldenburgisches Staatsministerium, Oldenburg i. O. 
Prussia: Bibliothek des Abgeordnetenhauses, Prinz-Albrechtstrasse 4, 
Berlin, S. W. 11. 
Schaumburg-Lippe: Schaumburg-Lippische Landesregierung, Biicheburg. 
GIBRALTAR: Gibraltar Garrison Library Committee, Gibraltar. 
GREAT BRITAIN: Library of the Foreign Office, London. 
GREECE: Library of Parliament, Athens. 
GUATEMALA: Archivo General del Gobierno, Guatemala. 
Harit: Secrétaire d’Etat des Relations Extérieures, Port-au-Prince. 


Honpuras: Biblioteca del Congreso Nacional, Tegucigalpa. 
Huncary: Bibliothek des Abgeordnetenhauses, Budapest. 
Inp1IA: Legislative Department, Simla. 
Iraq: Chamber of Deputies, Baghdad, Iraq (Mesopotamia). 
Biblioteca del Senato del Regno, Rome. 
Biblioteca della Camera dei Deputati, Rome. 
IrisH Free STATE: Dail Hireann, Dublin. 
Latvia: Library of the Saeima, Riga. 
LiseriA: Department of State, Monrovia. 
Mexico: Secretaria de la Camara de Diputados, Mexico, D. F. 
Aguascalientes: Gobernador del Hstado de Aguascalientes, Aguascalientes. 
Campeche: Gobernador del Estado de Campeche, Campeche. 
Chiapas: Gobernador del Estado de Chiapas, Tuxtla Gutierrez, 
Chihuahua: Gobernador del Estado de Chihuahua, Chihuahua. 
Coahuila: Periddico Oficial del Hstado de Coahuila, Palacio de Gobierno, 
Colima: Gobernador del Estado de Colima, Colima. 
Durango: Gobernador Constitucional del Estado de Durango, Durango. 
Guanajuato: Secretaria General de Gobierno del Hstado, Guanajuato. 
Guerrero: Gobernador del Hstado de Guerrero, Chilpancingo. 
Jalisco: Biblioteca del Estado, Guadalajara. 
Lower California: Gobernador del Distrito Norte, Mexicali, B. C., Mexico. 
Mexico: Gaceta del Gobierno, Toluca, Mexico. 
Michoacin: Secretaria General de Gobierno del Hstado de Michoacin, 
Morelos: Palacio de Gobierno, Cuernavaca. 
Nayarit: Gobernador de Nayarit, Tepic. 
Nuevo Le6én: Biblioteca del Estado, Monterey. 
Oaxaca: Periddico Oficial, Palacio de Gobierno, Oaxaca. 
Puebla: Secretario General de Gobierno, Zaragoza. 
Queretaro: Secretaria General de Gobierno, Seccién de Archivo, Queretaro. 
San Luis Potosi: Congreso del Estado, San Luis Potosi. 
Sinaloa: Gobernador del Estado de Sinaloa, Culiacan. 
Sonora: Gobernador del Estado de Sonora, Hermosillo. 
Tabasco: Secretaria General de Gobierno, Seccién 3a, Ramo de Prensa, 
Tamaulipas: Secretaria General de Gobierno, Victoria. 
Tlaxcala: Secretaria de Gobierno del Estado, Tlaxcala. 
Vera Cruz: Gobernador del Estado de Vera Cruz, Departamento de 
Gobernacion y Justicia, Jalapa. 
Yucatin: Gobernador del Estado de Yucatin, Mérida, Yucatan. 
New ZEALAND: General Assembly Library, Wellington. 
Norway: Storthingets Bibliothek, Oslo. 
Prru: Camara de Diputados, Congreso Nacional, Lima. 
PoLAND: Ministére des Affaires Etrangéres, Warsaw. 
PORTUGAL: Biblioteca do Congresso da Republica, Lisbon. 
Bibliothéque de la Chambre des Députés, Bucharest. 
Ministére des Affaires Etrangéres, Bucharest. 
Biblioteca de la Asamblea Nacional, Madrid. 
Barcelona: Biblioteca de la Comision Permanente Provincial de Barcelona, 


Bibliothéque de l’Assemblée Fédérale Suisse, Berne. 
Library of the League of Nations, Geneva. 
Ministére des Finances de la République Libanaise, Service du Matériel, 
Governor of the State of Alaouites, Lattaquié. 
TurRKEY: Turkish Grand National Assembly, Angora. 
Library of Parliament, Cape Town, Cape of Good Hope. 
State Library, Pretoria, Transvaal. 
Urucuay: Biblioteca de la Cimara de Representantes, Montevideo. 
VENEZUELA: Cimara de Diputados, Congreso Nacional, Caracas. 
YueosLavia: Library of the Skupshtina, Belgrade. 


South Australia has changed its exchange bureau from the Public 
Library at Adelaide to the Government Printing and Stationery 
Office, the name of the new bureau being the South Australian Gov- 
ernment Exchanges Bureau. 

The Austrian exchange agency, formerly the Bundesamt fiir Sta- 
tistik, is now Internationale Austauschstelle, Bundeskanzleramt, Her- 
rengasse 23, Vienna I. 

The Nationalist Government of China has transferred its Bureau 
of International Exchange from Peking to Shanghai and made the 
bureau a part of the National Research Institute. 

A list of the foreign exchange bureaus or agencies is given below. 
Most of those agencies forward consignments to the Smithsonian In- 
stitution for distribution in the United States. 


ALGERIA, via France. 

ANGOLA, via Portugal. 

ARGENTINA: Comision Protectora de Bibliotecas Populares, Calle Cordoba 931, 
Buenos Aires. 

Austria: Internationale Austauschstelle, Bundeskanzleramt, Herrengasse 23. 
Vienna I. 

AzoRES, via Portugal. 

BeLcium: Service Belge des Echanges Internationaux, Rue des Longs-Chariots, 
46, Brussels. 

Bortvr1A: Oficina Nacional de Estadistica, La Paz. 

Brazit: Servicio de Permutacdes Internacionaes, Bibliotheca Nacional, Rio de 

BritisH Cotonirs: Crown Agents for the Colonies, London. 

BritisH GuiaANA: Royal Agricultural and Commercial Society, Georgetown. 

British Honpuras: Colonial Secretary, Belize. 

Butearta: Institutions Scientifiques de S. M. le Roi de Bulgarie, Sofia. 

CaNARY ISLANDS, via Spain. 

CHILE: Servicio de Canjes Internacionales, Biblioteca Nacional, Santiago. 


CHINA: Bureau of International Exchange, National Research Institute, 205 
Avenue du Roi Albert, Shanghai. 

CoLoMBIA: Oficina de Canjes Internacionales y Reparto, Biblioteca Nacional, 

Costa Rica: Oficina de Depésito y Canje Internacional de Publicaciones, San 

CZECHOSLOVAKIA: Service Tchécoslovaque des Echanges Internationaux, Biblio- 
théque de l’Assemblée Nationale, Prague 1-79. 

Danzig: Amt fiir den Internationalen Schriftenaustausch der Freien Stadt 
Danzig, Stadtbibliothek, Danzig. 

DENMARK: Kongelige Danske Videnskabernes Selskab, Copenhagen. 

DutcH GUIANA: Surinaamsche Koloniale Bibliotheek, Paramaribo. 

Hcuapor: Ministerio de Relaciones Exteriores, Quito. 

Eeypr: Bureau des Publications, Ministére des Finances, Cairo. 

Estonia: Riigiraamatukogu (State Library), Tallinn (Reval). 

FINLAND: Delegation of the Scientific Societies of Finland, Helsingfors. 

France: Service Francais des Echanges Internationaux, 110 Rue de Grenelle, 

GERMANY: Amerika-Institut, Universititstrasse 8, Berlin, N. W. 7. 

GREAT BRITAIN AND IRELAND: Messrs. Wheldon & Wesley, 2, 3, and 4 Arthur 
St., New Oxford St., London W. C. 2. 

GREECE: Bibliothéque Nationale, Athens. 

GREENLAND, via Denmark. 

GUATEMALA: Instituto Nacional de Varones, Guatemala. 

Hartr: Secerétaire d’Etat des Relations Extérieures, Port-au-Prince. 

Honpuras: Biblioteca Nacional, Tegucigalpa. 

Huneary: Hungarian Libraries Board, Budapest, IV. 

ICELAND, via Denmark. 

InDIA: Superintendent of Stationery, Bombay. 

ITaty: R. Ufficio degil Scambi Internazionali, Ministero della Pubblica Istru- 
zione, Rome. 

JAMAICA: Institute of Jamaica, Kingston. 

JAPAN: Imperial Library of Japan, Tokyo. 

JAVA, via Netherlands. 

KorkeEA: Government General, Seoul. 

Latvia: Service des Echanges Internationaux, Bibliothéque d’Etat de Lettonie, 

LIBERIA: Bureau of Exchanges, Department of State, Monrovia. 

LITHUANIA: Sent by mail. 

LouRENCO MARQUEZ, via Portugal. 

LUXEMBURG, via Belgium. 

MADAGASCAR, via France. 

MApEIRA, via Portugal. 

MOZAMBIQUE, via Portugal. 

NETHERLANDS: International Exchange Bureau of the Netherlands, Royal 
Library, The Hague. 

New SoutH WALES: Public Library of New South Wales, Sydney. 

New ZEALAND: Dominion Museum, Wellington. 

NicaRaGua: Ministerio de Relaciones Exteriores, Managua. 

Norway: Universitets-Bibliotek, Oslo. 

PALESTINE: Hebrew University Library, Jerusalem. 

PANAMA: Sent by mail. 

PARAGUAY: Seccién Canje Internacional de Publicaciones del Ministerio de 
Relaciones Exteriores, Hstrella 563, Asuncion. 


Peru: Oficina de Reparto, Depésito y Canje Internacional de Publicaciones, 
Ministerio de Fomento, Lima. 

Potanp: Service Polonais des Kchanges Internationaux, Bibliothéque du Minis- 
tére des Affaires Etrangéres, Warsaw. 

PortuGAL: Seccaio de Trocas Internacionaes, Biblioteca Nacional, Lisbon. 

QUEENSLAND: Bureau of Exchanges of International Publications, Chief Secre- 
tary’s Department, Brisbane. 

RUMANIA: Bureau des Hchanges Internationaux, Institut Météorologique Cen- 
tral, Bucharest. 

Russia: Academy of Sciences, Leningrad. 

Satvapor: Ministerio de Relaciones Exteriores, San Salvador. 

Stam: Department of Foreign Affairs, Bangkol:. 

SoutH AvusTRALIA: South Australian Government Exchanges Bureau, Govern- 
ment Printing and Stationery Office, Adelaide. 

Spain: Servicio del Cambio Internacional de Publicaciones, Cuerpo Faculta- 
tivo de Archiveros, Bibliotecarios y Arqueélogos, Madrid. 

SUMATRA, via Netherlands. 

SWEDEN: Kongliga Svenska Vetenskaps Akademien, Stockhoim. 

SWITZERLAND: Service Suisse des Echanges Internationaux, Bibliothéque Cen- 
trale Fédérale, Berne. 

Syria: American University of Beirut. 

TASMANIA: Secretary to the Premier, Hobart. 

TRINIDAD: Royal Victoria Institute of Trinidad and Tobago, Port-of-Spain. 

TUNIS, via France. 

TURKEY: Robert College, Constantinople. 

UNION oF SoutH AFRiIcA: Government Printing Works, Pretoria, Transvaal. 

Urueuay: Oficina de Canje Internacional de Publicaciones, Montevideo. 

VENEZUELA: Biblioteca Nacional, Caracas. 

VicrorIA: Public Library of Victoria, Melbourne. 

WESTERN AUSTRALIA: Public Library of Western Australia, Perth. 

YuGosLaviA: Ministére des Affaires Etrangéres, Belgrade. 

Respectfully submitted. 
Chief Clerk, International Exchange Service. 

Dr. Cuartes G. Apsor, 
Secretary, Smithsonian Institution. 


Sm: I have the honor to submit the following report on the opera- 
tions of the National Zoological Park for the fiscal year ending 
June 30, 1929: 

The appropriation made by Congress for the regular maintenance 
of the park was $182,050, and there was the usual allotment of $300 
for printing and binding and an additional appropriation of $18,500 
to cover the increase in salaries of the personnel under the Welch 


Gifts—The park this year has been the recipient of an unusual 
number of gifts of valuable animals. Notable among these are the 
several shipments of birds and animals obtained through Dr. H. C. 
Kellers, United States Navy, who was on duty with the Marines in 
Nicaragua. The animals were brought to Washington on a trans- 
port through the courtesy of the Navy Department. The speci- 
mens included large groups of spider monkeys, capuchins, and 
coatimundis; a flock of 6 sulphur-breasted toucans; a pair of curas- 
sows, many parrots, and several unusual birds and small mammals. 

Dr. D. W. May sent from Porto Rico two rhinoceros iguanas, an 
unusual species in captivity. One specimen is doing well and: 
promises to survive. Through Mr. Henry W. O’Malley, United 
States Commissioner of Fisheries, the park received a trio of north- 
ern fur seals from the Pribilof Islands, a species very rare in col- 
lections. From the New Zealand Government were received a pair 
of black swans and a pair of the rare paradise ducks. The New 
York Zoological Society sent a Prince Rudolph’s blue bird of 
paradise and a Lawes’s 6-plumed bird of paradise, part of the collec- 
tion obtained by Mr. Crandall on the society’s New Guinea expedi- 
tion. Mrs. Emily C. Chadbourne presented a great black cockatoo; 
Mr. Harvey S. Firestone, jr., a potto from Liberia; Mr. J. F. Goldsby 
four Canada geese; and Mr. Richard Gordon six blue geese. 

The most spectacular addition to the zoo in many years has been 
N’Gi, the gorilla. The animal was purchased with money remaining 
from the Smithsonian-Chrysler expedition funds. He weighed 40 
pounds on arrival and has been the greatest attraction the zoo has 



ever had. There were 40,000 visitors the first Sunday he was here, 
despite the coldness of the weather, and the following Sunday there 
were 20,000 more. Up to the present time he has been doing well 
and the officials of the park hope to keep him for a long time. 

The officers of the United States Coast Guard patrol boat Marion, 
while engaged in survey work in Davis Straits, captured and brought 
to the zoo “ Marian,” a fine polar-bear cub. This is an especially 
valuable addition, because the other polar bears are now very aged. 

A pair of Sitka deer presented by Mrs. Guy C. Chapin, Karheen, 
Alaska, through Mr. H. W. Terhune, of the Alaska Game Commis- 
sion, are the first representatives of their species in the collection for 
many years. 

The park is indebted to the office of the Chief Coordinator, which 
on numerous occasions has handled imports of animals and greatly 
facilitated the work of the park in getting them. 


Mrs. Anne Archbold, Washington, D. C., kinkajou. 

Mr. Harry Bachrach, Washington, D. C., raccoon. 

Mrs. Lena Bergland, Washington, D. C., grizzly coated cebus. 
Mr. J. S. C. Boswell, Alexandria, Va., 7 snakes. 

Mr. H. C. Breeden, Florida, raccoon. 

Dr. Ira BE. Briggs, Washington, D. C., alligator. 

Mr. James F. Burgess, Washington, D. C., opossum. 

Mr. Andrew J. Campbell, Washington, D. C., white-nosed guenon. 
Mrs. BE. C. Chadbourne, Washington, D. C., great black cockatoo, 
Mrs. Guy C. Chapin, Karheen, Alaska, 2 Sitka deer. 

Mr. Walter P. Chrysler, New York City, gorilla. 

Mr. F. GC. Craighead, Washington, D. C., 3 barred owls. 

Mrs. N. M. Crowell, Washington, D. C., blue-headed parrot. 
Dr. W. T. Dey, United States’ Navy, two chachalacas. 

Mrs: W. J. Donovan, Washington, D. C., Texas armadillo. 

Mr. A. A. Doolittle, Washington, D. C., king snake. 

Mr. C. S. Fesser, Chevy Chase, Md., opossum. 

Mr. Harvey S. Firestone, jr., Akron, Ohio, Bosman’s potto. 
Mr. J. F. Goldsby, Polson, Mont., 4 Canada geese. 

Mrs. T. M. Goodwin, Scottsville, Va., white-throated capuchin. 
Mr. Richard Gordon, Abbeville, La., 6 blue geese. 

Mr. E. Hanson, Washington, D. C., coatimundi. 

Mr. T. B. Henry, Port-au-Prince, Haiti, 4 scaled pigeons. 

Mr. C. A. Higgins, Washington, D. C., green parrakeet. 
President Hoover, White House, alligator. 

Horne’s Zoological Arena Co., Kansas City, Mo., lion. 

Mr. J. B. Jones, Smithfield, Va., bald eagle. 

Mr. Ellis Joseph, New York City, Humboldt’s woolly monkey. 
Mr. C. H. Keller, Washington, D. C., opossum. 

Mr. William Kemble, Boston, Mass., white-faced capuchin. 
Mr. Samuel Kress, Port Limon, Costa Rica, 3-toed sloth. 

Mr. E. H. Lewis, Catalina Island, Calif,, 6 valley quail, 4 mountain quail 


Mrs. Mary Lincoln, Washington, D. C., canary. 

Mr. M. C. Marseglia, Washington, D. C., canary. 

Mr. D. W. May, Mayaguez, Porto Rico, 2 rhinoceros iguanas. 

Mrs. McFarland, Hellier, Ky., golden eagle. 

Mr. E. B. McLean, Washington, D. C., coatimundi. 

Mrs. E. B. McLean, Washington, D. C., sooty mangabey. 

Mrs. Elinor Messler, Miami, Fla., coatimundi. 

Mrs. Mitchell, Washington, D. C., sooty mangabey. 

Mr. M. C. Musgrave, Phoenix, Ariz., Gila monster, 

New York Zoological Society, New York City, Prince Rudolph’s blue bird of 
paradise, Lawes’s 6-plumed bird of paradise. 

New Zealand Government, 2 black swans, 1 pair paradise ducks, through 
J. Langridge. 

Mrs. E. E. Patterson, Melbourne, Fla., diamond rattlesnake. 

Mr. Harry A. Peters, Ballston, Va., Philippine macaque. 

Policemen of seventh precinct, Washington, D. C., 9-banded armadillo. 

Mr. Freeman Pollack, Washington, D. C., hog-nosed snake. 

Mrs. W. L. Sherman, Washington, D. C., gray coatimundi. 

Mr. J. W. Stohlman, Washington, D. C., great horned owl. 

Mrs. C. F. Spradling, Athens, Tenn., banded rattlesnake, coot. 

Mr. C. G. Taylor, Parksville, N. Y., Canada porcupine. 

Mr. Frank Temple, Hyattsville, Md., 2 red-tailed hawks. 

United States Bureau of Fisheries, through Mr. Henry O’MaUey, 7 Pribilof 
Island finches, 3 northern fur seals. 

United States Coast Guard, New London, Conn., polar bear. 

United States Marine Corps, through Dr. H. C. Kellers, United States Navy, 
8 margays, 2 kinkajous, 10 gray coatimundis, collared peccary, 3 speckled 
agoutis, 14 gray spider monkeys, 6 white-throated capuchins, caracara, 10 red- 
faced paroquets, 2 small green paroquets, 6 sulphur-breasted toucans, 2 curas- 
sows, 2 crab-eating raccoons, 45 tovi paroquets, gallinule, red-eared paroquet, 
13 yellow-naped parrots, 4 opossums, tree opossum, 3 Petz’ paroquets, troupial. 

Mr. L. W. Walker, Hugo, Colo., 2 coyotes, 2 white-necked ravens, 2 burrowing 

Mrs. Mildred F. Williams, Washington, D. C., West Indian troupial. 

Bobby Woods, Washington, D. C., black snake. 

Mr. W. B. Wynkoop, Washington, D. C:, Philippine monkey. 

Births —There were 58 mammals born and 41 birds hatched in the 
park during the year. These included the following: 

Japanese macaque _______________ 1 LOING TC xtte ee e ee nee ene ene Seana 1 
Li aS Se ee ee A ATs oe en WO 3 
PSO pam epeeioms reeset ek we Sil FATMETICHMNG like se syne ee ey 1 
Neumann's eenet. ou 2 | "Red: deere ta: severe ee) das eae aa 2 
CCQ O Mees eee hae a MOG Minlengeer: 2 8 Neate. 7 ANA iA nets al 
1 DUET a ROU Relea ee 3: | SBarasin cigs ee eee Le ee 1 
\AVIKG] LOYOvE aaa Sal sheteetns. on a Party eee eran 4° Japanese. deere 222s ee me 
NVC NOS Sstete! SA n= a0 2 rly Axl ¥ Wallowa Geers. 25 iste 8) Jae 4 
PRIMER CAT DISQM= =e DA || Brera Okino lac igor ribet ees Senn ee ee 2 
lira Gi ray tial] Ojos ee HN Pa PS a ge 1 
SIGHS ES eC RU Leena ee er Li pO anagd Ht SOOSE: arekteegs Voupete nen Pe t 
Rocky Mountain sheep___________ 3 | White-cheeked goose_____________ 7 
MOU Orso 2 Aare ee ae ZN ONTEIL (OT OT ee. oe ey a a ily 
ANY CG ENG SE er eee ft) Sil verpg wllyosies § yet ul tcue. eleeis Sure ki 18 


The pair of lions presented to President Coolidge by the mayor 
and citizens of Johannesburg produced four cubs. The parents are 
still young and promise to become magnificent animals. 

Each of the two pairs of leopards caught as adults by the Smith- 
sonian-Chrysler expedition have bred both this year and last. The 
wart hogs last year gave birth to five young, which died, but this 
year four young were born and are thriving. 

Purchase and exchange-—Among the more important specimens 
acquired by purchase and exchange have been a cheetah, to replace 
a pair lost last year; a pair of Kuropean wild boars, which have since 
bred; a lot of 14 lories; a pair of Orinoco geese; four species of tree 
ducks for the great flight cage in the bird house; a pair of Spix 
macaws; and two Kea parrots. As the available quarters are lm- 
ited and crowded, there have been purchased only especially desirable 

Removals.—Losses by death included one gibbon, which died of 
pneumonia; a rhinoceros hornbill; a striped hyena, which lved in 
the park from May 1, 1918, to September 27, 1928; a Malay tapir, 
which was received September 13, 1921, and died September 29, 1928; 
a red kangaroo, received in June, 1912, and died November 8, 1928. 

Post-mortem examinations were made in most cases by the patho- 
logical division of the Bureau of Animal Industry. The following 
list shows the results of the autopsies: 



Marsupialia : Enteritis, 1; gastroenteritis, 1. 

Carnivora: Pneumonia, 3; congestion of lungs, 1; enteritis, 4; gastroenteritis, 3; in- 
ternal hemorrhage, 1; goiter, 1; accident, 1; no cause found, 1. 

Pinnipedia: Gastritis, 1. 

Primates: Pneumonia, 3; tuberculosis, 1; gastroenteritis, 1; hepatitis, 2; intestinal 
parasites, 1. 

Artiodactyla : Pneumonia, 1; intestinal obstruction, 1; difficult parturition, 2; old age, 
2; no cause found, 1. 

Perissodactyla: Accident, 1. 

Edentata: No cause found, 1. 


Casuariiformes: Aspergillosis, 1. 

Ciconiiformes: Tuberculosis, 1; congestion of lungs, 1; enteritis, 1. 

Anseriformes: Congestion of lungs, 1. 

Psittaciformes: Enteritis, 1; no cause found, 1. 

Coraciiformes: Gastroenteritis, 1. 

Passeriformes: Aspergillosis, 1. 



Virginia opossum (Didelphis virginiana) ____-...- 8 | Great red kangaroo (Macropus rufus)_..------- 1 
Flying phalanger (Petaurus breviceps)._----... 2 | Wombat (Phascolomys mitchelli)_........----- 1 

Brush-tailed rock wallaby (Petrogale penicil- 


Kadiak bear (Ursus middendorffi).-...-..-.---- 2 | Mexican kinkajou (Potos flavus aztecus)__.____- 1 
Alaska Peninsula bear (Ursus gyas) ----------- Ari Pavan haynes OAT OUT) ee ee 1 
Kidder’s bear (Ursus kidderi)............------ 2p Skunk" @ephitisntona) see eee ee ek es 3 
European bear (Ursus arctos)---.....---------- Sh} Wolverine: (Guloiliuscs) eee a ee ee ee 3 
Grizzly bear (Ursus horribilis)_...........-__-- 1 | American badger (Taridea americana) __-___--- 2 
Apache grizzly (Ursus apache) __...-.--------- 1 | Ratel (Mellivora capensis) __..__......_--_-___- 1 
Himalayan bear (Selenarctos thibetanus)__--.._- i | Florida otter (Lutra canadensis vaga)_-.-.._-__- 1 
Black bear (EHuarcios americanus)_......--.---- 4 | Palm civet (Paradorurus hermaphroditus)___--- 1 
Cinnamon bear (Hwarctos americanus cinna- Binturong (Arctictis binturong) _...----.---_---- 1 
TL DICTTD a a a eS ee eee ae 4 | Egyptian mongoose (Herpestes ichnewmon).--. 1 
Glacier bear (Huarctos emmonsii) __.....---_--- 1 | Aard-wolf (Proteles cristatus)__............_-.-- 1 
Sun bear (Helarctos malayanus)...-....-------- 1 | East African spotted hyena (Crocuta crocuta 
Polar bear (Thalarctos maritimus)_.....-.------ 3 GENMANG TIS) eRe ee SOE Ry Tie ae Ue 1 
Mingo(Canis dingo) A238 s 4 = ae ee 2 | Brown hyena (Hyxna brunnea)__---_.--.--.-_- 2 
Gray wolt (Canisimubilus).22. 2 sts ook 7 | African cheetah (Acinonyx jubatus) __....------ 1 
Wovoten(Canislatrans) seo sue ak ed (| Lalor! Cel isile0) eee Se eee TS PS Ane 10 
Albino coyote (Canis latrans)_.........-------- iy |: Bengalitizer(helistigris) us xe ne ee Bae 1 
California coyote (Canis ochropus).....-.------ 1 | Manchurian tiger (Felis tigris longipilis) ______- 3 
Hybrid coyote (Canis latrans-rufus) ._...----_- 4 | Black leopard (Felis pardus)_.-.._..._________- Tt 
Black-backed jackal (Thos mesomelas) _-_------ 1 | East African leopard (Felis pardus suahelicus). 9 
Heditox, (Vulpes suloa)zooe a ees ie Se Servalt CHelistserpa)) eae ee ee ee 1 
Silver-black fox (Vulpes fulva)..........------- 1 | East African serval (Felis capensis hindei)-...-- 2 
European fox (Vulpes vulpes).......----------- ly Ocelot’ Chelistpandalis) =o ee eee 2 
at fox. (Valpesipelar) pete see Yb es 1 | Brazilian ocelot (Felis pardalis brasiliensis) ____- 1 
Gray fox (Urocyon cinereoargenteus)_-.-_--_---- 3 | Mexican puma (Jelis azteca)..--._..._..______- 3 
Cacomistle (Bassariscus astutus)_.......------- 2 | Indian caracal (Lynz caracal) _______._--..-_--- 1 
Raccoon (Procyon lotor) -_..--------------2---- 15 | Abyssinian caracal (Lynz caracal nubica) - ._-_- 1 
Florida raccoon (Procyon lotor elucus)_..------- 2) | Bay lynx Chyna ruyius)s ees oe ee 3 
Gray coatimundi (Nasuwa narica).___---------- 9 | Bailey’s lynx (Lynz baileyi)_..-___..__..._-___- 1 
Kein ka jous (0108 flavus) aan nee eee ee ae 5 | Clouded leopard (Neofelis nebulosa)_......._--- 1 
California sea-lion (Zalophus californianus).... 3 | Leopard seal (Phoca richardii var.) _____._---_-- 2 
Northern fur seal (Callotaria alascana) ._.-.---- 2 | Harbor seal (Phoca vitulina) _..........----_..- 1 
Woodchuck (Marmota monaz).......---------- 5 | Anubis baboon (Papio cynocephalus)__-_------ 6 
Prairie dog (Cynomys ludovicianus) _..-.------- 11 | Hamadryas baboon (Papio hamadryas) -.------ 1 
Albino squirrel (Sciwrus carolinensis) __.------- 2) ly Mlandrilll (am osphine) asses ee 3 
American beaver (Castor canadensis) __...-__-_- 2 |) Drill (apioilencoppeirs) ssa ee 1 
East African porcupine (Hystriz galeata) -______ 2 | Moor monkey (Cynopithecus maurus) _-------- 3 
South African porcupine (Hystriz africx-aus- Black ape (Cynopithecus niger) _....-.--.-_-_-- 1 
EICLLES) Repel Nine: mehr wers then eM be ol! Bate eed yl 1 | Barbary ape (Simia sylvanus)__....__...-_.---- 2 
Malay porcupine (Acanthion brachyurum)_.-... 2 | Japanese macaque (Macaca fuscata)____-__--_- 4 
Central American paca (Cuniculus paca vir- Brown macaque (Macaca arctoides)._.-...._--- 2 
CSL TL 8) 5-1 lss eae lo th  Upiieedatlh te aaty Dy 2b ppc 3 | Pig-tailed monkey (Macaca nemestrina) _-.__-- 1 
Trinidad agouti (Dasyprocta rubrata).__------- 6 | Burmese macaque (Macaca andamenensis)_... 1 
Speckled agouti (Dasyprocta punctata)__._-.--- 2 | Rhesus monkey (Macaca rhesus) _.......-_---- 12 
Guinea pig (Cavia porcellus)_....---_---.------ 10 | Philippine macaque (Macaca syrichta) _.--._--- 3 
Capybara (Hydrocherus hydrochzris)---.-_--__ 1 | Javan macaque (Macaca mordaz) __-.-..----.-- 5 
Sooty mangabey (Cercocebus fuliginosus)-..-.-- 5 
LAGOMORPHA Green guenon (Lasiopyga callitrichus)...-----_- 2 
Domestic rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus) __-_- 10 | Vervet (Lasiopyga pygerythra)..-....--.------- 1 
Johnston’s vervet (Lasiopyga pygerythra jonn- 
PRIMATES stoni) APATITE ARVN Y plot bade vomblae 2 
Zanzibar lemur (Galago garnetti)_.......-----_- 1 | Mozambique monkey (Lasiopyga sp.)--__.---- 2 
Red-fronted lemur (Lemur rufifrons)..------__ 1 | Sykes’ guenon (Lasiopyga albigularis)_._..__-_- 5 
Black lemur (Lemur macaco) .-.-..-.--.-----_- 1 | Mona guenon (Lasiopyga mona) _---__-_-____-_- 2 
Douroucouli (Aotus trivirgatus) _-.....-._.--__- 1 | De Brazza’s guenon (Lasiopyga brazzz)__.----- 1 
Gray spider monkey (Afeles geoffroyi) ___-----. 4 | Lesser white-nosed guenon (Lasiopyga petau- 
Humboldt’s woolly monkey (Lagothrir hum- TASER) DL sd lob SISAL ADT OAL Oat ORL f 
GOLACL) mene nen RN SN CO ma Me Cain bd Ale 1 | Gray gibbon (Hylobates leuciscus)_-_-..--.--_- 
White-throated capuchin (Cebus capucinus)_-.. 8 Chimpanzee (Pan satyrus).._.....-...-----_-- 
Weeping capuchin (Cebus apella)_..-._..---_-- 2 | Orang-utan (Pongo pygmzus) ___-.-.-..---___- 
Chacma (Papio porcarius)................-.--- 2) eGrorillan (Goran gorilla) eee enn eee ee 



Witldiboar (Susiscrofd) sess eee eee ee 
Wart hog (Phacocherus xthiopicus) __..-------- 
River hog (Potamocherus africanus)...-------- 
Collared peceary (Pecari angulatus)_-...._--__- 
Hippopotamus (Hippopotamus amphibius) _._- 
Pigmy hippopotamus (Cheropsis liberiensis) __- 
Bactrian camel (Camelus bactrianus)_-.--_._-_- 
Arabian camel (Camelus dromedarius)_._-----_- 
Guanaco (Lama huanachus)_-=.....---.------- 
Near ieyy CP 770 LL TIGL ge ee ee eye a 
Reindeer (Rangifer tarandus)___._--_--------_- 
Fallow deer (Dama dama) ____-_-.-.-.-------=- 
White fallow deer (Dama dama) ____-_--_------ 
Atxisideer\(Azis' arig) oo. ews ee ee ke 
Hog deer (Hyelaphus porcinus)____-.----------- 
Barasingha (Rucervus duvaucelii)__....-.-_---- 
Burmese deer (Rucervus eldii)_.___...-.-------- 
Japanese deer (Sika nippon) _-.....------------ 
Red deer (Cervus elaphus)_-...__._--____-_--=- 
Kashmir deer (Cervus hanglu)_...-.---.-------- 
Bedford deer (Cervus xanthopygus)__-_---_- ae 
American elk (Cervus canadensis) _-..._----_-_- 
Costa Rican deer (Qdocoileus sp.)_..-.--------- 
Guatemala deer (Odocoileus sp.)__-..-------__- 
Mule deer (Odocoilews hemionus)__...-.-------- 
Sitka deer (Odocoileus colwmbianus sitkensis) --- 
Brindled gnu (Connochxtes tawrinus)___-_.---- 
White-bearded gnu (Connochxtes taurinus 

CBee TLL TATE ) aD ST RS ae Pi: 
Lechwe (Onotragus leche) _........------------- 
Inyala (Tragelaphus angasi)__...___-_-------_- 
Greater kudu (Strepsiceros strepsiceros) __.-_-.- 


South African ostrich (Struthio australis) _.._._- 
Somaliland ostrich (Struthio molybdophanes) - -- 
Nubian ostrich (Struthio camelus)__.....------- 

Rhea: Ceheaiamericana) sete es eee 


Single-wattled cassowary (Casuwarius uwniappen- 

diculatus) 22. Navieiats wee Eanoanaie se 
Sclater’s cassowary (Casuarius philipi)........- 
Cassowary (Casuarius sp.)_.--..--------------- 
Emu (Dromiceius novxhollandix) _.......--.--- 

American white pelican (Pelecanus erythrorhyn- 

European white pelican (Pelecanus onocrotalus) 
Roseate pelican (Pelecanus roseus)..--.-------- 
Australian pelican (Pelecanus conspicillatus) -_. 
Brown pelican (Pelecanus occidentalis)_.._----- 
California brown pelican (Pelecanus californicus) 
Florida cormorant (Phalacrocoraz auritus flori- 

Brandt’s cormorant (Phalacrocoraz penicillatus) 
Snake bird (Anhinga anhinga) _-..---.--------- 
Great white heron (Ardea occidentalis) __.__...- 
Great blue heron (Ardea herodias)_.--...------- 
Hybrid great blue and white heron (Ardea hero- 

dias-occidentalis).-____________-- EEO MOORE 
Goliath heron (Ardea goliath) ......-_.-----_--- 

Reed buck (Reduwnca bohor)..-.-.-.---.-------- 1 
| East African impalla (42pyceros melampus suara) 2 
7 Indian antelope (Antilope cervicapra) _.-------- 1 
1 Nilgai (Boselaphus tragocamelus)_-_-___-------- 2 
3 Mountain goat (Oreamnos americanus) ___----- 2 
2 Tahr (Hemitragus jemlahicus)__.-...---.------- 8 
1 Allpinesibex (Capra iber) eae: tt ee en ee 2 
1 Aoudad (Ammotragus lervia)____-_-__--__----_- 4 
1 Rocky Mountain sheep (Ovis canadensis) ___-_- 12 
2 Mouflon (Ovis europz#us) ___-_.-.-------_---_.- 6 
7 Greenland musk-ox (Ovibos moschatus wardi)... 1 
4 ZebuiCBor indicus) 2222-02 ees eee i 
14 Yak (Poéphagus grunniens)___.__._-.---------. 7 
1 American bison (Bison bison)_..._..----------- 15 
1 Anoa (Anoa depressicornis) .._._..._-.----_-__- 1 
5 Indian buffalo (Bubalus bubalis)___....-_------ 3 
6 South African buffalo (Synceros caffer)...-.-_-- 1 
10 Brazilian tapir (Tapirus terrestris) _.....-.-__.- 1 
4 Baird’s tapir (Tapirella bairdii) _.._.......___-. 1 
“ | Mongolian horse (Hquus przewalskii) __....-.-- 2 
5 Mountain zebra (Hquus zebra)_-.___..--_-----. 2 
5 Chapman’s zebra (Equus quagga chapmani)__.. 2 
g Zebra-horse hybrid (Hquus grevyi-caballus) .___- 1 
1 Zebra-ass hybrid (Hguwus grevyi-asinus)__-..-_-. 1 
1 Abyssinian elephant (Loxodonta africana oryo- 
ti) SESS. eee en AE Bay sere _ ee ee if 
2 | Sumatran elephant (Zlephas swmatranus)_----- 1 
1 | Armadillo (Dasypus novemcinctus)_--..-----.-- 1 
Black-crowned night heron (Vycticorar nycti- 
2 COFOLINEVIUS)- 2 Swe sees eee ee ee 91 
1 Boatbill (Cochlearius cochlearius)_.-.....--_---. 3 
iT White-necked stork (Dissura episcopus)-_-._.... 1 
Indian adjutant (Leptoptilus dwbius).-....___-- 2 
Shoe-bill (Balzniceps rez) 2.22222 oh ec ne sce e 1 
1 Wood ibis (Mycteria americana) ___--....------- 1 
Sacred ibis (Threskiornis xthiopicus) _._...-__--- 1 
Black-headed ibis (Threskiornis melanocephalus) 3 
Whiteibis(Guarcialia) eee eee if 
1 | Scarlet ibis (@wara rwbra)__-_.-_-2.-2--22--- 22. 3 
1 European flamingo (Phenicopterus roseus)__--- 1 
Mallard (Anas platyrhynchos)_..-..------------ 26 
Black duck (Anas rubripes) _....-....-.-.------ 7 
Australian black duck (Anas superciliosa) -___- 1 
9 Gadwall (Chawlelasmus streperus)_---..-.--_-_- 12 
2 | European widgeon (Mareca penelope) ..-------- 3 
1 | Baldpate (Mareca americana)...-----.__-.-.-_- 9 
2 | Green-winged teal (Netlion carolinense) _._-.__. 3 
5 | European teal (Nettion crecca) _..-------------- 4 
5 | Baikal teal (Netiion formoswm) _.....---------- 5 
Blue-winged teal (Querguedula discors)__-______ 1 
2 | Garganey (Querquedula querquedula)_...----.-- 6 
ih Paradise duck (Casarca variegata).-......_-..-- 2 
3 | Shoveller (Spatula clypeata)....-...-...---.--- 1 
Ieee intelli Ciaplacaceuta) ieee eee ae re il 
2 | Bahama pintail (Dajila bahamensis) _._--.----- 3 
African pintail (Dajfila erythrorhyncha) _.---.-_- 2 
Teh] Wood duck(CAizeponsa) =e eee 7 
1 | Mandarin duck (Dendronessa galericulata) __... 7 



Canvasback (Marila valisineria) _......--..---- 
European pochard (Marila ferina) _.-.-.------- 
Redhead (Marila americana) ...--------------- 
Tufted duck (Marila fuligula)_.-......-.--_--- 
Lesser scaup duck (Marila affinis) _.....-..---- 
Greater scaup duck (Marila marila)_.._---.--- 
Rosy-billed pochard (Metopiana peposaca).---- 
Egyptian goose (Chenaloper zgyptiacus) ___---- 
Hawaiian goose (Nesochen sendvicensis)____-_-- 
Blue goose (Chen cxrulescens)_.-...------------ 
White-fronted goose (Anser altifrons).....-...- 
American white-fronted goose (Anser albifrons 

gambeliy Raye ee Se seo eee eS 
IBGanyeoosesCA Ns ety ODGlis) = sean etree ee 
Pink-footed goose (Anser brachyrhynchus) _-_---- 
Chinese goose (Cygnopsis cygnoides)_.....------ 
Orinoco goose (Chenaloper jubata)__.....-.-._-- 
Bar-headed goose (Hulabeia indica) ._._.._----- 
Canada goose (Branta canadensis) __..-.------- 
Hutchins’s goose (Branta canadensis hutchinsii) - 
White-cheeked goose (Branta canadensis occi- 

Cackling goose (Branta canadensis minima) ____ 
Brant (Branta bernicla glaucogastra)__-..._-_--- 
Barnacle goose (Branta leucopsis)__.....------- 
Emperor goose (Philacte canagica)__....._.__--- 
Spur-winged goose (Plectropterus gambensis) _.- 
Muscovy duck (Cairina moschata).......------ 
Black-bellied tree duck (Dendrocygna autumn- 

White-faced tree duck (Dendrocygna viduata) __- 
Gray-breasted tree duck (Dendrocygna discolor) - 
West Indian tree duck (Dendrocygna arborea) _- 
Eyton’s tree duck (Dendrocygna eytoni)__.._--- 
Mute swan (Cygnus gibbus)___-.._.....--------- 
Whistling swan (Cygnus columbianus)___-..--- 
Black swan (Chenopis atrata)_..._...-----_---- 


Condor (Wultur oryphs) 222 sess2ces222 2: 
California condor (Gymnogyps californianus) __- 
Turkey vulture (Cathartes aura)_.....___--.--- 
Black vulture (Coragyps urwbu) .-------------- 
King vulture (Sarcoramphus papa) .----------- 
Secretary bird (Sagittarius serpentarius) _._____- 
Griffon vulture (Gyps fulvus)..........----.--- 
Ruppell’s vulture (Gyps rueppelli)......--__--- 
Northern eared -vultures---~- 252-222 
African black vulture (Torgos tracheliotus) - ___. 
Cinereous vulture (A7gypius monachus) -------- 
White-headed vulture (Trigonoceps occipitalis) - 
Caracara (Polyborus cheriway)......----------- 
Wedge-tailed eagle (Uroaétus audaz)__-_---_-_-_- 
Golden eagle (Aquila chrysaétos) __-.....-.-_--- 
Tawny eagle (Aquila rapar)._.._..-.---------- 
Bald eagle (Halizxetus leucocephalus leucoceph- 

Alaskan bald eagle (Halizctus leucocephalus 

Glargcanius) soe SA ete net te LS freien’ Ten epant. 2 
Red-tailed hawk (Buteo borealis) __...-...----- 
Broad-winged hawk (Buteo platypterus) ___._-- 
East African chanting goshawk (Melieraz poli- 

Opbersis)| = Le kinases Heh) sey ht eae ie Swe ey ys 
Sparrow hawk (Falco sparverius) .........----- 
Osprey (Pandion haliaétus carolinensis) ...-.--- 


Panama curassow (Craz panamensis) _....----- 
Mexican curassow (Craz globicera) _.....------- 
Spix’s wattled curassow (Craz globulosa)_..__-- 
Razor-billed curassow (Mitu mitu)-_.-....------ 
Crested guan (Penelope boliviana)..--.--------- 
Chestnut-winged guan (Ortalis garrula)_.._---- 
Chachalaca (Ortalis vetula)_..............------ 
Vulturine guinea fowl (Acryllium oulturinum) - 
Reichenow’s helmeted guinea fowl (Numida 

PeafowliClavotcristats) 22a ee 
Albino peafowl] (Pavo cristatus) _......-_------- 
Javan jungle fowl (Gallus varius)__._.--------- 

| Argus pheasant (Argus giganteus)_-.-_-.------- 

Silver pheasant (Gennzus nycthemerus)_..-_--- 
Edward’s pheasant (Gennzus edwardsi)-------- 
Golden pheasant (Chrysolophus pictus) ....---- 
Lady Ambherst’s pheasant (Chrysolophus am- 

REV Stilt) hotest eee eee an ee 
Ring-necked pheasant (Phasianus torquatus) --- 
Migratory quail (Coturniz coturnix)_....__----- 
Pigmy quail (Ercalfactoria chinensis) _-.-_-_---. 
Valley quail (Lophortyz californica vallicola)__.- 
Sealed quail (Callipepla squamata)_.-..-_------ 
Crowned wood partridge (Rollulus cristatus)--- 


Florida gallinule (Gallinula chloropus galeata) _- 
Purple gallinule (Jonornis martinicus).-...-_--- 
East Indian gallinule (Porphyrio calvus)-.-_--- 
Pukeko (Porphyrio stanleyi)......---------.--- 
Black-tailed moor hen (Microtribonyz ventralis) _ 
American coot (Fulica americana)_.._...------ 
African moor hon (Fulica cristata) --___.------- 
African black crake (Limnocraz flavirostra) -___- 
Lesser rail (Hypotznidia philippensis).___-.-_-- 
South Island weka rail (Ocydromus australis) - - 
Sandhill crane (Megalornis mexicana)_._.------ 
Little brown crane (Megalornis canadensis) - --- 
White-necked crane (Megalornis leucauchen) --- 
Indian white crane (Megalornis lewcogeranus) .- 
Lilford’s crane (Megalornis lilfordi)__....__---- 
Australian crane (Mathewsena rubicunda).-___- 
Demoiselle crane (Anthropoides virgo) __------- 
West African crowned crane (Balearica pavo- 

East African crowned crane (Balearica regu- 

lorumigibbericeps) ene eee ee 
Common trumpeter (Psophia crepitans) ___-.-- 
Green-winged trumpeter (Psophia viridis) __.__- 
Kagu (Rhynochetos jubatus)._..-.---.---------- 


Ruff (Philomachus pugnaz)...-..-------------- 
South American stone plover (@dicnemus bis- 

triatusivoci{er) 2.2 2soeis: Speke) ease el 
Pacific gull (Gabianuws pacificus)___..------.--- 
Great black-backed gull (Larus marinus) ------ 
Western gull (Larus occidentalis)_........------ 
Herring gull (Larus argentatus)._......---.---- 
Silver gull (Larus novxehollandiz) ......-------- 
Laughing gull (Larus atricilla)_.......-.------- 
Victoria crowned pigeon (Goura victoria) .___--- 
Nicobar pigeon (Calenas nicobarica) _-.-.------ 
Bronze-wing pigeon (Phaps chalcoptera)_--._--- 


Bleeding-heart dove (Gallicolumba luzonica) --. 
Wood pigeon (Columba palumbus)-.-.--------- 
Sealed pigeon (Columba squamosa)-..---------- 
Triangular spotted pigeon (Columba guinea) __- 
Fiji Island pigeon (Janthenas vitiensis) -.------ 
Mourning dove (Zenaidura macroura carolinen- 

Mexican dove (Zenaidura graysoni)._._..------ 
White-fronted dove (Leptotila fulviventris bra- 

(TA aye NY ee Se EE eae ee ae 
Necklace dove (Spilopelia tigrina).----..-.----- 
Emerald-spotted dove (Turtur chalcospilos) -_.-. 
Ringed turtledove (Streptopelia risoria) __-_-.-- 
East African ring-necked dove (Streptopelia 

CONCOLA TODO) Pee ae a ee et ea 
Masai mourning dove (Streptopelia decipiens 

DEN SDICULLALA) ere ee a Sa a 
Zebra dove (Geopelia striata).._..-.------------- 
Bar-shouldered dove (Geopelia humeralis)..---- 
Cape masked dove (Gna capensis) .-.--------- 
Inca dove (Scardafella inca)..........---.------ 
Cuban ground dove (Chxmepelia passerina 

OfLQDIGG) aia py 5 Se Bie he Bee 
Pacific fruit pigeon (Globicera pacifica)__.._---- 
Bronze fruit pigeon (Muscadivores 2nea)_.----- 


Keeai(Neston moravilis) eae ee ee 
Violet-necked lory (Hos variegata)_...---------- 
Forsten’s lorikeet (Trichoglossus forsteni)..._--- 
Great black cockatoo (Microglossus aterrimus) - 
Roseate cockatoo (Kakatoe roseicapilla) .-.----- 
Bare-eyed cockatoo (Kakaloe gymnopis)_._-.--- 
Leadbeater’s cockatoo (Aakatoe leadbeateri)__-- 
White cockatoo (Kakatoe alba)......----------- 
Sulphur-crested cockatoo (Kakatoe galerita)..___ 
Great, red-crested cockatoo (Kakatoe moluccen- 

Red and blue and yellow macaw (Ara macao)-___ 
Illiger’s macaw (Ara maracana)_.-..-.--------- 
Spix’s macaw (Cyanopsitiacus spizi).....-..--- 
Hyacinthine macaw (Anodorhynchus hyacin- 

JULIUS) ees ee ee NCL) a Se oles 
Blue-winged conure (Pyrrhura picta)-..-..----- 
Nanday paroquet (Nandayus nenday)..._.----- 
Gray-breasted paroquet (Myopsitta monachus) - 
Petz’s paroquet (Hupsittula canicularis).-.._.-- 
Golden-crowned paroquet (Hupsitiula aurea) -- 
Weddell’s paroquet (Hupsittula weddellii) _____ 
Golden paroquet (Brotogeris chrysosema)-_.__--- 
Tovi paroquet (Brotogeris jugularis)..........-_ 
Yellow-naped parrot (Amazona auropalliata) __ 
Mealy parrot (Amazona farinosa)_.__----____-- 
Orange-winged parrot (Amazona amazonica)..- 
Blue-fronted parrot (Amazona xstiva).....-...- 
Red-crowned parrot (Amazona viridigenalis) _ __ 
Double-yellow-head parrot (Amazona oratriz)_. 
Yellow-headed parrot (Amazona ochrocephala) . 
Panama parrot (Amazona panamensis) ..__-_-- 
Festive parrot (Amazona festiva).........-.___- 
Lesser white-fronted parrot (Amazona albi- 

frONS RANG) Aw ARNE yp ied el bara 
Santo Domingo parrot (Amazona ventralis) ___- 


Cuban parrot (Amazona leucocephala)...._2__- 
Maximilian’s parrot (Pionus mazimiliani)..-__- 
Dusky parrot (Pionus fuscus)__.......-----_-- 
Blue-headed parrot (Pionus menstruus)..---._- 
Amazonian caique (Pionites ranthomera).-_---. 
Hawk-head parrot (Deroptyus accipitrinus) .. 
Yellow-fronted parrot (Poicephalus flavifrons)__ 
East African brown parrot (Poicephalus meyeri 

matschicl) sis 5-2 Nees 2 eo hee Ee ates 
Congo parrot (Poicephalus gulielm?)_...-.---_-- 
Greater vasa parrot (Coracopsis vasa) __.-...--- 
Red-faced love-bird (Agapornis pullaria)...__-- 
Gray-headed love-bird (Agapornis madagascari- 

. Yellow-collared love-bird (Agapornis personata). 

Fischer’s love-bird (Agapornis fischeri)...__-_--- 
Nyassa love-bird (Agapornis lilianx)_..._.._.-- 
Blue-crowned hanging paroquet (Loriculus 
Galgulus) 2.2. te ee ee earn. Diese 
Blue-bonnet paroquet (Psephotus hxmator- 

Pennant’s paroquet (Platycercus elegans) ___--- 
Rosella paroquet (Platycercus eximius).....---- 
Crimson-winged paroquet (Aprosmictus ery- 

ERTODCET US) S22 Cae eee ea 
Ring-necked paroquet (Conurus torquatus) _..._ 
Nepalese paroquet (Conurus nepalensis) _..---- 
Long-tailed paroquet (Conurus longicauda) __-- 
Blossom-head paroquet (Conurus cyanocephala) - 
Grass paroquet (Melopsitiacus undulatus) _-.--- 


Donaldson’s turaco (Turacus donaldsoni) __.__- 
Long-tailed cuckoo (fudynamis honorata)_..._- 


Jackson’s hornbill (Lophoceros jacsoni)_.___.-- 

Red-beaked hornbill (Lophoceros  erythro- 
TRU NCH US) eo See Nt eee 
White-browed hornbill (Anvthracoceros ma- 
LOY GNILS) sak oor ech ee pe ee ae 

Plicated hornbill (2thytidocercs plicatus).......- 
Keel-billed toncan (Ramphastos piscivorus)---.- 
Ariel toucan (Ramphastos ariel)..-.-..--------- 
Emin Pasha’s barbet (Trachyphonus emini)...- 
Barred ow] (Striz varia varia)........---------- 
Florida barred ow) (Striz varia alleni)_..__.-..- 
Snowy ow! (Nyctea nyctea)_......-.---.-_--_-- 
Sereech owl (Ocusigsio) aoe ee 
Great horned owl (Bubo virginianus)_--._.-.--- 
Hagleiowl) (Buhoibulo) pes ee 
American barn owl (Tvyfe alba pratincola)___--- 
African barn owl (7véo alba affinis).._.....---. 


Red-billed hill-tit (Liothriz lutews)....--.---.-- 
Black-gorgetead laughing thrush (@arrular 

White-cheeked bulbul (Molpastes leucogenys)_- 
Black-headed bulbul (Molpastes hxmorrhous).- 
White-eared bulbul (Otocompsa leucotis) ______- 
Red-eared bulbul (Otocompsa jocosa).......--.- 
Piping crow-shrike (Gymnorhina tibicen)_____- 
White-necked raven (Corvultur albicollis) -_._.- 
American raven (Corous corax sinuatus)....---- 
Australian crow (Corvus coronoides)........--_- 
American crow (Corvus brachyrhynchos)__.-...- 


White-breasted crow (Corvus albus)-...-.------- 
Red bird of paradise (Paradisea sanguinea) -__.- 
Prince Rudolph’s blue bird of paradise (Para- 

GiSOhmMs TULOLDA nee ene ene 
Lawes’ bird of paradise (Parotia lawesi)_-._-.-- 
American magpie (Pica pica hudsonia)._-_----- 
Red-billed blue magpie ( Urocissa occipitalis) __. 
Yucatan jay (Cissilopha yucatanica) __.-------- 
Blue jay (Cyanocitta cristata) __....-.---------- 
Green jay (Xanthoura luruosa) ___------------- 
Pileated jay (Cyanocoraz pileatus) __..--------- 
Blue honey-creeper (Cyanerpes cyaneus) ------- 
Blue-winged tanager (Tanagra cyanoptera)-_-._-- 
Blue tanager (Thraupis cana).....------------- 
Giant whydah (Diatropura progne) -__--------- 
Paradise whydah (Steganura paradisea)_-___--- 
Shaft-tailed whydah (Tetrenura regia) _-___---- 
Red-crowned bishop bird (Pyromelana sylva- 

Black-winged coral-billed weaver (Teztor niger 

MY UESL) eee ern eee eas We eeerre re eS 
Madagascar weaver (Foudia madagascariensis) _ 
Black-headed weaver (Hyphanturgus nigriceps) . 
Southern masked weaver finch (Quelea sangui- 

SUT OSURISETILE EMI) eae ae nemo see nea aeS en oS 
Emin’s scaly-headed finch (Sporopipes frontalis 

Orange-cheeked waxbill (Hstrilda melpoda) _____ 
Rosy-rumped waxbill (Hstrilda rhodopygia) ---- 
Blue-headed blue waxbill (Urzginthus bengalus 

CYONOCERNGIUS) casa 28 ces ton ROD a eee STK 
East African fire-throated finch (Pytilia kirki) - 
Strawberry finch (Amandava amandava) _------ 
Nutmeg finch (Munia punctulata)_._--_.-.---- 
White-headed nun (Munia maja).....--------- 
Black-headed nun (Munia atricapilla).._...._- 
Chestnut-breasted finch (Munia  castanei- 

{EO TTD as aee  E  5 
Java finch (Munia oryzivora) __..-.------------ 
Masked grass finch (Poéphila personata) ._____- 
Diamond finch (Steganopleura guttata)......_.- 
Zebra finch (Texniopygia castanotis)._.....-...- 
Cutthroat finch (Amadina fasciata) _........_-- 
Tanganyika cutthroat finch (Amadina fasciata 

Mlerunieni): 22 sateen. Bs eee ST 
Red-headed finch (Amadina erythrocephala) -__- 
Yellow-headed marshbird (Agelaius icteroce- 

DIELS) eae = Neer ee: ety SS SOE 1 ee a 
Australian gray jumper (Struthidea cinerea) ___- 
European starling (Sturnus vulgaris)......_-__- 
Shining starling (Lamprocoraz metallicus)..___- 
Southern glossy starling (Lamprocolius pestis) __ 
Crested starling (Galeopsar salvadorii)..._..___- 
White-capped starling (Heteropsar albicapillus) - 
Indian mynah (Acridotheres tristis)..._.....__-- 
Crested mynah (thiopsar cristatellus)..____- 
Malay grackle (Gracula javana)___.-__-_---_--- 
Bar-jawed troupia (Gymnomystaz melanicterus)_ 
West Indian troupial (Icterus icterws)_.._-____- 
Hooded oriole (Icterus cucullatus)._......-_---- 
Yellow-tailed oriole (Icterus mesomelas)._._._-- 
Purple grackle (Quiscalus quiscula)....._---_-- 
Greenfinch (Chloris chloris)._._......--.-------- 
Yellowhammer (Hmberiza citrinella).._.----_-- 

House finch (Carpodacus mezicanus frontalis) - - 
San Lucas house finch (Carpodacus mezicanus 

PULDERTIE TIALS) UA ee a ety eS Ome 
Canary) (Serinus canarius)_2 20-22 foie ee 
Little yellow serin (Serinus icterus) ._......---- 
Gray singing finch (Serinus leucopygius)_____-- 
White-throated sparrow (Zonotrichia albicollis)- 
San Diego song sparrow (Melospiza melodia 

Coastal pale-bellied sparrow (Passer griseus 

SUL CLICILS ee as ed Ae eee ee nd a Se 
Saffron finch (Sicalis flaveola)__..-___---------- 
Guiana blue grosbeak (Cyanocompsacyanoides) - 
Chinese grosbeak (Hophona migratoria sower- 


Alligator (Alligator mississipiensis)_.........-_- 
Broad-nosed crocodile (Osteolemus tetraspis) __ 
Horned toad (Phrynosoma cornutum) _-_---.--- 
Gila monster (Heloderma suspectwm)__....----- 
Beaded lizard (Heloderma horridwm) _--_------- 
Scaly-tailed lizard ( Uromastiz hardwicki)___.._- 
Green lizard (Lacerta viridis)__...-......---_--- 
Egyptian monitor (Varanus niloticus) __-_.._-- 
West Indian Iguana (Cyclura cornuta)_....--_- 
Affican'sand-boa/Ghrur) sss=s-2=see aso eee 
Indian.sand-boaiQhryt) s-sen 2 — ee ae eee 
Ball'python\ (Pythonwregius) ae 22 non en eee eee 
Rock python (Python molurus)-_.-------------- 
Regal python (Python reticulatus)__.-._-....___- 
African python (Python sebz)_---.....--------- 
Anaconda (Hunectes murinus) _....-..--------- 
Dog-headed boa (Corallus caninus) .._-.------- 
Black snake (Coluber constrictor)....--.-------- 
Corn snake (Elaphe guitata) --.....-..--.------ 
Chicken snake (Elaphe 4-lineatus) ---...------- 
Pine snake (Pituophis melanoluecus) -..-.------ 
King snake (Lampropeltis getulus) .._.-.------- 
Hog-nosed snake (Heterodon platyrhinos)____--- 
Water snake (Natriz sipedon) _._-.-..--------.- 
Black-necked spitting cobra (Naja nigricollis) __ 
Copperhead (Agkistrodon mokasen) __.--------- 
Florida rattlesnake (Crotalus adamanteus) ----- 
Western diamond rattlesnake (Crotalus atror)_- 
Banded rattlesnake (Crotalus horridus)-..--...- 
Snapping turtle (Chelydra serpentina).-..------ 
Florida snapping turtle (Chelydra osceola)_----- 
African snake-necked terrapin (Pelomedusa 
GUC OLD) So eas aie Sc eee 
Australian snake-necked terrapin (Chelodina 
longicollis) Siar Sees abe Cbs £53) 2 Ree S50 
Musk turile (Sternotherus odoratus)--.-.------- 
Mexican musk turtle (Kinosternon sonoriense) - 
South American musk turtle (Kinosternon 
SCOP TLOUIES) es ee IB le ae ae 
Pennsylvania musk turtle (Kinosternon subru- 

Wood turtle (Clemmys insculpta) _-_....------- 
Leprous terrapin (Clemmys leprosa)_..-._.----- 
Blanding’s terrapin (Hmys blandingii) --_----_- 
European pond turtle (Hmys orbicularis).___._- 
South American terrapin (Nicoria pwnctularia) 
Reeves turtle (Geoclemys reevesi)__......_--.---- 
Loochoo turtle (@eoemyda spengleri) ___.-._---- 


Painted turtle (Chrysemys picta)--.------------ 2 | Berlandier’s tortoise (Testudo berlandieri)___-- 1 
Western painted turtle (Chrysemys belli)__----- 1 | Soft-shelled tortoise (Testudo loveridgei)...---- 8 
Gopher tortoise (Gopherus polyphemus) -------- 1 | Chicken turtle (Deirochelys reticularia)_.-.---- 1 
Duncan Island tortoise (Testudo ephippium).. 3 

Indefatigable Island tortoise (Testudo portert).. 1 Bee eas 

Albermarle Island tortoise (Testwdo vicina)_._. 2 | African smooth-clawed frog (Xenopus mulleri). 28 
Angulated tortoise (Testudo angulata)_.------- 1 | Giant salamander (Megalobatrachus japonicus). 2 
Leopard tortoise (Testudo pardalis)_-._-------- 6 | Horned frog (Ceratophrys cornuta)------------- 2 
Agassiz’s tortoise (Testudo agassizii).-_._.----- 1 | Marbled newt (Triton marmorata)-_...----.--- 2 

Statement of the collection 

Mam- . 
Birds | andba- | Total 
mals trachians 
Presented 2. 22= 535 See hese Es obese cesses - 222 S22 eee 82 136 12 230 
BOTT eee ee eee See es oe as Se Se es bE eee 58 Zl eee 99 
Receivedtiniexchan gee stesso" ons s2ossne ceo ee eos cee ee ane 13 bi) eases ees 68 
IPurchascd® ee eee ene eee eae Jee eee nee ade esos naa s= 17 43 20 80 
(O) oye (cy oe) Rene geet eA OR ES ee a hm ly ae Shes 1 2 
Total see se ees Ee ee eae eon sa eeas eee 171 275 33 479 
NGC aOVS SPO OY Cyd OE 0K Uae fab Uae We a 2 Pe ecient a AS ei eee Fy PAIR 
Accessions’ during the years =. 2 wae een eee 479 
Total animalsMhbanGdledi tae: trees 22 8 oe ee ee 2, (oe 
Deduct loss (by death, return of animals, and exchange) —~-__-__________ 541 
Status of collection 
Species | Individuals 
Vie ria Ls SS Re ee ee ee ce en ah ee 174 §23 
BINS Se eee en ae eee nee an ee ae cen oscce ws acne calc eeeee aa eee 343 1, 461 
Reppilesiand' Datrachiguss-s=+esess" ese. hase oe See ee 62 227 
FRO CE See ee nee re ee nee een Coren en nee ns Sue ieee A Se 579 2, 211 

It is planned to erect the reptile house on the site of the old bird 
house, and this necessitates the razing of the old building, which has 
been used up to now as a storage house for animals and birds for 
which there were no other quarters. The destruction of this building 
will reduce the exhibition space so much that no attempt has been 
made to enlarge the collection, but rather to select, as replacements 
for animals and birds that have been lost, only especially desirable 
species. The result has been that the collection is unusually rich in 
rare and interesting forms. Exchanges of numerous common species 
for one or two rarities have been made. These exchanges have been 
advantageous in reducing congestion as well as improving the quality 
of the collection. 



The estimated attendance as recorded in the daily reports of the 
park shows considerable increase over the preceding year and in- 
cluded visitors from every State in the Union. 

Attendance by months was as follows: 

1928 1929 

Afiihie Saye see Wee: & yes i see eee 236: Of | Tannanyes ea bs © 0) See, bs 64, 650 
UNV DC] ee ee See ee 1968200 i MeDEUat === ee 105, 700 
Septembers= 2. =k a as Assy SiO) INGhRe lt ee 366, 500 
CLODCT See et Aa C1 L545 0 la. 0) eh eS ar egnebe eeeeeeriobe — Beta ot 295, 339 
INGVeCHIA PR as naan ee (or OoOn |: Miaiya= = eae Sein Se ee ee 275, 350 
December 2s |< ses ak 2 1S4 SOO} |h dunes 2s See eae 248, 750 

Motalstor, year =e = 2, 528, 710 

The attendance of organized classes of students was 30,886 from 
497 different schools. 

During the year the work on the exterior of the bird house has been 
completed, outdoor cages have been constructed, and an attractive 
approach made to the building. Snow guards have been put on the 
skylights and the area in the rear of the building has been paved. 
In connection with this house it was necessary to lay 285 feet of pipe 
to a culvert. 

The lion house and the antelope house have had their roofs recov- 
ered, in part with asphalt shingles, and also new gutters installed. 
It was also necessary during the year to put plastic coating on the 
roof of the hay shed, the old elephant house, the old bird house, the 
zebra house, the property house, and the buffalo shed. One of the 
cages at the old bear yard has been renovated. The office has been 
painted and redecorated for the first time in 26 years. 

Having received a number of suggestions in regard to the bridle 
paths throughout the park, several consultations were held with those 
interested in riding and their suggestions followed out as closely as 
possible in altering these paths. 

An appropriation of $220,000 has been made for the construction of 
a reptile house during the fiscal year 1930, and considerable work 
has been done on planning this building, which will, when completed, 
enable us to extend the collection to include reptiles, batrachians, and 
insects. This building will fill a very great need at the park. 

In connection with the construction of the reptile house, the Smith- 
sonian Institution, from its private funds, sent the director of the 
park and Mr. A. L. Harris, municipal architect, to Europe to study 
certain zoos. Special attention was given to the planning and con- 
struction of reptile houses, but other features were studied and much 


information obtained which will be valuable in the development of 
our own ZOO. 

In all, 20 zoos were visited, in the following cities: London, Han- 
over, Hamburg, Copenhagen, Berlin, Dresden, Leipzig, Halle, Vi- 
enna, Budapest, Munich, Nuremberg, Frankfort, Cologne, Dussel- 
dorf, Elberfeld, Antwerp, Amsterdam, Rotterdam, and Stellingen. 

In London we attended the centenary of the London Zoo, where a 
notable group of zoologists, including many continental and some 
American delegates, were gathered. They were entertained by the 
London Zoological Society at a meeting and later at a memorable 
dinner in the Zoological Gardens. In all of the zoos visited we were 
shown the greatest courtesy and given much friendly aid, and by 
working together on the steamer on the return trip much time was 
saved in getting together preliminary plans for the reptile house. 
It is interesting to note that we did not see in Europe a single zoo 
that impressed us unfavorably. They are all thriving institutions 
and in nearly all of them new buildings are being added. The col- 
lections invariably were excellent. 


The most urgent need at the present time is an exhibition building 
for apes, lemurs, and small mammals. ‘There, are now almost no 
quarters for small mammals. These come into the zoo sometimes in 
great numbers as gifts and include some of the most interesting of 
all animals. The few that it is possible to exhibit are quartered un- 
satisfactorily in the monkey house. The great apes, of which the 
park has a valuable collection, are so placed that it is often impossible 
for visitors to see them, whereas in a new building they would be 
housed in modern hygienic quarters, away from the other monkeys 
and chance of infection. Tentative plans for such a building have 
been made, and the cost is estimated at $225,000. This building, like 
the new reptile house, will provide facilities for exhibiting groups 
of animals for which up to now there has been no place at all. 

In our entire building program, which includes besides the above 
building a pachyderm house, an antelope, buffalo, and wild-cattle 
house, the completion of the bird house, and the addition of various 
open-air cages, we are asking only for equipment that practically 
all modern zoos already possess—simply the necessary facilities of a 
modern zoological park. 

Respectfully submitted. 

W. M. Mann, Director. 

Dr. CHartes G. ABsor, 

Secretary, Smithsonian Institution. 


Sir: I have the honor to submit the following report on the activi- 
ties of the Astrophysical Observatory for the fiscal year ended June 
30, 1929: 


This observatory operates regularly the central station at Wash- 
ington and two field stations for observing solar radiation on Table 
Mountain, Calif., and Mount Montezuma, Chile. By arrangement 
with the National Geographic Society, the director of the observatory 
has charge of the cooperating solar radiation station of the society 
on Mount Brukkaros, South West Africa. In addition, the observa- 
tory controls a station on Mount Wilson, Calif., where occasional 
expeditions are sent for special investigations. 

The principal aim of the observatory is the exact measurement of 
the intensity of the radiation of the sun asit is at mean solar distance 
outside the earth’s atmosphere. This is ordinarily called the solar 
constant of radiation, but the observations of past years by this 
observatory have proved it variable. As all life as well as the weather 
depends on solar radiation, the observatory has undertaken the con- 
tinued measurement of solar variation on all available days. These 
measurements have now continued all the year round for 11 years, 
but should continue at least 11 years more to cover the Hale 22.6-year 
solar cycle. In addition to this principal object, the observatory 
undertakes spectroscopic researches on radiation and absorption of 
atmospheric constituents, radiation of special substances such as 
water vapor, ozone, carbonic-acid gas, liquid water and others, and 
the radiation of the other stars as well as of the sun. 


Continuous series of solar observations having been made as 
hitherto at several field stations on desert mountains in distant lands, 
these observations have been critically studied and prepared for 
publication at Washington. Several new investigations based on 
these observations have been made and published and we have carried 



on the preparation and standardization of apparatus. Details 

(a) Periodicities in solar variation.—Observations at Montezuma, 
in Chile, had been reduced to a consistent and definitive system several 
years since. This system requires no computations beyond those 
which the observers make regularly in the field. Telegrams in code 
are received daily from Montezuma, and when decoded are communi- 
cated to the United States Weather Bureau, which publishes on the 
Washington daily weather map the solar constant value observed 24 
hours previously at Montezuma. 

In November, 1928, Doctor Abbot assembled the monthly mean 
solar constant values of 101 consecutive months ending with October, 
1928, and plotted them in the form of a curve. This curve Dr. 
Dayton C. Miller, of Cleveland, was kind enough to analyze by means 
of his ingenious and accurate machine, so as to bring out the first 30 
harmonic constituents, which, combined, approximately represent the 
original curve. 

From a previous analysis of 77 months, made in 1926, it had 
appeared that periods of about 26, 15, and 11 months and the sub- 
multiples of these periods were all the periods under 26 months that 
seemed to have continuous existence in the solar variation. Accord- 
ingly, the interval of 101 months had been purposely chosen as nearly 
a common multiple, so that if these periods were still persistent they 
might be brought out as approximately the fourth, the seventh, and 
the ninth harmonics, with their overtones. 

Figure 2 shows the result of this analysis. The zigzag line A 
represents the original monthly mean of observations, and the 30 
sinuous curves below are the harmonics. Until a longer interval of 
observation shall be available for analysis, it is not considered desir- + 

able to discuss periodicities longer than ae months. The reader 

will perceive that if we therefore neglect the march of the first, 
second, and third harmonics, the fourth, its overtones the eighth, 
twelfth, and sixteenth; the seventh, its overtones the fourteenth, 
twenty-first, and twenty-eighth; and the ninth and its approximate 
overtones the nineteenth and twenty-seventh are really the most 
prominent features, whereas some of the other harmonics, such as 
the fifth, sixth, tenth, eleventh, thirteenth, seventeenth, eighteenth, 
twentieth, twenty-fourth, twenty-sixth, and twenty-ninth, not in- 
cluded in these three series of overtones, nearly vanish. Indeed, 
apart from those named in connection with the fourth, the seventh, 
and the ninth, only the twelfth, fifteenth, twenty-third, and twenty- 
fifth seem to be of appreciable significance. This suggests that the 
third and its overtones may also have real significance. It is of great 


Fieurn 2.—Periodicities in solar variation 



interest to note that the periods corresponding to the fourth, the 
seventh, and the ninth harmonics, which we find so well marked in 
solar variation, have also been particularly noted by students of 
the march of weather and crop phenomena. 

Assuming that the harmonics from the fourth to the thirtieth 
represent all the real regular periodicities in the variation of solar 
radiation, the curve B, at the foot of the diagram, which is their 
summation, represents the march of this periodic part of solar varia- 
tion. Continuing it to cover the years 1929, 1930, and 1931, we are 
led to anticipate features of uncommon interest in the march of solar 
variation in the period just approaching. It will, indeed, be exceed- 
ingly interesting to see to what degree this forecast is verified. 

(6) Reduction of Table Mountain observations——Observations at 
‘Table Mountain, Calif., which have continued since December, 1925, 
have been critically studied at great length during the past year by 
Mr. Fowle and the computers. Mr. Fowle has considered that the 
results might be affected by three variable atmospheric elements— 
the water vapor, the haze, and the ozone which occurs in the very 
high atmosphere. It was easy to arrange the data in groups corre- 
sponding to gradual increase of quantities of atmospheric water vapor, 
for this vapor is readily measured and expressed as total precipitable 
water by Fowle’s method which he worked out from spectroscopic 
study in the laboratory many years ago. By such statistical ar- 
rangement, corrections for precipitable water were sought to be 

However, there is one obstacle depending on the contemporaneous 
real variability of the sun which hinders immediate estimation of 
water-vapor influence. True, this solar variability might have been 
eliminated by employing the definitive results of Montezuma, but we 
avoided this procedure, since, in the opinion of some, it might not 
have left the Table Mountain observations fully independent. Ac- 
cordingly, the solar variation was roughly estimated from Table 
Mountain pyrheliometry alone, after the method referred to in my 
report for 1926, page 116. Allowance was thus made for the solar 
variation before determining the water-vapor effect. 

When these steps had been taken it became clear that a sudden 
increase of the Table Mountain solar constant values had been indi- 
cated about August 12, 1927. This change of scale continued with 
apparently increasing departures thereafter. No parallel result hav- 
ing been noted at Montezuma, every contributary element of the 
measurements at Table Mountain was investigated to learn the 
source of the discrepancy. It was soon found that the change was 
due to a large change in the scale of pyranometer measurements of 
the brightness of the sky near the sun. Yet redeterminations of the 
constants of the pyranometer itself by observing solar radiation with 


it gave excellent agreement with previous values. Very numerous 
experiments and comparisons were made at Table Mountain in the 
effort to trace the cause of the discrepancy. These were without 
result until September, 1928, when Doctor Abbot visited the station 
and observed that portions of the vestibule of the instrument had 
become shiny by handling. Hence sunlight in addition to sky light 
was reaching the sensitive measuring strip. By reblackening the 
limiting diaphragm nearly all of this error was removed. 

It was now necessary to perform a great mass of statistical com- 
puting in order to determine the magnitude of the pyranometer 
error at different dates. Fortunately, an error of 20 per cent in 
pyranometry makes but 1 per cent error in the solar constant, so 
that no great accuracy of determining the error was required. Hence 
it appeared sufficient to collect all the pyranometer values of each 
month, arranging them in orders of atmospheric humidity, air-mass, 
and pyrheliometer value, and to compare the mean pyranometer 
values of corresponding months in successive years, as well as the 
values in nearly identical sky conditions throughout each year. 

It soon became clear that no change in the instrument had occurred 
prior to early August, 1927. At that time there had been many ex- 
perimental comparisons involving handling of the vestibule, which 
had done the damage and led to the sudden change. Afterwards 
many more comparisons were made to find the trouble, and these had 
ageravated it. After much work it became possible to determine a 
set of sufficiently exact corrections to the pyranometry of 1927 and 
1928 suitable to each of the 13 months during which they were needed. 
These studies were made on Table Mountain observations exclu- 
sively, so that they introduced no element of dependence on 

To prevent a future mischance of this kind, imperative orders were 
issued to all stations as to the handling of instruments, and standard 
instruments, for comparison purposes only, were added to the equip- 
ment, with instructions to make fairly frequent comparisons between 
these and the instruments in use. 

(c) Atmospheric ozone—Mr. Fowle, having become impressed 
that the variations recently investigated by Dobson in the quantity 
of atmospheric ozone might very possibly affect the observed solar 
constant, made a fruitful investigation of the absorption of ozone in 
the yellow and green of the solar spectrum.’ He found that this 
absorption, though small, is clearly and quantitatively indicated by 
means of the atmospheric transmission coefficients obtained in the 
application of the fundamental long method of solar constant de- 
termination invented by Langley. As we frequently employ this 

1 Published in Smithsonian Misc. Coll., vol. 81, No. 11, 1929. 


method at all stations as a check on the short method in daily use, 
Fowle was able to determine the atmospheric ozone at Calama, Mon- 
tezuma, Harqua Hala, and Table Mountain on very many occasions 
since the year 1920. 

Tt proved, harmoniously to what Dobson had found, that the ozone 
above Mount Montezuma is meager and nearly invariable in quan- 
tity, but that above Harqua Hala and Table Mountain it is much more 
plentiful and very variable. Having compared the variations of 
monthly mean ozone values with the ‘Table Mountain observations of 
corresponding variations of solar constant values, Mr. Fowle found 
a strone correlation between them. As the yearly march of the 
monthly mean ozone values at these northern stations appears to be 
a terrestrial phenomenon, a fact entirely harmonious to those well 
established by Dobson, it seemed entirely legitimate to introduce a 
solar constant correction, statistically determined, to allow for ozone 
in much the same way as for water vapor, for the Harqua Hala 

(d) Concordant results of Table Mountain and Montezuma.—tThis 
having been done, and the water-vapor and haziness corrections hav- 
ing been applied, it was found that the absolutely independent final 
values of the solar constant determined at two stations 4,000 miles 
apart (viz, Table Mountain, 7,500 feet high, in California, and Monte- 
zuma, 9,000 feet high, in Chile) march with gratifying accord. For 
the ratios of the values determined at the two stations show no ap- 
preciable indication of a yearly range, although winter at the one 
station corresponds with summer at the other. Furthermore, the 
total range. of straggle of nine-tenths of the datly ratios of these 
independent values does not exceed 1.1 per cent. 'This involves the 
conclusion that the total range of accidental error at a single station 
seldom exceeds 0.8 per cent, and therefore the probable value of the 
accidental determination of a single day at one station is less than 
0.3 per cent. This being so, we are prepared to expect that both 
stations, though wholly independent, must concur within narrow 
limits in their determination of the sun’s variation. 

(e) Preparation of Volume V of the Annals.—With this gratify- 
ing conclusion reached in the final discussion of the results of two 
independent solar observing stations remote from each other, a point 
seems to be reached where it is proper to publish Volume V of the 
Annals of the Astrophysical Observatory, to contain the numerous 
observations obtained since the year 1920. Doctor Abbot has been 
engaged on the preparation of this text, and it is hoped that the 
volume will be ready to publish in the fiscal year ending June, 1931, 
thus including a full decade of observations. 

(f) Other work at Washington.—As usual, many instruments have 
ween constructed at Washington for research purposes. These in- 


clude a number of silver-disk pyrheliometers, prepared at the expense 
of the private funds of the Institution, but standardized against the 
standard instruments of the Astrophysical Observatory, and sold at 
cost to research institutions of various lands. 

Mr. Aldrich has assumed charge of the instrument making and 
standardizing. He has also continued work on the fruitful investi- 
gation of the radiation and cooling of the human body, referred to 
last year. In addition he has assisted in reducing solar-constant ob- 
servations, and has attended to the considerable correspondence on 
physical and astronomical matters. 


(a) At Mount Wilson, Calif.—Doctor Abbot spent the months of 
July, August, and part of September, 1928, at Mount Wilson, Calif., 
where he was assisted by Mr. Freeman. Besides improving the solar 
cooker to greatly increased efficiency, two considerable researches 
were carried through. The first of these is the repetition of the 
bolometric determination of positions of solar and terrestrial absorp- 
tion lines and bands in the infra-red solar spectrum. This had 
formed the main subject of Volume I of the Annals of the Astro- 
physical Observatory. As photography has not as yet reached far 
beyond the extreme red of the spectrum, the best means of observing 
these interesting lines and bands of the infra-red lies in measuring 
the cooling which attends them. For this purpose a welli-dispersed 
spectrum is caused to march slowly over a sensitive linear bolometer 
strip, and a continuous curve indicating its temperature is auto- 
matically recorded. As the bolometer strip falls into each successive 
one of the lines of the spectrum, a nick comes in the curve. 

Three approximately 60° flint-glass prisms in tandem were used to 
disperse the solar rays, and long-focus mirrors to collimate and focus 
the spectrum. Five photographic plates, each 60 centimeters long, 
were required to cover the spectrum from “A” in the red to “2” 
in the infra-red. Mr. Freeman did most of the final observing, and 
also measured the plates. Over 1,200 lines and bands of absorption 
were discovered, where only about 550 had been found in the earlier 
investigation published in 1900. A paper on this new work has been 
published as volume 82, No. 1, of the Smithsonian Miscellaneous 

The other research carried through was the observation of the 
distribution of energy in the spectra of 18 stars and of the planets 
Mars and Jupiter. This was accomplished by Doctor Abbot with 
the aid of Doctor Adams, of Mount Wilson Observatory, employing 
the 100-inch telescope and a sensitive radiometer. 

Greatly increased sensitiveness had been hoped for by substituting 
hydrogen for air, and an excessively light and small radiometer 



system, built up with house flies’ wings, for the somewhat larger 
mica-vane instrument employed by Doctor Abbot in 1923. With 
these improvements it was hoped that stars of the fourth or even 
fifth magnitude would be observable. These hopes were not alto- 
gether realized. The sensitiveness was potentially attained, but, 
unfortunately, could not be made available during the time of the 
experiments because a persistent slight charge of electricity which 
could not be removed created a governing field, which reduced the 
time of single swing of the system from about 10 seconds to only 
1.5 seconds during the experiments. On this account the deflections 
in the stellar spectra were regrettably small. Nevertheless, with the 
special observing scale which had been devised, very satisfactory 
resulis were reached, and in one case on a star of only 3.8 magnitude. 
These observations have been published in the Astrophysical Journal 
for May, 1929. 

(6) Montezuma station—During the autumn of 1928 the appara- 
tus at Montezuma seemed to grow insensitive, so that a critical in- 
spection appeared necessary. By the generous financial assistance of 
Mr. John A. Roebling, it was possible to send Mr. Aldrich to Chile. 
This expedition occupied him from January to March, 1929. He 
rebuilt the galvanometer and repaired and adjusted other instru- 
ments until everything was im satisfactory condition. Excellent 
results have been coming in regularly of the Montezuma observa- 
tions on the solar constant of radiation. These are published daily 
by the United States Weather Bureau. 

(ec) Table Mountain station—The unfortunate trouble with the 
pyranometer at Table Mountain has already been described. Not- 
withstanding this, the results as now reduced seem satisfactory and 
are very numerous. Indeed, on several occasions Table Mountain 
has furnished consecutive daily runs of solar-constant determina- 
tions exceeding 50 days and once exceeding 70 days. 

The Dobson ozone apparatus, owned by the Smithsonian and 
formerly in use at Montezuma. was returned to England for re- 
adjustment by Doctor Dobson. It was reinstalled at Table Mountain 
in the autumn of 1928 and daily determinations of atmospheric ozone 
have been made with it whenever possible since then. These measure- 
ments show in contrast with those formerly made at Montezuma 
about as much ozone in the higher atmosphere above California as 
has been found in Europe. Also, in contrast with Montezuma and 
in harmony with Europe, they show a decidedly variable quantity of 
ozone from day to day and from month to month. These ozone 
determinations will be continued at Table Mountain indefinitely. 

(@) Mount Brukkaros—The National Geographic station on 
Mount Brukkaros, South West Africa, which cooperates with Mon- 
tezuma and Table Mountain in the daily observation of the solar 


constant of radiation, has continued regular observations and has 
sent to Washington a large collection of records. These will be 
statistically and critically studied and prepared for publication. 

As the observers, Messrs. Hoover and Greeley, have been three 
years in this African field, arrangements have been made for Messrs. 
Sordahl and Froiland to relieve them in August, 1929. 


At the stations Mr. A. F. Moore has continued in charge at Table 
Mountain and Mr. H. H. Zodtner at Montezuma. Mr. Moore was 
assisted mainly by Mr. L. O. Sordahl, and after his departure, in 
June, 1929, by Dr. W. Weniger. Mr. Zodtner was assisted until 
April 1 by Mr. M. K. Baughman and after his resignation by Mr. 
C. P. Butler. 

At Washington the force has remained unchanged, with three 
exceptions. Mrs. A. M. Bond resigned as computor on February 5, 
1929. She was succeeded on February 18 by Miss M. Denoyer. Mr. 
H. B. Freeman, formerly in charge of Montezuma station, assisted at 
Mount Wilson and at Washington until May 1, 1929, when he ob- 
tained a transfer to the laboratories of the National Advisory 
Committee for Aeronautics at Langley Field, Va. 


The year has been notable for the satisfactory continuation at field 
stations of observations for the study of the variability of the sun; 
for the satisfactory completion of the critical statistical investigation 
of the results obtained at Table Mountain, so that hereafter Table 
Mountain observations may be definitively reduced by field observers; 
for the excellent accord found between definitive results of Table 
Mountain and Montezuma (stations 4,000 miles apart in opposite 
hemispheres) in their indications of solar variability; for the appar- 
ent confirmation of three definite periodicities of approximately 11, 
15, and 26 months in solar variation; for the discovery of a new 
method of measuring the atmospheric ozone and its influence on 
solar-constant observations; for the repetition of a former investiga- 
tion of solar and terrestrial absorption lines and bands in the solar 
spectrum, but with nearly threefold richer results; and for the 
observation of the distribution of energy in the spectra of 18 stars 
and two planets. 

Respectfully submitted. 

C. G. Apgor, 
Director, Astrophysical Observatory. 
Smithsonian Institution. 



Smr: I have the honor to report the initial development of the 
new Division of Radiation and Organisms entered upon May 1, 1929. 

The purpose of this division is to undertake those investigations of, 
or directly related to, living organisms wherein radiation enters as 
an important factor. Through the development of a thoroughly 
equipped physical and chemical laboratory wherein the spectro- 
scopic side is most emphasized, investigations of biological problems 
can be undertaken more effectively than has generally been possible. 
Through the cooperation of men of diverse training in the funda- 
mental, as well as the immediate biological sciences, it is hoped to 
secure the fullest advantage of modern specialization, which gener- 
ally, on the contrary, presents a formidable handicap to work in 
border line fields. 

The program of investigations falls into two main divisions: 

I. Direct investigation upon living organisms. 

II. Fundamental investigations related to biological problems. 
1. Molecular structure investigations. 
2. Photochemical investigations. 

Direct investigations upon living organisms will, for the present, 
be concerned with the growth of plants under rigidly controlled physi- 
cal and chemical conditions. Soil will be replaced by nutrient solu- 
tions of known constitution. The gases supplied to the plants will 
be of known and controlled amounts. Not only the temperature and 
humidity but the intensity and color of the light is to be measured 
and varied during the experiments. : 

Understanding of biological problems is greatly hampered by the 
lack of knowledge of the structure of the more complicated mole- 
cules which are a part of living organisms, and by a lack of knowl- 
edge of even the simpler chemical reactions brought about, or con- 
tributed to, by radiant energy. The most promising possibility for 
adding to our knowledge of molecular structure is offered by spec- 
troscopic investigations; that is, through the study of the radiation 
arising from the internal vibrations of the molecules themselves. 
The study of photochemical phenomena requires both spectroscopic 
and chemical equipment. 



All these investigations in common require a spectroscopic labora- 
tory supported by both physical and chemical departments. 


Space in the basement of the west wing of the Smithsonian Build- 
ing, previously used for storage, is being renovated and equipped for 
laboratory purposes. Because of the very heavy walls, and the 
fact that the rooms are partially under ground, this space is pecu- 
liarly suited to the purpose, owing to its evenness of temperature. 
A large room on the north side will accommodate the plant-growth 
chambers, spectrographs, and photometer rooms. Adjoining, a small 
room will serve as dark room and enlarging room. Two smaller 
rooms on the south side of the wing complete the assignment of space. 
One of these is to be a physical laboratory accommodating infra-red 
recording spectroscopes and general manipulative equipment. The 
other of the smaller rooms has heen subdivided, the larger portion to 
serve as a chemical laboratory and the smaller as a glass-blowing 

The renovation of these rooms, subdivision, extension of plumbing, 
and construction of the very heavy electrical arteries required for 
the artificial illumination of the plants has been ably carried out by 
the National Museum personnel. 


The purchase of general equipment is nearing completion. Plans 
have been drawn up for a preconditioning chamber and construction 
has been begun. Drawings have been made for the actual growth 
chambers and bids are under consideration. Special apparatus for 
the construction of radiation-detecting devices is being made. Grat- 
ings for spectroscopic investigations are being purchased from the 
Johns Hopkins University. Much of the equipment formerly used 
in the infra-red investigation of Langley, Abbot, and Fowle will be 
used for the molecular-structure investigations through the courtesy 
of the Astrophysical Observatory. 


The major portion of the expense for the coming year, approxi- 
mating $20,000, will be cared for by means of grants from the Re- 
search Corporation. Of this sum approximately $12,000 will be 
spent upon salaries and the remaining $8,000 upon equipment. As 
the work develops it is hoped that it will so commend itself that 
larger means may become available. 


Personnel.—The present personnel is as follows: 

Research associate, Dr. F. S. Brackett. 

Consulting plant physiologist, Dr. E. S. Johnston. 
Research assistant, L. B. Clark. 

Stenographer and laboratory assistant, Miss V. P. Stanley. 

Dr. F. S. Brackett took charge of this work under Doctor Abbot’s 
direction May 1, his experience being chiefly physical and, more par- 
ticularly, spectroscopic. Through the cordial cooperation of the agri- 
cultural experiment station of the University of Maryland, Dr. E. 8. 
Johnston is directing the biological aspects of the investigation. In 
all this work the technical aspects involved in the development of new 
equipment will play a very important part. For this work the serv- 
ices of Mr. L. B. Clark have been secured, whose varied experience 
peculiarly fits him for such an undertaking. 

Cooperation.—During some months previous to the initiation of 
this work in the Smithsonian, Doctor Brackett directed the develop- 
ment of several lines of research in the Fixed Nitrogen Laboratory 
closely related to those to be undertaken in this division. This work 
is being carried on by that laboratory now, in very close cooperation 
with the Smithsonian. 

Respectfully submitted. 

F. 8S. Bracxert, 
Research Associate in Charge. 
Dr. C. G. ABsor, 

Secretary, Smithsonian Institution. 



Sir: I have the honor to submit herewith the following report on 
the operations of the United States Regional Bureau of the Inter- 
national Catalogue of Scientific Literature for the fiscal year ended 
June 30, 1929: 

Continuing the policy of keeping the expenditures of the bureau 
at a minimum until actual publication is resumed, the work here 
has consisted mainly in keeping necessary records of current scien- 
tific publications, preparing data for a revised list of journals, and 
other necessary routine matters, so that the actual work of indexing 
may be taken up by a full force as soon as reorganization of the 
enterprise is possible. 

The gross expenditure for the year was $5,060.75 out of the appro- 
priation of $7,460. 

At the international convention of the International Catalogue 
of Scientific Literature held in Brussels July 22-24, 1922, the dele- 
gates officially representing the countries taking part in the enter- 
prise anticipated that financial conditions would allow resumption 
of publication of the catalogue as soon as the financial chaos then 
existing should become stabilized. Looking forward to this event, 
they resolved to keep the organization alive by agreeing to con- 
tinue the work of their regional bureaus so far as possible until 
financial support could be obtained. In Europe money to promote 
such scientific enterprises is still unobtainable; therefore, it appears 
that if this great bibliographical service is to be resumed aid must 
be extended from the United States, and that the time has come 
for this country to take the lead, not only in outlining a definite 
scheme for reorganization but in suggesting a possible means of 
obtaining necessary financial support. As a preliminary step this 
bureau has been in communication with Prof. Henry E. Armstrong, 
I’. R. S., chairman of the executive committee, in whom the Brussels 
convention vested authority to consider and propose plans for resum- 
ing publication. In a letter on July 6, 1929, the writer stated: 

I know, of course, how hard pressed all foreign countries have been finan- 
cially, but the sums involved are so small and the results aimed at so valuable 



and so greatly needed that I can not but believe that if some definite and 
concerted move is made now we can reorganize and renew this great work. 

In his reply Professor Armstrong reflects the financial despondency 
of Europe but goes on to say: 

I wish it were possible to restart the International Catalogue, but I am 
bound to confess that I see no immediate prospect of doing so. Still, I would 
prophesy that it must again come into being—the idea was too grand and the 
proof obtained that the enterprise was entirely feasible too complete for it to 
remain an act unaccomplished. If the nations are ever to unite it must be 
in the field of natural science before anything else. 

An outline of the present situation is briefly this: Publication of 
the International Catalogue of Scientific Literature began in 1901, 
when 33 of the leading countries of the world cooperated by estab- 
lishing regional bureaus and furnishing to the central bureau in 
London classified index references to the scientific literature of their 
respective regions and further agreed to subscribe to a sufficient 
number of sets of the catalogue to support the central bureau and 
pay the cost of printing. Beginning with the literature of 1901, 17 
volumes were published annually until the last volume of the four- 
teenth annual issue, indexing the literature of 1914, was published 
in 1922, making a total of 238 volumes, together with several extra 
volumes containing lists of journals and classification schedules. 

The regional bureaus were supported locally, in most cases, by 
direct governmental grants, while the central bureau derived its sole 
support from the income received from subscribers to the catalogue, 
the price of which was equivalent to $85 per year for the complete set 
of 17 volumes. Just prior to the war central bureau receipts and 
expenditures approximately balanced, but after war began printing 
costs doubled, and it was therefore necessary to suspend publication 
in 1922. 

The Royal Society of London acted as financial sponsor of the 
enterprise from the beginning, aided on several occasions by dona- 
tions from other sources after war began. 

The need of the International Catalogue of Scientific Literature 
is obvious, as no publication ever existed so broad in scope or 
exhaustive in treatment and none has since taken its place. 

The various abstract journals do not meet the need of libraries as 
reference aids, as they overlap their respective fields and in aggre- 
gate are too bulky, expensive, and dissimilar in plan to serve as 
general works of reference. Abstract journals serve the immediate 
need of specialists but do not meet the requirements of lbrarians or 
general students. 

Before outlining a scheme for reorganization and improvement 
for the future, a retrospect of the work may be considered and defects 
noted in order that they may be eliminated in the future. 


The organization was started on very limited and borrowed cap- 
ital, which greatly added to the cost of production, as it was neces- 
sary to have all printing done by private firms. The cost of sub- 
scription, $85 per year, placed the work beyond the means of many 
small libraries and individual workers. It was originally intended 
to make the several volumes yearbooks of their respective fields, and 
much of the value and use of the work was lost owing to the fact 
that many of the volumes were delayed in their publication. This 
vital defect may be remedied by having editing and publishing done 
by the same organization. To accomplish this, it will be necessary 
to own a printing plant designed and equipped solely for this pur- 
pose. This will make possible continuous and prompt printing at 
a minimum cost and so reduce the cost that it will be possible to 
offer the catalogue to subscribers for $50 per set instead of $85, if 
an edition of 1,000 sets can be sold. 

Estimates of the cost of equipping and operating a suitable print- 
ing plant have been made by several printers and publishers in this 
country and by the two leading manufacturers of typesetting ma- 
chines. These estimates were almost identical, and from them it 
appears that a suitably equipped plant can be installed for less than 
$30,000, in which, when properly manned, a catalogue aggregating 
10,000 pages a year can be published for $17,500 in an edition of 
1,000. This sum includes cost of labor, paper, repairs, and inci- 
dentals. To this sum must be added $15,000 for the annual expenses 
of the central bureau for one year with which to pay rent and the 
executive and editorial staffs and, say $12,500 as a liberal reserve to 
meet incidental and unforeseen expenses which always occur in be- 
ginning any new enterprise. It thus appears that the money needed 

For installing and equipping the printing plant_____________________ $30, 000 
Expenses for printing and publishing for one year____________ $17, 500 
Maintenance of central bureau for one year__________________ 15, 000 
Allowance for unforeseen incidentals_____________-_»____ 12, 500 

45, 000 

Motalveapitals mecded stor frst Yeats... sts eee eee ee eee 75, 000 

After the first year, to continue the work would cost approximately 
$35,000 per year, leaving a margin of $15,000 per year between the 
cost of production and the estimated receipts if the total edition of 
1,000 copies can be sold. This amount, together with sums derived 
from the first year sales already included in the estimates, could be 
made a sinking fund with which to repay donors. 

Should publication be resumed it is expected that a demand for the 
first 14 annual issues will arise, and as there is a large supply of 
them now at the central bureau, money received from this source 


may be used to repay the Royal Society of London for the sums 
advanced for their publication. 

The necessary steps to be taken leading to reorganization and 
resumption of publication appear to be the following: 
(1) Preparation by the existing executive committee of a definite course and 

detailed plan of reorganization and operation. 
(2) Obtaining promises of cooperation from the various regional bureaus to 
again furnish the necessary data for the catalogue. 

(3) Canvassing possible fields for subscriptions and the necessary financial aid. 

Obviously, capital is essential before any actual work can be begun, 
but definite plans may be prepared by those now vested with au- 
thority to act, and when this part of the work has progressed suffi- 
ciently to be able to submit a definite and concise prospectus to 
subscribers and possible donors it is proposed to solicit support from 

Respectfully submitted. 

Leonarp C. GUNNELL, 
Assistant in Charge. 
Dr. Cuartes G. Apzor, 
Secretary, Smithsonian Institution. 


Sir: I have the honor to submit the following report on the ac- 
tivities of the library of the Smithsonian Institution for the fiscal 
year ended June 30, 1929: 


The Smithsonian library, or, speaking in terms that accord more 
exactly with the recent reorganization of the library, the Smithsonian 
library system, is made up of 10 divisional and 36 sectional libraries. 
The former consist of the Smithsonian deposit in the Library of 
Congress, which is the main library of the Institution; the library 
of the United States National Museum; the Smithsonian office 
library; the Langley aeronautical library; the radiation and 
organisms library; and the libraries of the Astrophysical Observa- 
tory, the Bureau of American Ethnology, the National Gallery of 
Art, the Freer Gallery of Art, and the National Zoological Park. 
The sectional libraries are the immediate working tools of the curators 
in the National Museum. These 46 libraries taken together, in- 
cluding the collections not yet catalogued, comprise about 800,000 
volumes, pamphlets, and charts. Although they contain thousands 
of publications on history, philosophy, literature, and the fine arts, 
they are largely scientific and technological in character, among them 
being many society and serial publications. Not only is this great 
collection an invaluable instrument in the work of the Institution 
and the Government, but it is freely available both to scholars and 
to the public generally for research purposes. 

The composition of the Smithsonian library underwent several 
important changes during the past year. The library of the Bureau 
of American Ethnology became a division of the library; the library 
of radiation and organisms, designed for the use of a new branch of 
Smithsonian activity, was organized as a divisional library; and the 
technological library was made a part of the library of the National 


Early in the year the second position of assistant librarian--that 
of chief of the accessions department—was established and ‘was filled 


by the appointment of Miss Ethel A. L. Lacy, a graduate of the Uni- 
versity of Michigan, who had had many years of experience in the 
library of the Department of Agriculture and the Detroit Public 

Mrs. Hope Hanna Simmons was given a permanent position as 
junior library assistant and was placed in charge of the reading and 
reference room in the Arts and Industries Building. 

Miss Agnes Auth, minor library assistant, after 10 years of faith- 
ful service in the library, was appointed to a higher position in the 
disbursing office of the Institution. 

Mr. Herschel Chappell, assistant messenger, was advanced to a 
position in the office of the chief clerk. He was succeeded by Mr. 
William Oliver Grant. 

Several members of the staff were granted brief periods of leave 
for travel and study. Miss Elisabeth Hobbs spent some weeks in 
England, and Miss Mary D. Ashton in Oregon, while Miss Ruth 
Wenger attended advanced courses in library science at the University 
of California. 

In the course of the year the following persons were employed 
temporarily: Miss Helen V. Barnes, Mr. Alan Blanchard, Mr. Dale 
Hawarth, Mr. Thomas Hickok, Mr. John Paschall, Mrs. M. Landon 
Reed, Miss Jeannette Seiler, Mrs. Hope H. Simmons, and Mr. Clyde 


Nearly all of the publications currently received by the various 
libraries in the Smithsonian system are sent by editors of journals and 
by learned institutions and societies throughout the world in exchange 
for the publications of the Institution and its branches. This ex- 
change has been, from the early days of the Institution, the chief 
means of increasing its library, and has brought to it a wealth of 
scientific material. This has come partly by mail, but mainly through 
the International Exchange Service, which is administered by the 

During the last fiscal year the Smithsonian library received 30,502 
packages, of one or more publications each. After the packages had 
been opened the items were entered, stamped, and sent to the proper 
divisions and sections of the hbrary, but chiefly to the Smithsonian 
deposit in the Library of Congress and the library of the United 
States National Museum. Most of the 1,316 letters and the thousands 
of acknowledgments written by the library during the year had to 
do with this exchange of publications. Exchange relations were 
taken up with many new societies and with many old societies for 
new publications. 


Among the items received were dissertations from the universities 
of Berlin, Bern, Breslau, Bonn, Cornell, Erlangen, Freiberg, Giessen, 
Halle, Helsingfors, Johns Hopkins, Kiel, Leipzig, Louvain, Neu- 
chatel, Pennsylvania, Rostock, Strasbourg, Tubingen, Utrecht, Wurz- 
burg, and Ziirich; and from technical schools at Berlin, Bonn, 
Braunschweig, Darmstadt, Dresden, Freiberg, Karlsruhe, and 


The outstanding gift of the year was that of the Harriman Alaskan 
library. This is the collection relating to Alaska and the Arctic 
regions made by Dr. William H. Dall, late curator in the National 
Museum, who for nearly a lifetime was a student of the regions of 
the north. It consists of approximately 1,100 volumes and pamph- 
lets, together with 30 or more scrapbooks of letters and newspaper 
clippings. It is rich in works on exploration and discovery, and 
contains many rare items, including a file of the Alaska Herald from 
1868 to 1875. The library was purchased and presented to the Insti- 
tution by Mrs. Edward H. Harriman, whose husband, it will be re- 
membered, made possible by his generosity the famous Harriman 
expedition to Alaska in 1899, in which Doctor Dall and other scien- 
tists from the Smithsonian Institution and the Washington Academy 
of Sciences took a leading part, and the results of which the Insti- 
tution published later in a monumental work. The library will be 
made available for reference at the earliest possible moment. 

Also prominent among the gifts were these: 1,000 publications and 
manuscripts of a miscellaneous character, from Mr. Herbert A. Gill, 
of Washington, D. C., brother of the late Dr. Theodore Gill, at one 
time librarian and associate in zoology at the Smithsonian Institu- 
tion; 500 books and periodicals on photography, from Mr. A. B. 
Stebbins, of Canisteo, N. Y.; two sets of the first four volumes of the 
Smithsonian Scientific Series, Patrons’ Edition, from the Smithsonian 
Institution ; several hundred scientific publications, many in continua- 
tion of series already given, from the American Association for the 
Advancement of Science, the Hygienic Laboratory, and the Geo- 
physical Laboratory; and about 1,500 publications of the Philo- 
sophical Society of Washington, from the society itself, to be used for 
completing sets in the library, for exchange, or for free distribution. 

Many other gifts were received, including copies of the following: 
The phototype edition of Codex Argenteus Upsaliensis, recently 
issued by the Royal University of Upsala in order to celebrate its 
four hundred and fiftieth anniversary, from the University; Inner- 
most Asia—a detailed report, in four volumes, of explorations in 
Central Asia, Kan-su, and Eastern Iran, carried out and described 
under the orders of H. M. Indian Government by Sir Aurel Stein, 


of the Indian Archaeological Survey—presented by the secretary to 
the High Commissioner for India; North American Wild Flowers, 
volume 4, by Mary Vaux Walcott, from the artist-author; A Link 
with Magellan, being a chart of the East Indies, C. 1522, in the pos- 
session of Boies Penrose, from Mr. Penrose; Enthronement of the 
One Hundred Twenty-fourth Emperor of Japan, from the Japan 
Advertiser, Tokyo; and Metropolitan Museum Color-prints, series 
1-8, with several other publications, from the Metropolitan Museum 
of Art. 

Among donors on the staff of the Institution and its branches were 
Dr. Charles G. Abbot, secretary of the Smithsonian, and Dr. William 
H. Holmes, director of the National Gallery of Art, who, as in previ- 
ous years, were generous contributors of publications of different 
kinds; Dr. Charles W. Richmond, who gave many volumes, some 
quite rare, chiefly on ornithology; and Miss Mary J. Rathbun, whose 
gifts during the year increased her total gifts to the hbrary to more 
than 200 pieces, exclusive of her own publications. Still other gifts 
came from Assistant Secretary Wetmore, Mr. W. de C. Ravenel, Dr. 
R. S. Bassler, Dr. F. W. Clarke, Mr. Paul Garber, Dr. J. W. Gidley, 
Mr. A. J. Olmsted, Mr. J. H. Riley, Miss Louise A. Rosenbusch, Dr. 
Waldo L. Schmitt, and Mr. Ralph Smith. 


The office library, which is made up of the publications of the 
Institution and its branches, various sets of society publications, the 
art-room collection, the employees’ library, and many works of refer- 
ence, some of which are in the reference room in the Smithsonian 
Building and the rest in other parts of the library or in the admin- 
istrative offices of the Institution, is one of the most used of the 
libraries in the Smithsonian system. Especially is this true of the 
employees’ collection, which is now shelved in the reading room of 
the Arts and Industries Building. The usefulness of this collection 
was greatly increased during the last year by generous loans of cur- 
rent works of general literature from the Library of Congress. 
These loans were so much appreciated by the Smithsonian staff that 
it is hoped they will become a permanent feature in the cooperation 
of the two institutions. To the office library were added 144 vol- 
umes and 16 pamphlets. The binding of volumes for the library, 
which had been discontinued for several years for lack of funds, was 
resumed and 41 volumes were bound. 


The Smithsonian deposit in the Library of Congress is the largest 
and most important unit in the Smithsonian library system, number- 


ing about 500,000 volumes, pamphlets, and charts, besides many vol- 
umes awaiting completion. This collection, which began with the 
founding of the Institution in 1846, was housed in the Smithsonian 
Building until 1866. In that year it had grown to 40,000 volumes, 
and was, by permission of Congress, deposited in the Library of Con- 
gress. Since that time it has been steadily increased by additions 
from the Institution. While it is somewhat general in character, its 
interest is mainly scientific, and it is rich in serial publications and 
monographs, and especially in the reports, proceedings, and trans- 
actions of the learned societies and institutions of the world, being 
one of the foremost collections of its kind. Although, of course, dis- 
tributed throughout the Library of Congress according to classifica- 
tion, the deposit is, because of its prevailingly scientific nature, 
chiefly in the Smithsonian division, which was established in 1900 
to take care of the scientific publications both of the deposit and of 
the Library of Congress. 

During the last fiscal year the Institution sent to the deposit 19,003 
publications, comprising 3,569 volumes, 9,506 parts of volumes, 5,616 
pamphlets, and 312 charts. Documents of foreign governments, 
largely statistical in character, to the number of about 4,000, were 
also forwarded, without being stamped or entered, to the document 
division of the Library of Congress. Among the items sent to the 
deposit were 1,110 volumes in Japanese on education, several hun- 
dred in Russian on various subjects, and 56 in Turkish. The last 
had been presented to the Institution many years before by H. I. M. 
the Sultan Abdul-Hamid II. Among them, too, were 4,729 dis- 
sertations from 30 universities and technical schools at home and 
abroad. The publications also included a large number intended for 
use in building up reserve sets. Some of these were taken from the 
duplicates in the Smithsonian Building, which have lately been made 
available; others from the publications recently given to the Insti- 
tution by the American Association for the Advancement of Science. 
It is particularly pleasing to report that, as the result of the re- 
organization of the accessions department of the library, nearly 
twice as many volumes and parts were obtained in response to 
requests from the deposit as were obtained the year before. 


The library of the United States National Museum, which consists, 
_ in the main, of works on natural history and mechanical and min- 
eral technology, is housed partly in the Natural History Building 
and partly in the Arts and Industries Building. In addition to the 
two main collections it includes 36 smaller collections, which are the 
sectional libraries of the curators. The library contains 74,562 vol- 


umes and 107,629 pamphlets. It was increased during the past year 
by 2,247 volumes and 748 pamphlets. Some of the additions came 
by purchase and gift, but most by exchange. 

The current work was kept up as usual, but often by a depleted 
force. The staff entered 9,759 parts of periodicals, catalogued 1,422 
volumes and pamphlets, and had 1,831 volumes bound. They sent 
to the sectional libraries 5,518 publications and loaned to the curators 
and their assistants 4,793, of which 2,163 were borrowed from the 
Library of Congress and 271 elsewhere. They returned 2,336 books 
to the Library of Congress and 299 to other libraries. About 200 
publications were loaned to Government libraries and to libraries 
outside of Washington. Among the latter were those of the Ameri- 
can Museum of Natural History, Carnegie Museum, Field Museum, 
Department of Agriculture of Canada, E. I. du Pont de Nemours 
& Co. Experimental Station, and the following colleges and universi- 
ties: Buffalo, California, Goucher, Minnesota, and Princeton. One 
loan to the Field Museum consisted of a duplicate set, in 43 volumes, 
of Linnaea, Berlin, 1825-1882, and was made on semipermanent 
charge. It was the third loan of the kind during the last three years, 
the others having been made to Johns Hopkins University and the 
University of Chicago. All three were for the furthering of special- 
ized scientific research, in keeping with the general purpose of the 
Museum, as a branch of the Smithsonian Institution, of increas- 
ing and diffusing knowledge. 

About as many publications as usual were consulted in the library. 
But there was a marked growth in the reference and informational 
service rendered by the staff, not only to the scientists of the In- 
stitution and to investigators from different departments of the 
Government, but to scholars generally and to inquirers throughout 
the country. In this connection special attention should be called 
to the growing importance, both to the employees of the Smith- 
sonian Institution and its branches and to the visiting public, of the 
recently reorganized reading and reference room, with its loan and 
information desk, in the Arts and Industries Building. In the 
course of the year the assistant in charge, besides performing her 
other duties, recorded 700 visitors, answered more than 200 inquiries 
for information, some involving a good deal of research, and loaned 
nearly 3,000 books and periodicals. 

Because of the amount and urgency of the current work and the 
smallness of the staff, only a little time was found during the year 
for the further revision of the catalogue, the completing of the 
shelf list, or the solving of the major problems that are calling for 
attention in the sectional libraries. Time was found, however, for 
supplying many of the publications needed by these libraries, pre- 


paring their volumes for binding, and doing several other pieces of 
work for them, notably in the sections of botany, geology, and mam- 
mals. These libraries number 36, and are as follows: 

Administration. Marine invertebrates. 
Administrative assistant’s office. Mechanical technology. 
American archeology. Medicine. 

Anthropology. Minerals. 

Biology. Mineral technology. 
Birds. Mollusks. 

Botany. Old World archeology. 
Echinoderms. Organic chemistry. 
Editor’s office. Paleobotany. 

Ethnology. Photography. 

Fishes. Physical anthropology. 
Foods. Property clerk’s office. 
Geology. Reptiles and batrachians, 
Graphic arts. Superintendent’s office. 
History. Taxidermy. 

Insects. Textiles. 

Invertebrate paleontology. Vertebrate paleontology. 
Mammals. Wood technology. 


During the year the library of the Bureau of American Ethnology 
became a division of the Smithsonian library. This collection con- 
sists almost exclusively of works on anthropology, particularly those 
pertaining to the American aborigines, covering especially the lin- 
guistics, history, archeology, myths, religion, arts, sociology, and 
general culture of the American Indian. The library also has files of 
manuscript material, photographs, and Indian vocabularies. It was 
increased during the last year by 591 volumes and 200 pamphlets, and 
now contains 28,512 volumes and 16,377 pamphlets. The staff pre- 
pared 418 volumes for binding, and made considerable progress to- 
ward providing Library of Congress cards for the catalogue. 


The library of the Astrophysical Observatory, which is kept partly 
in the observatory and partly in the main hall of the Smithsonian 
Building, is an important instrument in the astrophysical and mete- 
orological work of the Institution, being of particular value just now 
in connection with its researches in solar radiation. It consists of 
8,868 volumes and 2,949 pamphlets, of which 101 volumes and 224 
pamphlets were added during the last year. The number of volumes 
bound was 64. 

§2322—30 9 


Late in the year a new division of the Smithsonian library was 
established to meet the needs of the Institution’s work in radiation 
and organisms. A list of the significant books and periodicals in the 
field was prepared, in cooperation with the chief of the bureau, and 
effort will be made immediately to obtain, by exchange or purchase, 
those that can not be borrowed from other units of the library. 


The Langley aeronautical library, while consisting of only 1,697 
volumes and 838 pamphlets, is one of the most prominent divisions 
of the Smithsonian library, as it contains many rare items, includ- 
ing complete files of the early aeronautical magazines. Some of 
these were in the original collection as it came from Samuel Pierpont 
Langley, the third secretary of the Institution, in whose memory the 
library was named. Others were among the publications given since 
by Alexander Graham Bell, Octave Chanute, and James Means. The 
library also has a large number of photographs, letters, and news- 
paper clippings. It is consulted continually by experts from the de- 
partments of the Government, from the embassies in Washington, 
and from aeronautical and other organizations in different parts of 
the country. The library was increased during the past year by 85 
volumes and 138 pamphlets. The new catalogue, which had been 
begun the year before, was finished and the collection labeled and 


The library of the National Gallery of Art, which for the present 
is housed, with the gallery, in the Natural History Building, com- 
prises 1,001 volumes and 1,106 pamphlets, chiefly on the art of the 
United States and Europe. The collection has been chosen with 
great care and has been slowly increased as funds and space per- 
mitted, with a view to becoming the nucleus of a much larger and 
more representative working library when the special building now 
in prospect for the gallery is provided. During the last year 153 
volumes and 82 pamphlets were added to the collection and 33 vol- 
umes were bound. Most of the accessions came, as usual, by purchase 
and exchange, but many came by gift, notably from Dr. William H. 
Holmes, director of the gallery. 


The library of the Freer Gallery of Art concerns itself almost 
entirely with the interests represented by the collections of art ob- 
jects pertaining to the arts and cultures of the Far East, India, 


Persia, and the nearer East; by the life and works of James McNeill 
Whistler and of certain other American painters whose pictures are 
owned by the gallery ; and, further, to a limited extent, by the Biblical 
manuscripts of the fourth and fifth centuries, which, as the possession 
of the Freer Gallery, are known as the Washington Manuscripts. 
It contains many works in the Chinese and Japanese languages, 
some of which are very rare, and thus supplements for research pur- 
poses the oriental division of the Library of Congress. During the 
year just closed the library was increased by 345 volumes and 191 
pamphlets. Of these, 114 volumes were added to the collection 
designed for the use of the field staff of the gallery. This collection 
now numbers about 814 volumes and 500 pamphlets, while the main 
library totals 4,269 volumes and 2,769 pamphlets. Two of the note- 
worthy accessions were Sir Aurel Stein’s Innermost Asia and a copy 
of the Codex Argenteus Upsaliensis, the latter of which was received 
as a gift by the Smithsonian Institution from the University of 
Upsala and assigned to the library of the gallery as a fitting addition 
to the Biblical material already on its shelves. Among the visitors 
there was the usual large number of readers and students, some of 
whom came to study the facsimiles of the Washington Manuscripts, 
and others to make drawings or tracings from material in the library. 
The number of volumes bound was 82. 


The library of the National Zoological Park, which is kept in the 
administration building at the park, is the immediate working col- 
lection of the director and his assistants. It consists of about 1,209 
volumes and 400 pamphlets, chiefly on animals and the care of them. 
The number of accessions for the year was 9 volumes and 100 pam- 
phlets, and of volumes bound, 5. 

The accessions for the year may be summarized as follows: 

Library Volumes pleia Total 

Astrophysical Observatogy ie sachet he eh 101 224 325 
Brreawrop-Aunericansh ihn olog ys 05 20-652 ee ee ee ee 591 200 791 
Kreer Gallery of Art... tae t Se Mood oi hota ebb Bk ae 345 191 536 
Hanelovsaeronantical 421-8 se 8. foo Bee on oe kee Lee ne Ee 85 138 223 
INaitonaliGallenvoeAtiee sen a ae | aa Se eer ot Fal 153 82 235 
National Zoological! Park £23272 Eg SP eae | 9 100 109 
RAGiAtionM@ncOreanisms® 4-6 eee Sh ER ee ee eee en eS ee SE te eae ede eu 
Pmiphsonism deposit, uibrary Of Congress. —- 22-2 baa see ee ek | 3, 569 5, 928 9, 497 
BING HSONIAN OLCOs te nee en Ro te pee Se ee ey EL als 144 16 160 
United States! National IVinserrm sie ons ae ie i ee a 2, 247 748 2, 995 
ETC | ae meee RO ANE EU Mere I Tete paella oar Nea DS Ute acer es ayy 7, 244 7, 627 14, 871 



The estimated number of volumes, pamphlets, and charts in the 
Smithsonian library on June 30, 1929, was as follows: 

Volumes: bee 20) ee ee Sa 8 ee ee eS ees a ee 563, 106 
Pamphlets ngs oth were retin hier eeile so an UR Se Ee a eae eee 180, 475 
OND AS MAE Reh Agee Or ORO If ME Re op CCB MG RS ys SI a ae ee el 24, 972 

Hs LO) st een ee ee et teas Senate pei aa eae: A ata Ne oe le eel a) eine Yeats 768, 553 

This number does not include the many thousands of volumes in 
the library still uncatalogued or awaiting completion. 


Considerable progress was made during the year on the union 
catalogue of the libraries in the Smithsonian system, and that, too, 
despite the fact that the catalogue department was very much under- 
manned. In addition to doing the current work in the different 
libraries, the staff finished cataloguing the Langley aeronautical col- 
lection. It will next take up the John Donnell Smith and Watts 
de Peyster collections. It will also make a special effort to com- 
plete the shelf list in the library of the National Museum. The fol- 
lowing statistics show the work of the year in detail: 

IVA LUTE TT Sie Salts ANN oT eee oat te een ee a ge eR TE 2, 199 
Volumes “recaltalo suede 22 22s 22 oe ae Ae AALS LEE ee 907 
pamphlets; cataloguedi =i. eae ok sed eh aes) _ Ue ee Se 2, 080 
Pamphiletsiwrecatalog ue dase See a ee oe ee ee 3, 676 
Charts catalogued ewe se sis SU DU a 316 
Chartstrecataloguedsetetiyes sole oe Nees eh bo Sythe el Loe’ Pees Ee Oe 2 
Typedycards dddeduto;catalo0guest == ee eee eee 8, 490 
library of Congress), cards added to catalogues === eee 22, 961. 


Mention was made in the librarian’s last report of the improved 
physical condition and equipment of the reading room in the Arts 
and Industries Building. Since that report appeared there has 
been a similar improvement in two other units of the library. In 
the Natural History Building the three rooms used for library 
purposes were painted, new lights and ventilators were installed, a 
cork runner was laid the full length of the reference and stack rooms, 
and the two large awkward reading tables were converted into four 
attractive small ones. In the Smithsonian Building the five library 
rooms were painted and new shades provided for the windows, and 
several ranges of steel shelving were purchased for the catalogue 


Among the special activities of the year several should be men- 


Further progress was made in organizing the scientific material 
in the west stacks of the main building, so that by the close of the 
year most of it was in order. The finishing of this long, difficult 
task will greatly facilitate the exchange work of the library. Already 
many hundreds of publications have been found that were needed 
by sets in the various libraries of the Institution. 

As a result of the work in the west stacks about 1,900 publica- 
tions of a miscellaneous character, many in Japanese and Russian, 
were sent to the Smithsonian deposit and the document division of 
the Library of Congress. 

The work of selecting from the Smithsonian duplicates items to 
be used in exchange with other libraries for material needed by the 
Institution was considerably advanced. In this connection 2,400 
publications were sent to Harvard University and 2,900 to Yale. 
Other sendings will soon be made to Chicago University, Catholic 
University, and the Marine Biological Laboratory at Woods Hole. 

Nearly 1,800 publications of State geological surveys were as- 
sembled from various unorganized collections in the Smithsonian 
Building and the Arts and Industries Building and many of them 
used toward completing sets in the library. Those not needed will 
be offered to the library of the Geological Survey. 

About 10,000 publications of State agricultural experiment sta- 
tions, which had been received and shelved by the library for many 
years, but which had little to do with the work of the Institution or 
its branches, were given to the library of the Department of Agri- 

A collection of 667 reprints was sorted according to subject and 
distributed to the curators concerned. 

The cards of the Wistar Institute were filed to date, and the Con- 
cilium Bibliographicum cards pertaining to mammals were deposited 
in the section of mammals. 

The popular and semipopular material that, pending final dis- 
posal, had been stored in the basement of the Smithsonian Build- 
ing, was transferred to a special building on the grounds of the 
Astrophysical Observatory and arranged. 

The work of reorganizing the east stacks of the main building was 
begun, to make room for the growth of the reference department of 
the Institution and of the library of the Bureau of American 

Special attention was given by the accessions department to the 
want cards from the Smithsonian deposit and the library of the 
National Museum, with the result that the correspondence based 
upon them will be brought up to date within a few weeks. 


Finally, it is gratifying to report that the special allotment of 
$500 for expenses, made the past year for the first time, enabled 
the library to purchase important books, periodicals, and equip- 
ment for the office library that it could not otherwise have ob- 
tained. During the year to come the amount that will be available 
for books and periodicals for the Museum will be increased by 
$500. This will be pleasant news to the curators, who have been 
waiting patiently for the time when it would be possible for the 
library to get more of the publications essential to their work that 
can not be secured by exchange. 

Among the needs of the library the most urgent is that of funds 
to establish permanent positions for two more cataloguers, another 
library assistant, a correspondence clerk, a stenographer, a typist, 
and another messenger. It is hoped that at least several of these 
positions can be provided for by the close of the next fiscal year, in 
order that the unfinished tasks that the library has inherited from 
the past, its current work, which is increasing steadily, and its new 
projects, may be expedited. 

Respectfully submitted. 

Wituiam L. Corsrn, 
Dr. Cuartes G. ABsBort, 
Secretary, Smithsonian Institution. 


Sir: I have the honor to submit the following report on the pub- 
lications of the Smithsonian Institution and the Government bureaus 
under its administrative charge during the year ending June 380, 1929: 

The Institution proper published during the year 16 papers in 
the series of Smithsonian Miscellaneous Collections, 1 annual report, 
and pamphlet copies of the 27 articles contained in the report ap- 
pendix, and 5 special publications. The Bureau of American Eth- 
nology published 3 annual reports and 5 bulletins. The United 
States National Museum issued 1 annual report, 2 volumes of pro- 
ceedings, 4 complete bulletins, 1 part of a bulletin, 2 parts in the 
series Contributions from the United States National Herbarium, 
and 59 separates from the proceedings. 

Of these publications there were distributed during the year 
197,573 copies, which included 64 volumes and separates of the 
Smithsonian Contributions to Knowledge, 31,121 volumes and sep- 
arates of the Smithsonian Miscellaneous Collections, 26,709 volumes 
and separates of the Smithsonian annual reports, 3,773 Smithsonian 
special publications, 115,128 volumes and separates of the various 
series of the National Museum publications, 20,112 publications of 
the Bureau of American Ethnology, 177 publications of the National 
Gallery of Art, 47 volumes of the Annals of the Astrophysical Ob- 
servatory, 16 reports of the Harriman Alaska expedition, and 352 
reports of the American Historical Association. 


Of the Smithsonian Miscellaneous Collections, volume 73, 2 papers 
were issued; volume 75, 1 paper and title-page, table of contents, and 
index; and of volume 81, 13 papers, as follows: 


No. 5. Opinions Rendered by the International Commission on Zoological 
Nomenclature. Opinions 98 to 104. September 19, 1928. 28 pp. (Publ. 2973.) 
No. 6. Opinions Rendered by the International Commission on Zoological 
Nomenclature. Opinions 105 to 114. June 8, 1929. 26 pp. ((Publ. 3016.) 



No. 5. Cambrian Geology and Paleontology, V. No. 5. Pre-Devonian Paleozoic 
Formations of the Cordilleran Provinces of Canada. By Charles D. Walcott. 
September 14, 1928. Pp. 175-868, pls. 26-108, text figs. 24-35. 

Title-page, table of contents and index. (Publ. 2976.) 


No. 1. Mexican Mosses Collected by Brother Arséne Brouard—II. By I. 
Thériot. August 15, 1928. 26 pp., 9 text figs. (Publ. 2966.) 

No. 2. Cambrian Fossils from the Mohave Desert. By Charles HE. Resser. 
July 5, 1928. 10 pp.,3 pls. (Publ. 2970.) 

No. 3. Morphology and Evolution of the Insect Head and Its Appendages. By 
R. E. Snodgrass. November 20, 1928. 158 pp., 57 text figs. (Publ. 2971.) 

No. 4. Drawing by Jacques Lemoyne De Morgues of Saturioua, a Timucua 
Chief in Florida, 1564. By David I. Bushnell. August 23, 1928. 9 pp., 1 pl., 1 
text fig. (Publ. 2972.) 

No. 5. The Relations Between the Smithsonian Institution and the Wright 
Brothers. By Charles G. Abbot. September 29, 1928. 27 pp. (Publ. 2977.) 

No. 6. A Study of Body Radiation. By L. B. Aldrich. December 1, 1928. 
54 pp., 9 text figs. (Publ. 2980.) 

No. 7. Recent’ Archeological Developments in the Vicinity of El Paso, Tex. 
By Frank H. H. Roberts, jr. January 25, 1929. 14 pp., 5 pls., 8 text figs. 
(Publ. 3009.) 

No. 8. Parasites and the Aid They Give in Problems of Taxonomy, Geographical 
Distribution, and Paleogeography. By Maynard M. Metcalf. February 28, 1929. 
86 pp. (Publ. 3010.) 

No. 9. A Second Collection of Mammals from Caves Near St. Michel, Haiti. 
By Gerrit S. Miller, jr. March 30, 1929. 30 pp., 10 pls. (Publ. 3012.) 

No. 10. Tropisms and Sense Organs of Lepidoptera. By N. HE. MclIndoo. 
April 4, 1929. 59 pp., 16 text figs. (Publ. 3013.) 

No. 11. Atmospheric Ozone: Its Relation to Some Solar and Terrestrial 
Phenomena. By Frederick E. Fowle. March 18, 1929. 27 pp., 18 text figs. 
(Publ. 3014.) 

No. 12. Archeological Investigations in the Taos Valley, N. Mex., during 1920. 
By J. A. Jeancon. June 11, 1929. 29 pp., 15 pls., 14 text figs. (Publ. 3015.) 

No. 13. Descriptions of Four New Forms of Birds from Hispaniola. By Alex- 
ander Wetmore. May 15, 1929. 4 pp. (Publ. 3021.) 


Report for 1927.—The complete volume of the Annual Report of 
the Board of Regents for 1927 was received from the Public Printer 
in October, 1928. 

Annual Report of the Board of Regents of the Smithsonian Institution showing 
operations, expenditures, and condition of the Institution for the year ending 
June 30, 1927. xii+580 pp., 99 pls., 44 text figs. (Publ. 2927.) 

The appendix contained the following papers: 

The Accomplishments of Modern Astronomy, by C. G Abbot. 

Recent Developments of Cosmical Physics, by J. H. Jeans. 

The Evolution of Twentieth-Century Physics, by Robert A. Millikan. 
Isaac Newton, by Prof. Albert Hinstein. 


The Nucleus of the Atom, by J. A. Crowther 

The Centenary of Augustin Fresnel, by H. M. Antoniadi. 

Soaring Flight, by Wolfgang Klemperer. 

The Coming of the New Coal Age, by Edwin E. Slosson. 

Is the Earth Growing Old? By Josef Felix Pompeckj. 

Geological Climates, by W. B Scott. 

The Geologic Romance of the Finger Lakes, by Prof. Herman F. Fairchild. 

Fossil Marine Faunas as Indicators of Climatic Conditions, by Edwin Kirk. 

Paleontology and Human Relations, by Stuart Weller. 

At the North Pole, by Lincoln Hilsworth. 

Bird Banding in America, by Frederick C. Lincoln. 

The Distribution of Fresh-water Fishes, by David Starr Jordan. 

The Mind of an Insect, by R. HE. Snodgrass. 

The Evidence Bearing on Man’s Evolution, by AleS Hrdlitka. 

The Origins of the Chinese Civilization, by Henri Maspero. 

Archeology in China, by Liang Chi-Chao. 

Indian Villages of Southeast Alaska, by Herbert W. Krieger. 

The Interpretation of Aboriginal Mounds by Means of Creek Indian Customs, 
by John R. Swanton. 

Friederich Kurz, Artist-Explorer, by David I. Bushnell, jr. 

Note on the Principles and Process of X-Ray Examination of Paintings, by 
Alan Burroughs. 

The Lengthening of Human Life in Retrospect and Prospect, by Irving Fisher. 

Charles Doolittle Walcott, by George Otis Smith. 

William Healey Dall, by C. Hart Merriam. 

feport for 1928.—The report of the executive committee and pro. 
ceedings of the Board of Regents of the Institution and the report 
of the secretary, both forming parts of the annual report of the 
Board of Regents to Corgress, were issued in December, 1928. 

Report of the executive committee and’ proceedings of the Board of Regents of 
the Smithsonian Institution for the year ending June 30, 1928. 14 pp. (Publ. 

Report of the Secretary of the Smithsonian Institution for the year ending June 
30, 1928. 147 pp. (Publ. 2978.) 

The general appendix to this report, which was in press at the 
close of the year, contains the following papers: 

The Wider Aspects of Cosmogony, by J. H. Jeans. 

The Stars in Action, by Alfred H. Joy. 

Island Galaxies, by A. Vibert Douglas. 

Astronomical Telescopes, by F. G. Pease. 

New Results on Cosmic Rays, by R. A. Millikan and G. H. Cameron. 

Three Centuries of Natural Philosophy, by W. F. G. Swann. 

The Hypothesis of Continental Displacement, by C. Schuchert. 

On Continental Fragmentation and the Geologie Bearing of the Moon’s Sur- 
ficial Features, by Joseph Barrell. 

The “‘ Craters of the Moon” in Idaho, by H. T. Stearns, 

The Oldest Known Petrified Forest, by W. Goldring. 

Water Divining, by J. W. Gregory. 

Some Problems of Polar Geography, by R. N. Rudmose Brown. 

Birds of the Past in North America, by Alexander Wetmore. 


Mammalogy and the Smithsonian Institution, by Gerrit S. Miller, jr. 

The Controversy Over Human “ Missing Links,” by Gerrit S. Miller, jr. 

What is known of the Migrations of Some of the Whalebone Whales, by 
Remington Kellogg. 

Ecology of the Red Squirrel, by A. Brooker Klugh. 

Adventures of a Naturalist in the Ceylon Jungle, by Casey A. Wood. 

Communication Among Insects, by N. E. MeIndoo. 

Our Insect Instrumentalists and Their Musical Technique, by H. A. Allard. 

The Neanderthal Phase of Man, by AleS Hrdlicka. 

Indian Costumes in the United States National Museum, by H. W. Krieger. 

Mounds and Other Ancient Earthworks of the United States, by David I. 
Bushnell, jr. 

Geocronology, by Gerard de Geer. 

The Physiology of the Ductless Glands, by N. B. Taylor. 

Arrhenius Memorial Lecture, by Sir James Walker. 

Theodore William Richards, by Gregory P. Baxter, 


Explorations and Field Work of the Smithsonian Institution in 1928. March 
22, 1929. 198 pp., 173 text figs. (Publ. 3011.) 

Classified list of Smithsonian Publications Available for Distribution, May 20, 
1929. Compiled by Helen Munroe, 29 pp. (Publ. 3020.) 

World Weather Records—Errata. By H. Helm Clayton. To accompany Smith- 
sonian Miscellaneous Collections, volume 79. May 29, 1929. 28 pp. (Publ. 
3019. ) 


Handbook of the National Aircraft Collection. By Paul Edward Garber. Sec- 
ond edition, November, 1928. 32 pp., numerous illustrations. 

Smithsonian Physical Tables. By Frederick E. Fowle. Seventh revised edition, 
fourth reprint, February 26, 1929. 458 pp. (Publ. 2589.) 

Smithsonian Geographical Tables, By R. 8S. Woodward. Third edition, second 
reprint, August 17, 1929. 182 pp. (Publ. 854.) 


The editorial work of tlie National Museum is in the hands of Dr. 
Marcus Benjamin. During the year ending June 30, 1929, the 
Museum published 1 annual report, 2 volumes of proceedings, 4 com- 
plete bulletins, 1 part of a bulletin, 2 parts in the series Contribu- 
tions from the United States National Herbarium, and 59 separates 
from the proceedings. 

The issues of the bulletin were as follows: 

Bulletin 100. Contributions to the Biology of the Philippine Archipelago and 
Adjacent Regions. 

Volume 1. Papers on collections gathered by the Albatross, Philippine Bxpedi- 
tion, 1907-1910. 

Volume 8. The Fishes of the Series Capriformes, Ephippiformes, and Squami- 
pennes, Collected by the United States Bureau of Fisheries Steamer Albatross, 
Chiefly in Philippine Seas and Adjacent Waters. By Henry W. Fowler and 
Barton A. Bean. 


Bulletin 104. The Foraminifera of the Atlantic Ocean. Part 6. Miliolidae, 
Opthalmidiidae and Fischerinidae. By Joseph Augustine Cushman. 

Bulletin 145. A Revision of the North American Species of Buprestid Beetles 
belonging to the Genus Agrilus. By W. S. Fisher. 

Bulletin 146. Life Histories of North American Shore Birds. Order Limicolae 
(Part 2). By Arthur Cleveland Bent. 

The issues of the Contributions from the United States National 
Herbarium were as follows: 

Volume 26, part 3. Costa Rican Mosses collected by Paul C. Standley in 1924- 
1926. By Edwin B. Bartram. 

Volume 28, part 1. The North American Species of Paspalum. By Agnes 

Of the separates from the proceedings, 4 were from volume 73, 26 
from volume 74, 25 from volume 75, and 4 from volume 76. 


The editorial work has continued under the direction of the editor, 
Mr. Stanley Searles. 
During the year three annual reports and five bulletins were issued. 

Yorty-first Annual Report. Accompanying papers: Coiled Basketry in British 
Columbia and Surrounding Region (Boas, assisted by Haeberlin, Teit, and 
Roberts) ; Two Prehistoric Villages in Middle Tennessee (Myer). 626 pp., 
137 pls., 200 figs., 1 pocket map. 

Forty-third Annual Report. Accompanying papers: The Osage Tribe; Two 
Versions of the Child-naming Rite (La Flesche) ; Wawenock Myth Texts 
from Maine (Speck) ; Native Tribes and Dialects of Connecticut, a Mohegan- 
Pequot Diary (Speck); Picuris Children’s Stories (Harrington and Rob- 
erts) ; Iroquoian Cosmology—Second Part (Hewitt). 828 pp., 44 pls., 9 figs. 

Forty-fourth Annual Report. Accompanying papers: Exploration of the 
Burton Mound at Santa Barbara, California (Harrington) ; Social and Reli- 
gious Beliefs and Usages of the Chickasaw Indians (Swanton); Uses of 
Plants by the Chippewa Indians (Densmore) ; Archeological Investigations— 
II (Fowke). 555 pp., 98 pls., 16 figs. 

Bulletin 84. Vocabulary of the Kiowa Language (Harrington). 255 pp., 1 fig. 

Bulletin 86. Chippewa Customs (Densmore). 204 pp., 90 pls., 27 figs. 

Bulletin 87. Notes on the Buffalo-head Dance of the Thunder Gens of the Fox 
Indians (Michelson). 94 pp., 1 fig. 

Bulletin 89. Observations on the Thunder Dance of the Bear Gens of the Fox 
Indians (Michelson). 73 pp., 1 fig. 

Bulletin 92. Shabik’eshchee Village: A Late Basket Maker Site in the Chaco 
Canyon, New Mexico (Roberts). 164 pp., 31 pls., 32 figs. 

Publications in press are as follows: 

Forty-fifth Annual Report. Accompanying papers: The Salishan Tribes of the 
Western Plateaus (Teit, edited by Boas); Tatooing and Face and Body 
Painting of the Thompson Indians, British Columbia (Teit, edited by Boas) ; 
The Ethnobotany of the Thompson Indians of British Columbia (Teit, edited 
by Steedman) ; The Osage Tribe; Rite of the Wa-xo-be (La Flesche). 

Bulletin 88. Myths and Tales of the Southeastern Indians (Swanton). 

Bulletin 90. Papago Music (Densmore). 


Bulletin 91. Additional Studies of the Arts, Crafts, and Customs of the Guiana 
Indians, with special reference to those of Southeastern British Guiana 

Bulletin 98. Pawnee Music (Densmore). 


The annual reports of the American Historical Association are 
transmitted by the association to the Secretary of the Smithsonian 
Institution and are communicated by him to Congress, as provided 
by the act of incorporation of the association. 

The annual report for 1923 and the supplemental volume to the 
report for 1924 were issued during the year. 


The manuscript of the Thirty-first Annual Report of the National 
Society, Daughters of the American Revolution, was transmitted to 
Congress, in accordance with the law, December 6, 1928. 


The congressional allotments for the printing of the Smithsonian 
Report to Congress and the various publications of the Government 
bureaus under the administration of the Institution were virtually 
used up at the close of the year. The appropriation for the coming 
year ending June 30, 1930, totals $95,000, allotted as follows: 

Annual report to the Congress of the Board of Regents of the Smith- 

sonian’ Institution Y2sa 0) Lites SAO Si) SEO Re) See ae earl ie Be ee $11, 500 
National Museum lias Says k Ne te 2 DO 0 Rs Se 46, 500 
Bureauor Americans thnology=.2 S2aeoks 1 See 1 eee ee ees 28, 300 
National Gallery of Art 2 222-2 ee ee eee 500 
International? Hxehanges: £222 2 ie Car gG Nek CRE ee ie Ue Ee ee Fe 300 
International Catalogue of Scientific Literature________.___________-_- 100 
National Zoological Park* 2) 21) Cah LUN LEE EOIE SMa A eT ae 300 
Astrophysical Observatoryre——— == = — = — a Ee ae 0) 500 
Annual report of the American Historical Association_____---_-__-_____ 7, 000 


The editor has continued to serve as secretary of the Smithsonian 
advisory committee on printing and publication, to which are re- 
ferred for consideration and recommendation all manuscripts offered 
to the Institution and its branches. The committee also considers 
matters of publication policy. Eight meetings were held during the 
year and 136 manuscripts acted upon. The membership at the close 
of the year was as follows: Dr. Leonhard Stejneger, head curator 


of biology, National Museum, chairman; Dr. George P. Merrill, head 
curator of geology, National Museum; Mr. M. W. Stirling, chief, 
Bureau of American Ethnology; Dr. William M. Mann, director, 
National Zoological Park; Mr. W. P. True, editor of the Institution, 
secretary; Dr. Marcus Benjamin, editor of the National Museum; 
and Mr. Stanley Searles, editor of the Bureau of American 

Respectfully submitted. 

W. P. True, Editor. 
Dr. Cuartes G. Appzor, 
Secretary, Smithsonian Institution. 



Mr. Harry T. Abernathy, 
Kansas City, Mo. 
Mr. Edward E. B. Adams, 
New York, N. Y. 
Miss Mary Barclay Adams, 
Washington, D. C. 
Mr. Eugene E. Ailes, 
New York, N. Y. 
Mr. John EH. Aldred, 
New York, N. Y. 
Mr. J. Henry Alexandre, 
New York, N. Y. 
Mr. Walter H. Alford, 
Kenosha, Wis. 
Mr. Frederic W. Allen, 
New York, N. Y. 
Mr. Rayford W. Alley, 
New York, N. Y. 
Mr. HE. G. Ames, 
Seattle, Wash. 
Mr. George S. Amory. 
New York, N. Y. 
Mr. E. A. Anderson, 
Naugatuck, Conn. 
Mr. John Anderson, 
New York, N. Y. 
Mr. Wendell W. Anderson, 
Detroit, Mich. 
Mr. W. J. Anderson, 
New York, N. Y. 
Mr. W. 8. Andrews, 
Syracuse, N. Y. 
Mr. Hugh D. Auchincloss, 
Washington, D. C. 
Mr. Charles F. Ayer, 
New. York, N. Y. 
Mr. Richard B. Ayer, 
New York, N. Y..- 
Mr. Jules S. Bache, 
New York, N. Y. 


George W. Bacon, 
New York, N. Y. 

. Franklin Baker, jr., 

Hoboken, N. J. 

. Charles F. Baldwin, 

Appleton, Wis. 

. William D. Baldwin, 

New York, N. Y. 

. Howard P. Ballantyne, 

Detroit, Mich. 

. Louis Bamberger, 

Newark, N. J. 

. Joseph Bancroft, 

Wilmington, Del. 

. David Bandler, 

New York, N. Y. 

. Edward J. Barber, 

New York, N. Y. 

. Thomas Barbour, 

Cambridge, Mass. 

. J. S. Barnes, 

New York, N. Y. 

. Charles M. Barnett, 

New York, N. Y. 

. Austin D. Barney, 

Hartford, Conn. 

. Grant S. Barnhart, 

Washington, D. C. 

r. William S. Barstow, 

New York, N. Y. 

. W. H. Barthold, 

New York, N. Y. 

. Philip G. Bartlett, 

New York, N. Y. 

. Charles H. Bascom, 

St. Louis, Mo. 

. Harvey Bates, jr., 

Indianapolis, Ind. 

Hon. Walter EH. Batterson, 

1 List brought up to date as of Nov, 15, 1929. 


Hartford, Conn. 


Mr. Oliver G. Bauman, 
Buffalo, N. Y. 
Mr. Armistead Keith Baylor, 
New York, N. Y. 
Mr. J. N. Beckley, 
Rochester, N. Y. 
Mr. Barton A. Bean, jr., 
Buffalo, N. Y. 
Dr. A. J. Beller, 
New York, N. Y. 
Mr. La Monte J. Belnap, 
New York, N. Y. 
Mr. Alfred M. Best, 
New York, N. Y. 
Mr. John P. Bickell, 
Toronto, Canada. 
Mr. Edwin Binney, 
New York, N. Y. 
Mr. Charles E. Birge, 
New York, N. Y. 
Mr. Clarence R. Bitting, 
Detroit, Mich. 
Mr. James Madison Blackwell, 
New York, N. Y. 
Mrs. Hmmons Blaine, 
Chicago, Ill. 
Mrs. David H. Blair, 
Washington, D. C. 
Mr. Samuel Shipley Blood, 
New York, N. Y. 
Mrs. Elizabeth B. Blossom, 
Cleveland, Ohio. 
Mr. Albert Blum, 
New York, N. Y. 
Mr. Sidney Blumenthal, 
New York, N. Y. 
Mr. Samuel T. Bodine, 
Philadelphia, Pa. 
Mr. W. E. Boeing, 
Seattle, Wash. 
Mr. Lucius M. Boomer, 
New York, N. Y. 
Mr. L. C. Bootes, 
Jackson, Mich. 
Mr. C. Jackson Booth, 
Hull, Quebec, Canada. 
Mr. Edward F. Bosson, 
Hartford, Conn. 
Mr. Samuel H. Bowman, jr., 
Minneapolis, Minn. 
Mrs. John C. Boyd, 
Washington, D. C. 


Mr. A. R. M. Boyle, 
New York, N. Y. 
Mr. F. W. Bradley, 
San Francisco, Calif. 
Mr. EF. W. Braun, 
Los Angeles, Calif. 
Mr. Bradford Brinton, 
New York, N. Y. 
Mr. Henry Platt Bristol, 
New York, N. Y. 
Mr. Robert 8S. Brookings, 
Washington, D. C. 
Mr. Gerald Brooks, 
New York, N. Y. 
Mr. Donaldson Brown, 
New York, N. Y. 
Mr. H. F. Brown, 
Wilmington, Del. 
Mr. Hays R. Browning, 
New York, N. Y. 
Mr. Otto Brunenmeister, jr., 
New York, N. Y. 
Mr. W. Gerald Bryant, 
Bridgeport, Conn. 
Mr. Albert Buchman, 
New York, N. Y. 
Mr. Britton I. Budd, 
Chicago, Ill. 
Mr. Lawrence D. Buhl, 
Detroit, Mich. 
Mr. F. Kingsbury Bull, 
Litchfield, Conn. 
Mr. Perey Bullard, 
New York, N. Y. 
Mr. W. Douglas Burden, 
New York, N. Y. 
Mr. Frederick John Burghard, 
New York, N. Y. 
Mrs. Stevenson Burke, 
Cleveland, Ohio. 
Mr. Eric Burkman, 
New York, N. Y. 
Mr. Gordon W. Burnham, 
New York, N. Y. 
Mrs. J. S. Burnside, 
Toronto, Ontario, Canada. 
Hon. Martin Burrell, P 
Ottawa, Canada. 
Mr. Smith P. Burton, jr., 
Boston, Mass. 
Mr. F. S. Byram (2 subscriptions), 
Philadelphia, Pa. 


Mr. James D. Callery, 
Pittsburgh, Pa. 
Mr. Jasper A. Campbell, jr., 
New York, N. Y. 
Mr. John T. Campbell, 
Norfolk, Va. 
Mr. William Candler, 
Atlanta, Ga. 
Mr. Albert H. Canfield, 
Bridgeport, Conn. 
Mr. William C. Cannon, 
New York, N. Y. 
Mr. Martin Cantine, 
New York, N. Y. 
Mr. George W. Carnrick, 
New York, N. Y. 
Mr. James H. Carter, 
New York, N. Y. 
Mr. John J. Carty, 
New York, N. Y. 
Mr. George Cary, 
Buffalo, N. Y. 
Mr. Theodore W. Case, 
Auburn, N. Y. 
Mr. Thomas E. Casey, 
New York, N. Y. 
Mr. Charles A. Cass, 
New York, N. Y. 
Mrs. E. Crane Chadbourne, 
Washington, D. C. 
Mr. Harry Chandler, 
Los Angeles, Calif. 
Mr. Charles M. Chapin, 
New York, N. Y. 
Mr. C. Merrill Chapin, jr., 
New York, N. Y. 
Mr. S. B. Chapin, jr., 
New York, N. Y. 
Mr. A. Wallace Chauncey, 
New York, N. Y. 
Mr. Starling W. Childs, 
INewn Work: IN? Y. 
Mr. George H. Chisholm, 
Buffalo, N. Y. 
Mr. F. Edwin Church, 
__ New York, N. Y. 
Dr. A. Schuyler Clark, 
New York, N. Y. 
Mr. Eli P. Clark, 
Los Angeles, Calif: 
Mr. George H. Clark, 
Rochester, N. Y. 

Mr. Ray Clark, 
New York, N. Y. 
Mr. Robert Sterling Clark, 
New York, N. Y. 
Mr. W. A. Clark, ITI, 
Los Angeles, Calif. 
Mr. John L. Clawson, 
Buffalo, N. Y. 
Mr. Oliver M. Clifford, 
St. Louis, Mo. 
Mr. George I. Cochran, 
Los Angeles, Calif. 
Miss Ella S. Coe, 
Litchfield, Conn. 
Mr. C. W. Floyd Coffin, 
New York, N. Y. 
Dr. Wallace P. Cohoe, 
New York, N. Y. 
Mr. John N. Cole, 
New York, N. Y. 
Dr. Philip G. Cole, 
Brooklyn, N. Y. 
Mr. Viott Myers Cole, 
New York, N. Y. 
Mr. Philip S. Collins, 
Philadelphia, Pa. 
Mr. Martin Conboy, 
New York, N. Y. 
Mr. W. L. Conwell, 
New York, N. Y. 
Prof. Thomas F. Cooke, 
Buffalo, N. Y. 
Mr. T. J. Coolidge, 
Boston, Mass. 
Mr. Edward F. Coombs, 
New York, N. Y. 
Mr. Howard Coonley, 
Boston, Mass. 
Mrs. Q. F. Coonley, 
Washington, D. C. 
Mr. Dudley Martindale Cooper, 
New York, N. Y. 
Mr. W. S. Corby, 
Washington, D. C. 
Mr. Fred D. Corey, 
Buffalo, N. Y. 
Mr. John W. Cowper, 
Buffalo, N. Y. 
Mr. Alexander M. Crane, 
New York, N. Y. 
Mr. Clinton H. Crane, 
New York, N. Y. 


Mr. Gifford B. Crary, 
Binghamton, N. Y. 

Mr. William Nelson Cromwell, 

New York, N. Y. 
Mr. Franklin M. Crosby, 
Minneapolis, Minn. 
Mr. J. W. Cross, 
New York, N. Y. 
Mr. Miquel Cruchaga, 
Paris, France. 
Mr. HB. A. Cudahy, jr., 
Chicago, Ill. 
Mr. J. S. Cullinan, 
Houston, Tex. 
Mr. Victor M. Cutter, 
Boston, Mass. 
Mr. C. Suydam Cutting, 
New York, N. Y. 
Cuyamel Fruit Co., 
New Orleans, La. 
Mr. Charles E. Dalrymple, 
Newark, N. J. 
Mr. U. de B. Daly, 
St. Louis, Mo. 
Mr. Ernest B. Dane, 
Boston, Mass. 
Dr. Frank EH. Darling, 
Milwaukee, Wis. 
Mr. Daniel Darrow, 
New York, N. Y. 
Mr. Louis R. Davidson, 
Buffalo, N. Y. 

Sefior Don Carlos G. Davila, 

Washington, D. C. 
Mr. Basil H. Davis, 

New York, N. Y. 
Mr. Edgar B. Davis, 

New York, N. Y. 
Mr. James Sherlock Davis, 

Brooklyn, N. Y. 
Mrs. T. B. Davis, 

Rock Island, Ill. 
Mr. Frederie A. Delano, 

Washington, D. C. 

Mr. William Adams Delano, 

New York, N. Y. 
Mr. Frank L. D’Elia, 

Jersey City, N. J. 
Mr. George Denégre, 

New Orleans, La. 
Mr. A. C. Deuel, 

Niagara Falls, N. Y. 
Mr. Fairman R. Dick, 

New York, N. Y. 


Mr. Albert H. Dickinson, 
Kansas City, Mo. 
Mr. Hunt T. Dickinson, 
New York, N. Y. 
Mr. Milton S. Dillon, 
New York, N. Y. 
Mr. Fitz Eugene Dixon, 
Philadelphia, Pa. 
Mr SsCsDobbpsijr, 
Atlanta, Ga. 
Mr. Frank P. Doherty, 
Los Angeles, Calif. 
Mr. L. W. Dommerich, 
New York, N. Y. 
Mr. James P. Donahue, 
New York, N. Y. 
Mr. Robert Donner, 
Buffalo, N. Y. 
Dr. A. G. Doughty, 
Ottawa, Canada. 
Mr. Robert Douglas, 
Rochester, N. Y. 
Dr. George S. Drake, 
St. Louis, Mo. ~ 
Mr. Dow H. Drukker, 
Passaic, N. J. 
Mr. Frank A. Dudley, 
Niagara Falls, N. Y. 
Mr. Caleb C. Dula, 
New York, N. Y: 
Mr. A. BH. Duncan, 
Baltimore, Md. 
Mrs. Jessie D. Dunlap, 
Toronto, Canada. 
Mr. Eugene EH. du Pont, 
Wilmington, Del. 
Mr. Henry B. du Pont, 
Wilmington, Del. 
Mr. Irenee du Pont, 
Wilmington, Del. 
Mrs. J. Coleman du Pont, 
New York, N. Y. 
Mr. Lammot du Pont, 
Wilmington, Del. 
Mr. S. Hallock du Pont, 
Wilmington, Del. 
Mr. Arthur S. Dwight, 
New York, N. Y. 
Mr. Herbert T. Dyett, 
Rome, N. Y. 
Mr. Chaffee Earle, 
Los Angeles, Calif. 
Mr. Thomas T. Eason, 
Enid, Okla. 



Lady Eaton, Miss Catherine Farrar, 
Toronto, Canada. Paterson, N. J. 

Dr. George J. Eckel, Mr. James A. Farrell, 
Buffalo, N. Y. New York, N. Y. 

Mr. George H. Eddy, Mr. George R. Fearing, 
Kenosha, Wis. Boston, Mass. 

Mr. James G. Eddy, Mr. L. F. Fedders, 
Seattle, Wash. Buffalo, N. Y. 

Hon. Gordon C. Edwards, Mr. Edwin C. Feigenspan, 
Ottawa, Canada. Newark, N. J. 

Mr. Louis J. Ehret (2 subscriptions), Mr. Orestes Ferrara, 
New York, N. Y. Washington, D. C. 

Mr. Otto M. Hidlitz, Mr. John E. N. Figved, 
New York, N. Y. Milwaukee, Wis. 

Mr. Arturo M. Elias, Dr. Mark E. Finley, 
New York, N. Y. Washington, D. C. 

Mr. George Adams Ellis, Mr. Thomas W. Finucane, 
New York, N. Y. Rochester, N. Y. 

Mr. Duncan Steuart Ellsworth, Mr. Harvey S. Firestone, 
New York, N. Y. Akron, Ohio. 

Mr. Albert C. Elser, Mr. Alfred J. Fisher, 
Milwaukee, Wis. Detroit, Mich. 

Mr. Charles T. Fisher, 
Detroit, Mich. 
Mr. Edward F. Fisher (2 subscrip- 
Detroit, Mich. 
Mr. Frank C. Fisher, 
New York, N. Y. 
Mr. Fred J. Fisher, 
Detroit, Mich. 
Mr. Lawrence P. Fisher, 
Detroit, Mich. 
Mr. William A. Fisher, 
Detroit, Mich. 
Mr. B. F. Fitch, 
New York, N. Y. 

Mr. George W. Ely, 
New York, N. Y. 
Mr. James Radford English, 
New York, N. Y. 
Mr. William Phelps Eno, 
Washington, D. C. 
Mr. W. H. Erhart, 
New York, N. Y. 
Mr. Joseph Errington, 
Toronto, Canada. 
Mr. W. H. Eshbaugh, 
New York, N. Y. 
Mr. Nathaniel I. Evens, 
New York, N. Y. 

Mr. Edward A. Everett, Mr. W. W. Flowers, 
Long Island City, N. Y. New York, N. Y. 
Mr. George A. Hyer, Mr. Oscar G. Foellinger, 
New York, N. Y. Fort Wayne, Ind. 
Mr. Charles 8S. Eytinge, Mr. R. W. Foote, 
New York, N. Y. New Haven, Conn. 
Mr. Hberhard Faber, Mr. John B. Ford, jr., 
New York, N. Y. Detroit, Mich. 
Mr. Frank J. Fahey, Mr. S. W. Fordyce, 
Boston, Mass. St. Louis, Mo. 
Mrs. Gibson Fahnestock, Mr. Oswald Fowler, 
Washington, D. C. New York, N. Y. 
Mr. Douglas Fairbanks, Mr. Richard L. Fox, 
Hollywood, Calif. Philadelphia, Pa. 
Mr. Arthur W. Fairchild, Mr. Charles B. Francis, 
Milwaukee, Wis. St. Louis, Mo. 
Mr. Herman W. Falk. Mr. Clayton HK. Freeman, 

Milwaukee, Wis. New York, N. Y. 


Mrs. Emma B. French, 
Manchester, N. Y. 
Mr. Herbert G. French, 
Cincinnati, Ohio. 
Mr. Robert E. Friend, 
Milwaukee, Wis. 
Mr. John Hemming Fry, 
New York, N. Y. 
Dr. L. A. Fuerstenau, 
Milwaukee, Wis. 
Dr. Eugene Fuller, 
Seattle, Wash. 
Mr. Frederick J. Fuller, 
New York, N. Y. 
Mr. George F. Fuller, 
Worcester, Mass. 
Mr. Walter D. Fuller, 
Philadelphia, Pa. 
Mr. William Shirley Fulton, 
Waterbury, Conn. 
Judge Arthur G. Gallagher, 
New York, N. Y. 
Mr. Frank de Ganahl, 
New York, N. Y. 
Mr. John W. Garrett, 
Baltimore, Md. 
Mr. Paul Willard Garrett, 
New York, N. Y. 
Mr. James L. Gartner, 
Tulsa, Okla. 
Mr. A. O. Gates, 
New Haven, Conn. 
Mr. Charles R. Gay, 
New York, N. Y. 
Mr. C. P. Gearon, 
New York, N. Y. 
Mr. Stanley L. Gedney, jr., 
East Orange, N. J. 
Mr. Paulino Gerli, 
New York, N. Y. 
Mr. James L. Gerry, 
New York, N. Y. 
Mr. William P. Gest, 
Philadelphia, Pa. 
Mrs. Milton E. Getz, 
Beverly Hills, Calif. 
Mrs. John H. Gibbons, 
Washington, D. C. 
Mr. Edward EH. Gillen, 
Milwaukee, Wis. 
Mr. Michael Gioe, sr., 
New York, N. Y. 
Mr. Charles F. Glore, 
Chicago, Ill. 

Hon. Guy D. Goff, 
Washington, D. C. 

Mr. Richard J. Goodman, 
Hartford, Conn. 

Mr. Edward S. Goodwin, 
Hartford, Conn. 

Mr. Jose BH. Gorrin, 
Habana, Cuba. 

Mr. Osmer N. Gorton, 
New York, N. Y. 

Mr. Chauncey P. Goss, jr., 
Waterbury, Conn, 

| Mr. Edward O. Goss, 

Waterbury, Conn. 
Mr. George A. Goss, 
Waterbury, Conn. 
Mr. John H. Goss, 
Waterbury, Conn. 
Mr. Lyttleton B. P. Gould, 
New York, N. Y. 
Mr. William B. Gourley, 
Paterson, N. J. 
Mr. S. C. Graham, 
Los Angeles, Calif. 
Mr. Alfred E. Green, 
Hollywood, Calif. 
Mr. George F. Green, 
Danbury, Conn. 
Mr. Lincoln Green, 
Washington, D. C. 
Dr. Louis 8. Greene, 
Washington, D. C. 
Dr. James C. Greenway, 
New Haven, Conn. 
Mr. David L. Grey, 
St. Louis, Mo. 
Mr. John Gribbell (5 subscriptions), 
Philadelphia, Pa. 
Mr. B. J. Grigsby, 
Chicago, Ill. 
Mr. George B. Grinnell, 
New York, N. Y. 
Mrs. Minnie Tillou Grippin, 
Bridgeport, Conn. 
Mr. B. Howell Griswold, jr., 
Baltimore, Md. 
Mr. Edgar J. Griswold, 
New York, N. Y. 
Grosvenor Library, 
Buffalo, N. Y. 

(Presented by Mr. Ansley Wilcox, Mr. 
William Schoellkopf, Mr. H. W. Wolcott, 
Mr. Percy G. Lapey, Mr. Edward L. Jelli- 
nek, Buffalo, N, Y.) 



Allen D. Gutchess, 
Toledo, Ohio. 

. Charles W. Guttzeit, 

New York, N. Y. 

. Robert EH. Hackett, 

Milwaukee, Wis. 

*. Fred H. Haggerson, 

New York, N. Y. 

. Robert L. Hague, 

New York, N. Y. 

. Edward A. Halbleib, 

Rochester, N. Y. 

. Mayer L. Halff, 

New York, N. Y. 

«eK geal, 

New York, N. Y. 

r, William A, Hamann, 

New York, N. Y. 

. Joseph G. Hamblen, jr., 

Detroit, Mich. 

r, Chauncey J. Hamlin, 

Buffalo, N. Y. 

r, J. E. Hammell, 

Toronto, Canada. 

. John Hays Hammond, 

New York, N. Y. 

Mrs. C. E. Hancock, 

Syracuse, N. Y. 

Dr. Walter S. Harban, 

Washington, D. C. 

. W. Albert Harbison, 

New York, N. Y. 

. Acheson A. Harden, 

Passaic, N. J. 

. John R. Hardin, 

Newark, N. J. 

. Louis A. Harding, 

Buffalo, N. Y. 

. Franklin Hardinge, 

Chicago, Ill. 

r. J. B. Hardon, 

Boston, Mass. 

. Huntington R. Hardwick, 

Boston, Mass. 

. Anton G. Hardy, 

New York, N. Y. 

. D. W. Hardy, 

New York, N. Y. 

. Bruce H. Hariton, 

Tulsa, Okla. 


Mr. Rawson B. Harmon, 
Detroit, Mich. 

Mr. Henry Harnischfeger, 
Milwaukee, Wis. 

Dr. James T. Harrington, 
Poughkeepsie, N. Y. 

Mr. Gordon L. Harris, 
New York, N. Y. 

Mr. William Harris, 
Totawa, N. J. 

Mr. Alfred Hart, 
Waterbury, Conn. 

Mr. Barton Haselton, 
Rome, N. Y. 

Mr. Philip H. Haselton, 
New York, N. Y. 

Dr. F. R. Haussling, 
Newark, N. J. 

Mr. Horace Havemeyer, 
New York, N. Y. 

Mr. Elmer H: Havens, 
Bridgeport, Conn. 

Dr. George Waller Hawley, 
Bridgeport, Conn. 

Mr. Samuel W. Hayes, 
Oklahoma City, Okla. 

Mr. George Hearst, 
San Francisco, Calif. 

Mr. Roy W. Hemingway, 
Auburn, N. Y. 

Mr. F. R. Henderson, 
New York, N. Y. 

Mrs. A. Barton Hepburn, 
New York, N. Y. 

Mr. Henry Herbermann, 
New York, N. Y. 

Mr. Milton S. Hershey, 
Hershey, Pa. 

Mr. Jean Hersholt, 
Beverly Hills, Calif. 

Mrs. Sallie A. Hert, 
Louisville, Ky. 

Mr. Reginald Hess, 
New York, N. Y. 

Mr. Francis Lee Higginson, 
Boston, Mass. 

Mr. C. A. Hight, 
Boston, Mass. 

Mr. Joseph H. Himes, 
Washington, D. C. 


Mr. Edward Hines, 
Chicago, Il. 
Mr. Lewis A. Hird, 
New York, N. Y. 
Mr. Arthur L. Hobson, 
Boston, Mass. 
Mrs. Grace Whitney Hoff, 
Washington, D. C. 
Mr. Albert L. Hoffman, 
New York, N. Y. 
Mr. Samuel V. Hoffman, 
New York, N. Y. 
Mr. William F. Hoffman, 
Newark, N. J. 
Mrs. Edward Holbrook, 
New York, N. Y. 
Mr. Joshua B. Holden, 
Boston, Mass. 
Mr. William J. Holliday, 
Indianapolis, Ind. 
Mr. Edward J. Holmes, 
Boston, Mass. 
Mr. George E. Holmes, 
New York, N. Y. 
Mr. W. R. G. Holt, 
Montreal, Canada. 
Mr. Ernest Hopkinson, 
New York, N. Y. 
Mr. Louis J. Horowitz, 
New York, N. Y. 
Mr. John S. A. Hosford, 
New York, N. Y. 
Miss Marie O. Hotchkiss, 
Hast River, Conn. 
Mr. W. Deering Howe, 
New York, N. Y. 
Mr. Allen G. Hoyt, 
New York, N. Y. 
Mr. Richard F. Hoyt, 
New York, N. Y. 
Hon. Charles E. Hughes, 
New York, N. Y. 
Mr. Felix T. Hughes, 
New York, N. Y. 
Mrs. Margarita Cress Hunt, 
Washington, D. C. 
Mr. Frederick H. Hurdman, 
New York, N. Y. 
Mr. BE. F. Hutton, 
New York, N. Y. 
Mr. R. J. H. Hutton, 
Buffalo, N. Y. 


Mr. William Dunn Hutton, 
New York, N. Y. 
Mr. A. F. Hyde, 
New York, N. Y. 
Dr. Edmund W. Ill, 
Newark, N. J. 
Mr. Charles H. Innes, 
Boston, Mass. 
Mr. Samuel Insull, 
Chicago, Ill. 
Mr. Robert F. Irwin, jr., 
Philadelphia, Pa. 
Mr. Henry H. Jackson, 
New York, N. Y. 
Mr. Stanley P. Jadwin, 
New York, N. Y. 
Mr. Alfred W. Jenkins, 
New York, N. Y. 
Miss Mary E. Jenkins, 
Syracuse, N. Y. 
Mr. Ulysses S. Jenkins, 
Chicago, Ill. 
Mrs. Mary L. Jennings, 
Washington, D. C. 
Mr. BE. J. Johnson, 
Detroit, Mich. 
Mr. Eldridge R. Johnson, 
Camden, N. J. 
Mr. James A. Johnson, 
Buffalo, N. Y. 
Mr. Robert McK. Jones, 
St. Louis, Mo. 
Mr. Stephen R. Jones, 
New York, N. Y. 
Miss Grace Jordan, 
Peekskill, N. Y. 
Mr. R. J. Jowsey, 
Toronto, Canada. 
Mr. George H. Judd, 
Washington, D. C. 
Miss Katherine Judge, 
Washington, D. C. 
Mr. Gilbert W. Kahn, 
New York, N. Y. 
Mr. Otto H. Kahn, 
New York, N. Y. 
Mr. Henry J. Kaltenbach, 
New York, N. Y. 
Mr. Foxhall P. Keene, 
New York, N. Y. 
Mr. Russell M. Keith, 
Cleveland, Ohio. 


r, Arthur M. Kelley, 

Bayshore, L. I., N. Y. 

. Foster Kennedy, 

New York, N. Y. 

. A. Atwater Kent, 

Philadelphia, Pa. 

. Marshall R. Kernochan, 

Tuxedo Park, N. Y. 

. C. C. Kerr, 

New York, N. Y. 

r. W. W. Kineaid, 

Niagara Falls, N. Y. 

. Willey Lyon Kingsley, 

Rome, N. Y. 

r. W. Ruloff Kip, 

New York, N. Y. 

. William F. Kip, 

New York, N. Y. 

. Gustavus T. Kirby, 

New York, N. Y. 

. Edward H. Kirschbaum, 

Waterbury, Conn. 

. Benjamin Kittinger, 

Buffalo, N. Y. 

. John K. Kline, 

Green Bay, Wis. 

*. Joseph F. Knapp, 

New York, N. Y. 

. Harry French Knight, 

St. Louis, Mo. 

. W. W. Knight, 

Toledo, Ohio. 

. Seymour H. Knox, 

Buffalo, N. Y. 

. Philip A. Koehring, 

Milwaukee, Wis. 

. Walter F. Koken, 

St. Louis, Mo. 

. Edward L. Koons, 

Buffalo, N. Y. 

. J. N. Korhumel, 

Cicero, Ill. 

. Harry G. Kosch, 

New York, N. Y. 

. Frederick J. Koster, 

San Francisco, Calif. 

. de Lancey Kountze, 

New York, N. Y. 

. J. L. Kraft, 

Chicago, Ill. 

. Shepard Krech, 

New York, N. Y. 


Mrs. Anna BH. Kresge, 
Detroit; Mich. 

Mr. Stanley S. Kresge (3 subscrip- 


Detroit, Mich. 

Mr. Arthur W. Kretschmar, 
New York, N. Y. 

Mr. L. Kuehn, 
Milwaukee, Wis. 

Mr. Gerard Kuehne, 
New York, N. Y. 

Mr. Felix Lake, 
Washington, D. C. 

Mr. H. C. Lakin, 9 
New York, N. Y. j 

Mr. R. P. Lamont, ay 
Chicago, III. 

Mrs. Marshall Langhorne, 
Washington, D. C. 

Mr. Henry G. Lapham, 
Boston, Mass. 

Mr. Sylvester P. Larkin, 
New York, N. Y. 

Mr. Irwin B. Laughlin, 
Washington, D. C. 

Mr. Eugene B. Lawson, 
Tulsa, Okla. 

Mr. John §S. Leahy, 
St. Louis, Mo. 

Mrs. L. A. Lefevre, 
Vancouver, British Columbia. 

Mr. Erich E. Lehsten, 
New York, N. Y. 

Mr. William H. Leland, 
Worcester, Mass. 

Miss Isobel Lenman (2 subscriptions), 
Washington, D. C. 

Mr. C. H. LeRoy, 
New York, N. Y. 

Mr. William Leslie, 
New York, N. Y. 

Mrs. Frank Letts, 
Washington, D. C. 

Mr. William E. Levis, 
Alton, Ill. 

Mr. Edwin C. Lewis, 
Detroit, Mich. 

Mr. Henry Lewis, 
New York, N. Y. 

Mr. Samuel A. Lewisohn, 
New York, N. Y. 





Louis K. Liggett, 
Boston, Mass. 

Josiah K, Lilly, 
Indianapolis, Ind. 

Josiah K, Lilly, jr., 
Indianapolis, Ind. 

Mrs. Robert T. Lincoln, 



Washington, D. C. 
John S. Linen, 

New York, N. Y. 
James Duane Livingston 

New York, N. Y. 


Mr. Horatio G. Lloyd, 
Philadelphia, Pa. 
Mr. S. D. Locke, 
Bridgeport, Conn. 
Mr. Ray Long, 
New York, N. Y. 
Mr. Frank Lord, 

New York, N. Y. 

. James Taber Loree, 

Albany, N. Y. 

. Harl P. Lothrop, 

Buffalo, N. Y. 

. Charles H. Lotte, 

Paterson, N. J. 

. KX. W. Lovejoy, 

Rochester, N. Y. 

. Horace Lowry, 

Minneapolis, Minn. 

. C. T. Ludington, 

Philadelphia, Pa. 

. Charles W. Luke, 

New York, N. Y. 

. G. R. Lyman, 

New York, N. Y. 

. James Lynah, 

Detroit, Mich. 

. Grant S. Macartney, 

St. Paul, Minn. 

- Norman E. Mack, 

Buffalo, N. Y. 

- Malcolm S. Mackay, 

New York, N. Y. 

. Carleton Macy, 

New York, N. Y. 

'. Clifford D. Mallory, 

New York, N. Y. 

. W. EH. Mallory, 

Danbury, Conn. 

. Peter J. Maloney, jr., 

New York, N. Y. 

Judge Francis X. Mancusco, 
New York, N. Y. 
Mr. Clayton Mark, 
Chicago, Ill. 
Mr. John Markle, 
New York, N. Y. 
Mr. Lawrence M. Marks, 
New York, N. Y. 
Mr. Howard C. Marmon, 
Indianapolis, Ind. 
Mr. Walter C. Marmon, 
Indianapolis, Ind. 
Mr. M. Lee Marshall, 
New York, N. Y. 
Mr. Richard H. Marshall, 
New York, N. Y. 
Mr. Bradley Martin, 
New York, N. Y. 
Mr. Darwin D. Martin, 
Buffalo, N. Y. 
Mr. John C. Martin, 
Philadelphia, Pa. 
Dr. Philip Marvel, sr., 
Atlantie City, N. J. 
Mr. George Grant Mason, 
New York, N. Y. 
Mr. J. W. Mason, 
San Francisco, Calif. 
Mr. B. A. Massee, 
Chicago, I. 
Mr. Gordon M. Mather, 
Toledo, Ohio. 
Mrs. Grace H. Mather, 
Cleveland, Ohio. 
Mrs. G. E. Matthies, 
Seymour, Conn. 
Miss Katherine Matthies, 
Seymour, Conn. 
Mr. C. H. Matthiessen, jr., 
New York, N. Y. 
Mr. Frank Matthiessen, 
Chicago, Ill. 
Mr. William L. Mauran, 
Providence, R. I. 
Mr. Howard W. Maxwell, jr., 
New York, N. Y. 
Mr. Ambrose Farroll McCabe, 
New York, N. Y. 
Mr. Ormond William McClave, 
New York, N. Y. 
Mr. Kenner McConnell, 
Columbus, Ohio. 



Mr. James D. McCormack, Mr. Edward G. Miner, H 
Vancouver, British Columbia. Rochester, N. Y. 
Mr. Cyrus H. McCormick, Mrs. Ff. B. Miner, 
Chicago, Ill. Flint, Mich. 
Mr. Leander McCormick-Goodhart, Mr. John J. Mitchell, 
Washington, D. C. Chicago, Ill. 
Mr. Alex W. McCoy, Mr. Leeds Mitchell, 
Ponca City, Okla. Chicago, Ill. 
Mr. Henry Forbes McCreery, Mr. Roscoe R. Mitchell, 
New York, N. Y. Buffalo, N. Y. 
Mr. Hubert McDonnell, Mr. T. E. Mitten, 
New York, N. Y. Philadelphia, Pa. 
Mr. Frank H. McGraw, Mr. J. A. Moffett, 
New York, N. Y. New York, N. Y. 
Mr. James H. McGraw, Mr. Joseph A. Moller, 
New York, INe Xe New York, INE WA 
Mr. Sumner T. McKnight, Mr. Jay R. Monroe, 
Minneapolis, Minn. Orange, N. J. 
Mr. R. 8. McLaughlin, Mr. Henry E. Montgomery, 
Ontario, Canada. Buffalo, N. Y. 

Mr. Marrs McLean, 
Beaumont, Tex. 
Mr. William L. McLean, 
Philadelphia, Pa. 
Mr. Clifford L. MeMillen, 
Milwaukee, Wis. 
Mr. Andrew W. Mellon, 
Washington, D. C. 
Mr. Louis Mendelssohn, 
Detroit, Mich. 

Mr. William Moore, 
Detroit, Mich, 
Mr. Adelbert Moot, 
Buffalo, N. Y. 
Mrs. James Dudley Morgan, 
Chevy Chase, Md. 
Mr. J. Pierpont Morgan (2 subscrip- 
New York, N. Y. 

Mr. Buckingham P. Merriman, MRS IONE AN moe. 
Waterbury, Conn. EY HOS Hak a . 

Miss Ethel Douglas Merritt, Mrs. AUES Grippin Morris, 
Wvnahineten enh iG. Bridgeport, Conn. 

Mr. William B. Mershon, Mr. W. Cullen Pee 
Saginaw, Mich. New York, N. Y. 

Mr. A. H. Mertzanoff, wis lay Fa RUS 
New York, N. Y. New) Mork, ul) 

Col. Herman A. Metz, Mr. Samuel Mundheim, 
New York, N. Y. New York, N. Y. 

Mr. Cord Meyer, Mr. Frank C. Munson, 
New York, N. Y. New York, N. Y. 

Mr. Devereux Milburn, Mr. C. Haywood Murphy, 
New York, N. Y. Detroit, Mich. 

Mr. C. Wilbur Miller, Mr. Henry A. Murray, 
Baltimore, Md. New York, N. Y. 

Mr. Ernest B. Miller, Premier Benito Mussolini, 
Baltimore, Md. Rome, Italy. 

Mr. John J. Miller, Mr. Harold Nathan, 
Washington, D. C. New York, N. Y. 

Dr. S. M. Milliken, National Gallery of Art, 
New York, N. Y. Washington, D. C. 

Mr. Ogden L. Mills, National Library of Wales, 

New York, N. Y. Wales. 



John S. Newberry, 
Detroit, Mich. 

Hon. Truman H. Newberry, 







Detroit, Mich. 
Waldo Newcomer, 
Baltimore, Md. 

F. T. Nicholson, 
New York, N. Y. 
William BH. Nickerson, 
Boston, Mass. 
John B. Niven, 
New York, N. Y. 
Aaron EH. Norman, 
New York, N. Y. 
George W. Norris, 
Philadelphia, Pa. 

', Harry Oakes, 

Ontario, Canada. 

. J. J. O’Brien, 

Chicago, Ill. 

. Lyle H. Olson, 

New York, N. Y. 

. John Omwake, 

Cincinnati, Ohio. 

1 We ONeill, 

Arkon, Ohio. 

. James L. O’Neill, 

New York, N. Y. 

. Joseph E. Otis, 

Chicago, Ill. 

. Roy H. Ott, 

New York, N. Y. 

. Arthur Newton Pack, 

Washington, D. C. 

. John F. Palmer, 

Pawhuska, Okla. 

. Charles A. Parcells, 

Detroit, Mich. 

. Karle W. Parcells, 

Detroit, Mich. 

. George Pariot, 

New York, N. Y. 

. Dale M. Parker, 

New York, N. Y. 

. Henry Herbert Parmelee, 

Paterson, N. J. 

. James Parmelee, 

Washington, D. C. 

. Reginald H. Parsons, 

Seattle, Wash. 

. William D. Patten, 

New York, N. Y. 

. Stephen Paul, 

New York, N. Y. 

Mr. Charles S. Payson, 
New York, N. Y. 
Mr. Max H. Peiler, 
Hartford, Conn. 
Mr. Howland H. Pell, 
New York, N. Y. 
Mr. Charles Pfeiffer, 
New York, N. Y. 
Mr. Gustavus A. Pfeiffer, 
New York, N. Y. 
Mr. Knox B. Phagan, 
New York, N. Y. 
Mr. Leopold Philipp, 
New York, N. Y. 
Mr. Ellis L. Phillips, 
New York, N. Y. 
Mr. Rowley W. Phillips, 
Waterbury, Conn. 
Mrs. Thomas W. Phillips, 
Washington, D. C. 
Mr. Howard Phipps, 
New York, N. Y. 
Mr. H. M. Pierce, 
Wilmington, Del. 
Mr. Robert L. Pierrepont, 
New York, N. Y. 
Mr. William S. Pilling, 
Philadelphia, Pa. 
Mr. Townsend Pinkney, 
New York, N. Y. 
Mr. Bayard F. Pope, 
New York, N. Y. 
Mr. Frederick J. Pope, 
New York, N. Y. 
Mr. Joseph F. Porter, 
Kansas City, Mo. 
Mr. Joseph W. Powdrell, 
Boston, Mass. 
Mr. Herbert L. Pratt, 
New York, N. Y. 
Mrs. John T. Pratt, 
New York, N. Y. 
Mr. Sydney I. Prescott, 
New York, N. Y. 

Mr. William Cooper Procter, 

Cincinnati, Ohio. 

Mr. Thomas E. Proctor, 2d, 

Boston, Mass. 
Mr. Ralph Pulitzer, 
New York, N. Y. 
Mr. Percy R. Pyne, jr., 
New York, N. Y. 
Mr. Ernest E. Quantrell, 
New York, N. Y. 



Mr. Edgar M. Queeny, 
St. Louis, Mo. 
Mr. Gershom T. Randall, 
New York, N. Y. 
Mr. de Lancey Rankine, 
Niagara Falls, N. Y. 
Mr. John J. Raskob, 
New York, N. Y. 
Mr. William F. Raskob, 
Wilmington, Del. 
Mr. Duncan H. Read, 
New York, N. Y. 
Mr. Harle H. Reynolds, 
Chicago, Il. 
Mr. Harrison G. Reynolds, 
Boston, Mass. 
Mr. Edwin T. Rice, 
New “Vorlk,/ Ne Ye: 
Mr. Neil W. Rice, 
Boston, Mass. 
Mr. S. Willson Richards, 
New York, N. Y. 
Mr. HE. Ridgeway, 
Chicago, III. 
Mr. Harry G. Rieger, 
Philadelphia, Pa. 
Mr. Charles E. Riley, 
Boston, Mass. 
Mr. Arthur W. Rinke, 
New York, N. Y. 
Mrs. Anita Bell Ritter, 
Washington, D. C. 
Dr. William C. Rives, 
Washington, D. C. 
Mr. Walter B. Robb, 
Buffalo, N. Y. 
Mr. Owen F. Roberts, 
New York, N. Y. 
Mr. Irving EH. Robertson, 
Toronto, Canada. 

Mr. William A. Rockefeller, 

New York, N. Y. 
Mrs. John A. Roebling, 
Bernardsville, N. J. 
Mr. Charles H. Roemer, 
Paterson, N. J. 
Mr. Saul H. Rogers, 
New York, N. Y. 
Mr. William H. Rollinson, 
New York, N. Y. 
Mr. Irving I. Rosenbaum, 
New York, N. Y. 
Mr. Edward L. Rossiter, 
New York, N. Y. 

Mr. Stanley A. Russell, 
New York, N. Y. 

Mr. William Hamilton Russell, 

New York, N. Y. 
Mrs. John Rutherford, 

Washington, D. C. 
Mr. W. R. Sampson, 

Boston, Mass. 

Mr. Henry Gansevoort Sanford, 

New York, N. Y. 
Mr. Harold A. Sands, 
New York, N. Y. 
Mr. James Savage, 
Buffalo, N. Y. 
Mr. Homer E. Sawyer, 
New York, N. Y. 
Mr. Michael A. Seatuorchio, 
Jersey City, N. J. 
Mr. Bernhard K. Schaefer, 
New York, N. Y. 
Mr. H. W. Schaefer, 
New York, N. Y. 
Mr. Herrman A. Schatz, 
Poughkeepsie, N. Y. 
Mr. William N. Schill, 
New York, N. Y. 
Mr. George Schmidt, jr., 
Hlizabeth, N. J. 
Mr. L. O. Schmidt, 
New York, N. Y. 
Mr. Daniel Schnakenberg, 
New York, N. Y. 
Mr. Henry Schniewind, 
New York, N. Y. 
Mr. Alfred H. Schoellkopf, 
Buffalo, N. Y. 
Mr. J. F. Schoellkopf, jr., 
Buffalo, N. Y. 
Mr. Paul A. Schoellkopf, 
Buffalo, N. Y. 
Mr. Sherman W. Scofield, 
Cleveland, Ohio. 
New York, N. Y. 
Mr. William Keith Scott, 
Los Angeles, Calif. 
Mr. William E. Scripps, _ 
Detroit, Mich. 
Mr. Harold H. Seaman, 
Milwaukee, Wis. 
Mr. Frank A. Seiberling, 
Akron, Ohio. 

Mr. Walter Seligman, 

New York, N. Y. 


Mr. Jere A. Sexton, 
New York, N. Y. 
Mr. John C. Shaffer, 
Chicago, Ill. 
Mr. Richard Sharpe, 
Wilkes-Barre, Pa. 
Mr. G. Howland Shaw, 
Washington, D. C. 
Mr. Robert Alfred Shaw, 
New York, N. Y. 
Mr. Edward W. Sheldon, 
New York, N. Y. 
Mr. Harry E. Sheldon, 
Pittsburgh, Pa. 
Mrs. Charles R. Shepard, 
Washington, D. C. 
Mr. Frank P. Shepard, 
New York, N. Y. 
Mr. Roger B. Shepard, 
St. Paul, Minn. 
Mr. Robert W. Sherwin, 
New York, N. Y. 
Mrs. Paula W. Siedenburg, 
Greenwich, Conn. 
Mr. HE. H. H. Simmons, 
New York, N. Y. 
’ Mrs. Frances G. Simmons, 
Greenwich, Conn. 
Mr. Z. G. Simmons, jr., 
New York, N. Y. 
Mr. Robert EH. Simon, 
New York, N. Y. 
Mr. F. H. Sisson, 
New York, N. Y. 
Mr. Louis Sloss, 

San Francisco, Calif. 

Mr. Andrew R. Smith, 
Bridgeport, Conn. 

Mr. E. A. Cappelan Smith, 
New York, N. Y. 

Dr. Edward W. Smith, 
Meriden, Conn. 

Mr. Frank Hill Smith, 
Dayton, Ohio. 

Mr. Glenn J. Smith, 
Tulsa, Okla. 

Mr. Julian C. Smith, 
Montreal, Canada. 

Mr. W. Hinckle Smith, 
Philadelphia, Pa. 

Mr. Winfred L. Smith, 
New York, N. Y. 

Mr. W. T. Sampson Smith, 
New York, N. Y. 

Mr. F. L. Smithe, 
New York, N. Y. 
Mr. John S. Snelham, 
New York, N. Y. 
Mr. Sidney H. Sonn, 
New York, N. Y. 
Mr. T. H. Soren, 
Hartford, Conn. 
Mr. Henry P. Spafard, 
Hartford, Conn. 
Maj. Lorillard Spencer, 
New York, N. Y. 
Mr, John R. Sproul, 
Philadelphia, Pa. 
Col. W. C. Spruance, 
Wilmington, Del. 
Dr. Edward H. Squibb, 
Brooklyn, N. Y. 


Mr. Andrew Squire (2 Subscriptions), 

Cleveland, Ohio. 

Mr. Pierpont Langley Stackpole, 

Boston, Mass. 

Mr. William Hyde Stalker, 
Toledo, Ohio. 

Dr. A. Camp Stanley, 
Washington, D. C. 

Mr. H. J. L. Stark, 
Orange, Tex. 

Mr. Walter R. Steiner, 
Hartford, Conn. 

Mr. R. S. Sterling, 
Houston, Tex. 

Mr. Morris Stern, 
Milwaukee, Wis. 

Mr. Joseph BH. Sterrett, 
New York, N. Y. 

Mr. Aron Steuer, 
New York, N. Y. 

Mr. Francis K. Stevens, 
New York, N. Y. 

Mr. J. Crawford Stevens, 
White Plains, N: Y. 

Mr. John P. Stevens, 
New York, N. Y. 

Mr. Walther A. Stiefel, 
New York, N. Y. 

Mr. Philip Stockton, 
Boston, Mass. 

Mr. Robert G. Stone, 
Boston, Mass. 

Mr. James J. Storrow, jr., 
Boston, Mass. 

Mr. D. H. Strachan, 
New York, N. Y. 


Mr. Robert A. Stranahan, 
Toledo, Ohio. 

Mr. Silas H. Strawn, 
Chicago, Ill. 

Mr. Alvah G. Strong, 
Rochester, N.. Y. 

Mrs. Hattie M. Strong, 
Washington, D. C. 

Mr. Walter A. Strong, 
Chicago, Ill. 

Mr. W. G. Stuber, 
Rochester, N. Y. 

Mr. Clement Studebaker, jr., 

Chicago, Ill. 
Mr. Ernest Sturm, 
New York, N. Y. 
Mr. Charles L. Sturtevant, 
Washington, D. C. 
Mr. Samuel B. Sutphin, 
Indianapolis, Ind. 
Mr. R. O. Sweezey, 
Montreal, Canada. 
Countess Laszlo Szechenyi, 
Washington, D. C. 
Mr. Edgar W. Tait, 
Pittsburgh, Pa. 
Mr. Ralph L. Talbot, 
Bridgeport, Conn. 
Mr. Gerard P. Tameling, 
New York, N. Y. 
Mr. Edmund C. Tarbell, 
New Castle, N. H. 
Mr. Charles H. Taylor, 
Boston, Mass. 
Mr. Harden F. Taylor, 
New York, N. Y. 
Mr. Myron C. Taylor, 
New York, N. Y. 
Mr. Daniel G. Tenney, 
New York, N. Y. 
Mr. Alton T. Terrell, 
Ansonia, Conn. 

Mr. Arthur Van Rensselear Thompson, 

New York, N. Y. 

Mr. George W. Thompson, 
New York, N. Y. 

Mr. John R. Thompson, jr., 
Chicago, Ill. 

Mr. Ralph E. Thompson, 
Boston, Mass. 

Mrs. William Reed Thompson, 
Pittsburgh, Pa. 
Mr. 8S. C. Thomson, 
New York, N. Y. 
Made Covihorn, 
New York, N. Y. 
Mr. Francis B. Thorne, 
New York, N. Y. 
Dr. Edward C. Tillman, 
New York, N. Y. 
Mr. Charles H. Titchener, 
Binghamton, N. Y. 
Mr. Frederick M. Tobin, 
Rochester, N. Y. 
Mr. Roy EH. Tomlinson, 
New York, N. Y. 
Mr. Charles H. Tompkins, 
Washington, D. C. 
Mr. John H. Towne, 
New York, N. Y. 
Mr. J. Barton Townsend, 
Philadelphia, Pa. 
Dr. Raynham Townshend, 
New Haven, Conn. 
Mr. Ernest B. Tracy, 
New York, N. Y. 
Dr. William Howard Treat, 
Derby, Conn. 
Mr. J. C. Trees, 
Pittsburgh, Pa. 
Gen. Harry C. Trexler, 
Allentown, Pa. 
Mr. George F. Trommer, 
Brooklyn, N. Y. 
Mr. Albert O. Trostel, 
Milwaukee, Wis. 
Mr. Calvin Truesdale, 
New York, N. Y. 
Mr. Regino Truffin, 
Habana, Cuba. 
Mr. Carll Tucker, 
New York, N. Y. 
Mr. Herbert G. Tully, 
New York, N. Y. 

Mr. George Tyson, 
Boston, Mass. 

Mr. Ernest Uehlinger, 
New York, N. Y. 

University of Buffalo, 
Buffalo, N. Y. 

Mr. Robert M. Thompson (2 subscrip- 

tions), - (Presented by Mr. Jesse R. Porter, es 
John C. Trefts, Mr. J. G. Jackson, Mr. 
New York, N. Y. Taylor, and Mr. August Keiser.) 


Mr. Alvin Untermyer, 
New York, N. Y. 
Mr. George P. Urban, 
Buffalo, N. Y. 
Mr. George Urquhart, 
New York, N. Y. 
Mr. Ray A. Van Clief, 
Buffalo, N. Y. 
Mr. Frederick W. Vanderbilt, 
New York, N. Y. 
Mr. William H. Vanderbilt, 
New York, N. Y. 
Mrs. S. H. Vandergrift, 
Washington, D. C. 
Mr. H. A. Van Norman, 
Los Angeles, Calif., 
Mr. John A. Vassilaros, 
New York, N. Y. 
Mr. S. M. Vauclain, 
Philadelphia, Pa. 
Mr. Albert L. Vits, 
Manitowoc, Wis. 
Mr. Ludwig Vogelstein, 
New York, N. Y. 
Mrs. James W. Wadsworth, jr., 
Washington, D. C. 
Mr. George E. Waesche, 
New York, N. Y. 
Major Ennalls Waggaman, 
Washington, D. C. 
Mr. N. Erik Wahlberg, 
Kenosha, Wis. 
Mr. Sidney S. Walcott, 
Buffalo, N. Y. 
Mr. Elisha Walker, 
New York, N. Y. 

Mr. Harrington E. Walker (2 subscrip- 

Detroit, Mich. 
Mr. Mahlon B. Wallace, 
St. Louis, Mo. 
Mr. Thomas J. Walsh, 
New York, N. Y. 
Mr. C. O. Wanvig, 
Milwaukee, Wis. 
Mrs. Herbert Ward, 
London, England. 
Mr. Bayard Warren, 
Boston, Mass. 
Mr. W. Vv. A. Waterman, 
Albany, N. Y. 

Mr. Horton Watkins, 
St. Louis, Mo. 

Mr. James 8. Watson, 
Rochester, N. Y. 

Mr. Thomas John Watson, 
New York, N. Y. 

Dr. W. Lee Weadon, 
Bridgeport, Conn. 

Mr. Niel A. Weathers, 
New York, N. Y. 

Mr. George T. Webb, 
New York, N. Y. 

Mr. William X. Weed, 
White Plains, N. Y. 

Mr. J. Borton Weeks, 
Chester, Pa. 

Mrs. Laura R. Wells, 
Washington, D. C. 

Mr. George S. West, 
Boston, Mass. 

Mr. Richard Wetherill, 
Chester, Pa. 

Mr. F. O. Wetmore, 
Chicago, Ill. 

Mr. John W. Wheeler, jr., 
Bridgeport, Conn. 

Mr. Albert C. Whitaker, 
Wheeling, W. Va. 

Mr. Harry C. Whitaker, 
Wheeling, W. Va. 

Mr. F. Edson White, 
Chicago, Ill. 

Col. Frank White, 
Chattanooga, Tenn. 

Mr. Lazarus White, 
New York, N. Y. 

Mr. Thomas W. White, 
New York, N. Y. 

Mr. Norman de R. Whitehouse, 

New York, N. Y. 

Mr. W. R. Whiteside, 
Tulsa, Okla. 

Mr. George A. Whiting, 
Neenah, Wis. 

Mr. George Whitney, 
New York, N. Y. 

Mr. Howard F. Whitney, jr., 
New York, N. Y. 

Mr. Matthew P. Whittall, 
Worcester, Mass. 

Mr. Philip J. Wickser, 
Buffalo, N. Y. 



. Edward Wigglesworth, 

Boston, Mass. 

. Milo W. Wilder, jr., 

Newark, N. J. 

*, Howard L. Wilkins, 

Washington, D. C. 

. Blair 8. Williams, 

New York, N. Y. 

. Charles B. Williams, 

New York, N. Y. 

. George M. Williams, 

Indianapolis, Ind. 

*. J. Ferrand Williams, 

Detroit, Mich. 

. William H. Williams, 

New York, N. Y. 

. Luther M. R. Willis, 

Baltimore, Md. 

. Joseph Wilshire, 

New York, N. Y. 

. John G. Wilshusen, 

New York, N. Y. 

’, James T. Wilson, 

Kenosha, Wis. 

*, John G. Winant, 

Coneord, N. H. 

r, William E. Winchester, 

New York, N. Y. 

. George A. Winsor, 

New York, N. Y. 

. Benjamin Wood, 

New York, N. Y. 


Chalmers Wood, 
New York, N. Y. 

*. Howard O. Wood, jr., 

New York, N. Y. 

. Charles H. Woodhull, 

Washington, D. C. 

. Frank A. Woods, 

Holyoke, Mass., 

*, George C. Woolf, 

New York, N. Y. 

. Clarence M. Woolley, 

New York, N. Y. 

r, Beverly Lyon Worden, 

New York, N. Y. 

. George F. Wright, 

Worcester, Mass. 

. Max Wulfsohn, 

New York, N. Y. 

*, Rudolph H. Wurlitzer, 

Cincinnati, Ohio. 

*. Thomas N. Wynne, 

Indianapolis, Ind. 

. James Wyper, 

Hartford, Conn. 

. Frederic L. Yeager, 

New York, N. Y. 

*, Fred W. Young, 

Boston, Mass. 

*, Christian B. Zabriskie, 

New York, N. Y. 

. Robert P. Zobel, 

New York, N. Y. 


To the Board of Regents of the Smithsonian Institution: 

Your executive committee respectfully submits the following re- 
port in relation to the funds of the Smithsonian Institution to- 
gether with a statement of the appropriations by Congress for the 
Government bureaus in the administrative charge of the Institution. 


The original bequest of James Smithson was £104,960 8 shillings 

6 pence—$508,318.46. Refunds of money expended in prosecu- 

tion of the claim, freights, insurance, etc., together with pay- 

ment into the fund of the sum of £5,015 which had been with- 

held during the lifetime of Madame de la Batut, brought the 

fund! to-the amount Of: BeO ak eee ea REATAEE SER ARR) Sant Oe $550, 000. 00 
Since the original bequest the Institution has received gifts 

from various sources, the income from which may be used for 

the general work of the Institution to the amount of________-- 259, 184. 39 
Total original endowments for general purposes__________ 809, 184. 39 
Capital gains from investment of savings from income__________ 207, 796. 11 
Capital gains from sales, stock dividends, ete__-_______________ 5, 405. 25 
Present total of endowment for general purposes_______- 1, 022, 385. 75 

The Institution holds also a number of endowment gifts the income 
of each being restricted to specific use. These are invested and 
stand on the books of the Institution as follows: 

Bacon, Virginia Purdy, fund, for a traveling scholarship to in- 

vestigate fauna of countries other than the United States____ $50, 000. 00 
Baird, Lucy H., fund, for creating a memorial to Secretary Baird_, 1, 000. 00 
Canfield collection fund, for increase and care of the Canfield col- 

HLS CUT OTD Os, TIM TT Chel 1 Se cay see eee Me BE As DI ce ges 46, 232. 86 
Casey, Thomas L., fund, for maintenance of Casey collection and 

promotion of researches relating to Coleoptera_______________ 3, 000. 00 
Chamberlain, Frances Lea, fund, for increase and promotion of 

Isaac Lea collections of gems and mollusks___________-______ 35, 000. 00 
Hodgkins fund, specific, for increase and diffusion of more exact 

knowledge in regard to nature and properties of atmospheric air_ 100, 000. 00 
Hughes, Bruce, fund, to found Hughes alcove----_---_-----_--- 9, 021. 93 



Myer, Catherine Walden, fund, for purchase of first-class works 

of art for the use of and benefit of the National Gallery of Art__ $18, 267. 91 
Pell, Cornelia Livingston, fund, for maintenance of Alfred Duane 

Pell COUMSCELOI Ee eS Se ar Nee ee es 3, 000. 00 
Poore, Lucy T. and George W., fund, for general use of the Insti- 

tution when principal amounts to the sum of $250,000__-_-----_ 24, 5384. 92 
Reid, Addison T., fund, for founding chair in biology in memory 

OL ASH er MTS eae bed FET eee dE a ee 9, 494. 50 
Roebling fund, for care, improvement, and increase of Roebling 

Collection Of PMmINneal Saw kena ee ee ee ee ne ee 150, 000. 00 
Springer, Frank, fund, for care, etc., of Springer collection and 

THY GP Gh ype Medd loet LN AUNLSUe OIC OeE Momo es ONES) OE LN ie se ae ee 30, 000. 00 

Walcott, Charles D., and Mary Vaux, research fund, for develop- 
ment of geological and paleontological studies and publishing 

TESUDES: MERC OL oes eee aie sage pore aan ace eae ek 11, 520. 00 

Younger Helen Walcott, sung helade ini GS has ee 49, 812. 50 
Total original endowments for specific purposes other 

Chany Weer ve a Oyyrry Ciba Se ae ee ae eee aren 540, 884. 62 

Capital gains from investment of sayings from income__________ 65, 586. 11 

Capital gains from stock dividends, sales, ete., of Securities______ 19, 532. 97 

Excluding Freer endowment, total present endowment for 

SDECIAC WPULDOSCS-s2 et a aed a ee al ed 626, 003. 70 
Freer Gallery of Art fund, for expenses of gallery J 
(original endowment) qe eee $1, 958, 591. 42 
Capital gains from investment of savings from 
ATU OTC ak yo its og a elt oe al tl ht Ea 398, 778. 71 
Capital gains from stock dividends, sales, ete., 
Of SCCURIGICSH S00 pent a ke 2, 878, 683. 89 
Total Freer endowment for specific purposes____________ 5, 236, 054. 02 
Total endowment for specific purposes_______-_____---___ 5, 862, 057. 72 
Invested endowment for general purposes__-__-________________ 1, 022, 385. 75 
Invested endowment for specific purposes other than Freer 
end OWwInentotac ye RN Ee eee 626, 003. 70 
Total invested endowment other than Freer endowment____ 1, 648, 389. 45 
Freer invested endowment for specific purposes_-___--------__ 5, 236, 054. 02 
Total investedend owment.4A see Swe eee 6, 884, 443. 47 

Classification of investments 

Deposited in the United States Treasury at 6 per cent per annum, 
as authorized in United States Revised Statutes, section 5591_ $1, 000, 000. 00 
Invested in approved securities as follows: 
Investments other than Freer endowment— 

Baa 6 Spates en rte posse eg mate wi hn wee fe Toole GUE OO 
FSH OC ese io ad aa ellen ict 264, 988. 45 

Real estate first-mortgage notes_________ 21, 500. 00 
—_ 648, 389. 45 

Total investments other than Freer endowment__-__--- 1, 648, 389. 45 


Invested in approved securities—Continued. 
Investments of Freer endowment— 

Bondst&200 ta). Tess tare ot $2, 785, 000. 34 
Sto@k suis 2 oo) 8 a a ee De a 2, 360, 553. 68 

Real estate first-mortgage notes_________ 90, 500. 00 
—________——. $5, 236, 054. 02 

Ota INVES CNUs see eke ke eee Se eee 6, 884, 443. 47 

Income from investments for present year 

On $1,000,000 deposited in United States Treasury at 6 per cent__ $60, 000. 00 

On $648,389.45 invested in stocks and bonds other than Freer en- 
aowmentate4 sdasperxcentia. 2.) Sas tere Oe Fo Se 30, 582. 77 
Total income other than Freer endowment___--------__-- 90, 582. 77 


On $5,236,054.02 invested in stocks, bonds, ete., at about 5.39 
jae ree CYS 01 we ee eee ar EE ee ae ee ee eee 282, 435. 138 

Nota ancomecfr OMe iV CS LIN ELIS ae m= a ee eee care eer een 373, 017. 90 
Statement of the annual income of the Institution from all sources * 

Wash balance on handy june 305 1928s. en eee $238, 369. 41 
Receipts : 
Cash from invested endowments and from mis- 
cellaneous sources for general use of the 

TOUS ETE Oa a tl een nent lt ne Spt $61, 309. 56 
Cash for increase of endowments for specific 

UT SS Co pee ers Fe Se a ee ee 3, 000. 00 
Cash for increase of endowments for general 

TT SS es aa eS i ee 6, 535. 00 

Cash gifts for specific use (not to be invested)_ 50,111. 01 
Cash received as royalties from sales of Smith- 

Cash gain from sale, ete., of securities (to be 
ANIVIESTEC)) Rees eee ee ee 22, 944. 95 

Cash income from endowments for specific use 
other than Freer endowment, and from mis- 

SEllaneGUs. SOULCCS==— 2-2 Le to eee. 82, 425. 70 
Total receipts other than Freer endowment___-------_-_ 240, 780. 23 
Cash income from Freer endowment— 
Income from"investments22 2-2 se Fee 282, 435. 13 
Gain from sale, ete., of securities (to be 
TUT SIS) HELO Uy oS oc a pa eet ca 940, 476. 80 
1, 222, 911. 93 
A EY cee [= aR ORNS Bid SORE ae MOEN eb I ie Wh BS RN Pew 1, 702, 061. 57 

1This statement does not include Government appropriations under the administrative 
charge of the Institution. 

2Under resolution of the Board of Regents, three-fourths of this income is credited 
to the permanent endowment fund of the Institution and one-fourth is made expendable 
for general purposes, 



General work of the Institution— 

Buildings—care, repair, and alteration____ $11, 564. 59 
Hurnitureyan da xtures] 2s ee 746. 06 
General administration *________--________ 20, 652. 66 
J DID OF EW ah pecans eget ts ema en Mee NI St 3, 006. 55 
Publications (comprising preparation, print- 

Ing, And | GIStEID Ubon) S22 ee eee 16, 865. 75 
Researches and explorations______-___-___ 13.40%, 11 
International exchanges_2- =) 22ers 7, 921. 67 

Funds for specific use other than Freer endow- 

Investments made from gifts, from gain 
from sales, etc., of securities, and from 

Savings on incomes sass eee 51, 860. 45 
Other expenditures, consisting largely of re- 
search work, travel, increase and care of 
special collections, etc., from income of 
endowment funds and eash gifts for 

SDE CHIC USC Soe Sees eee ee pee 113, 498. 06 

Freer endowment— 
Operating expenses of gallery, salaries, 
purchases of art objects, field expenses, 

Git cient ee ae NY oe, at ae 287, 679. 63 
Investments made from gain from sale, etc., 
of securities and from income___-------- 957, 564. 76 

Expenditures for researches in pure science, explorations, care, 
study of collections, etc. 

Expenditures from general endowment: 
J eTUNOVN Ges E01 dys} sks ae ORES pve a Set Nei bi CL Je aia eae A lctahl $16, 865. 75 
Researches and explorations__________________ 13, 707. 11 

Expenditures from funds devoted to specific purposes: 

Researches and explorations, ete_______________. $67, 955. 19 
Care, increase and study of special collections___ 18, 078. 97 
1 2 005 DV GESY Bric) 0 peers pe ay a em alr UEC gS yO a POS 16, 829. 59 
Purchase of specialalibraryos eee ae 3, 500. 00 

Eg Seo [ SA aS PrP RN ERD PtP MOAI all Wome SOMME! 2 

®* This includes salaries of the secretary and certain others 

$74, 464 39 

165, 358. 51 

1, 245, 244. 39 
216, 994. 28 

1, 702, 061. 57 

increase, and 

$30, 572. 86 

106, 363. 75 

136, 936. 61 



Table showing growth of endowment funds of the Smithsonian Institution 


Endowment for 
general work 
of the Institu- 
tion, being orig- 
inal Smithson 
bequest, gifts 
from other 

for specifie re- 
searches, etc., 
including in- 
vested savings 

Freer gift for 
construction of 
Freer Gallery 
of Art Building |i 

sources, and in- of income 
vested savings 
of income 

S702 000K O04 eee eae 
802, 000. 00 $101, 000. 00 
852, 000. 00 101, 000. 00 
877, 000. 00 102, 000. 00 
885, 807. 58 111, 692. 42 
885, 807. 58 116, 692. 42 
886, 084. 02 143, 515. 98 
887. 607. 08 160, 527. 30 
887, 830. 00 164, 304. 38 

2 883, 867. 00 176, 157. 38 
884, 305. 00 190, 489. 38 
884, 747. 00 198, 149. 02 
884, 933. 74 272, 538. 31 
886, 107. 14 291, 858. 14 
886, 246. 14 306, 524. 14 
886, 373. 31 319, 973. 19 
886, 769. 73 338, 136. 77 
886, 830. 13 342, 876. 37 
886, 877. 79 498, 401. 96 
929, 068. 21 665, 233. 29 
51, 022, 385. 75 626, 003. 70 

Freer bequest 

for operation of 

Freer Gallery 
of Art, 
neluding sala- 
ries, care, etc. 

$1, 253, 004. 75 
1, 842, 144. 75 
4 3, 296, 574. 75 
3, 401, 355. 42 
3, 459, 705. 34 
3, 714, 361. 23 
4, 171, 880. 61 
4, 268, 244. 26 
5, 236, 054. 02 

1 Original endowment plus income from savings during these years. 
2 Loss on account of bonds reduced on books from par to market value. ! 
3 Cash from sale of 2,000 shares of Parke, Davis & Co. stock, including dividends, and interest on gift 

of $1,000,000. 

‘In this year Parke, Davis & Co. declared 100 per cent stock dividend. 

5 Increase largely from funds transferred from specific endowment column and income released for genera 

work of the Institution. 



Stocks and bonds at acquirement value: 

CWonsolVe ated’ frum Ce ee ee $557, 056. 95 
Freer, bequest... .-.--____.__/ - ae ee 5, 236, 054. 02 
Springer’ um Wl oe ee eee 30, 000. 00 
VWWeICOLE TE ce Aes eesi sine y ese see nee en ee 11, 520. 00 
Younger -fund2n. =) 0000 J00 . Le Ge 49, $12. 50 

Ue-S-Ereasury-.depositiz= 82 200 Dit: 1 Be ae oe 
Miscellaneous, principally funds advanced for printing publica- 
tions and field expenses (to be repaid) —_-___-__-_____________- 

Funds in U. 8. Treasury and in banks__-______ $216, 394. 28 
Onghand for petty transacvionsa2e-= = 600. 00 


Freer bequest, capital accounts: 

Couch aAnadr SLOun GS. Lun set ecceeeen seem eee enE ee $574, 524. 12 
Court and grounds maintenance fund________ 148, 112. 53 
Guarralio raphe ltt has ye ee tt ee fey 596, 301. 18 
Residuanyaestatestunde sae. sae ee ee 3, 917, 116. 19 

Consolidated; fund capital accountss 22 ee ee 
Springer fund seanitaliec: 22.2 2 ve De ee eee 
AVY 7s! CO tyre CLS SAT a ee SE ee a 
VOUN Serre hUna Ge FC eT ed a = es a cee a ge 
WS breasuryageposit} capitals. 2 eee ee 
Freer bequest, current accounts: 

Court andssrounds fund = 22 eee 58, 042. 28 
Court and grounds maintenance fund__________ 10, 311. 88 
COUR G Teoma ee Ee ee oe Bee 27, 984. 66 
Residuanrys estate undeetee se eee 57, 367. 52 

WM Cea HR TOG POU h RMR Cot ae 8 ee es A 
Miscellaneous cash accounts held by the Institution for the most 


$5, 884, 443. 47 
1, 000, 000. 00 

36, 527. 11 

216, 994. 28 

7, 137, 964. 86 

$5, 236, 054. 02 
557, 056. 95 
30, 000. 00 

11, 520. 00 

49, 812. 50 

1, 000, 000. 00 

153, 706. 34 
849. 93 

1, 365. 00 
217. 50 

97, 382. 62 

7, 137, 964. 86 

All payments are made by check, signed by the secretary of the 

Institution, on the Treasurer of the United States, and 

all revenues 

are deposited to the credit of the same account. In many instances 
deposits are placed in bank for convenience of collection and later are 
withdrawn in round amounts and deposited in the Treasury. 



The practice of investing temporarily idle funds in time deposits 
has proven satisfactory. During the year the interest derived from 
this source, together with similar items, has resulted in a total of 

The foregoing report relates only to the private funds of the Smith- 
sonian Institution. The following is a statement of the congres- 
sional appropriations for the past 10 years, for the support of the 
several governmental branches under the administrative control of 
the Institution and of appropriations for other special purposes 
during that period. 



*“Ainseel], 894819 peziugQ Aq posingsip spuny pue 4oe,1yoIy BuIstAsodng Aq ouop HOA t 
*sostodxo PUB SoliB[es 10J UOIWeIIdoidde Ul papNypoUt st W194T SITY ZBI IOV + 

“spiiq Joy SaIppNg ¢ 
“purl [PUONIPPY ¢ 

UvITOSY}IMIS 94} JOspuny 9yvAlId Aq poqyioddns useq peyoun STU} 0} dn yor ‘W01e4s UBoTIYO 94] JO Sosuadxo 91} JO aRd SUIUINSSY JUIUIUIIAOH 0} ONp uOIyeIIdoidde Ul eseerdUy 1 

ey 00 009 ‘Z8$ — |-------=-----~| 00 000 ‘¢6 00 ‘89 ‘TE 00 ‘000 ‘08 « 00 ‘020 ‘281 ODNOOONOBS ign CEES 8 ie Go ae ae Sees Tan pee ees Soa aren eee OCT 
oe eae a ek > Spee = 00 008 ‘2 + 00 ‘000 ‘06 00 998 ‘08 00 000 ‘G2 ¢ OOROODE SLT: 2 Freee a Po Sa gene nee re OC OT 
ast a | oe ee 00 ‘000 ‘9 00 ‘000 ‘06 COSI R ENG, <= eo os ts eae ROU RAOIEBLT a [222 <3. pal asescr oe opts se Sasa ne oes See eee eee CT 
een ee || ae 00 000 ‘9 00 000 ‘06 00 “820 ‘IZ Pees 00 “000 ‘LT aie Sees EOE CR nae Mire ae OER” sooo Se ee 9261 
OOT009 Sosa. |" an as ae 00 000 ‘9$ 00 ‘000 06 OORSSTMOZ) ba |e orc tes OOSASPEIGI> Vir e. 2S as aro arnt a or cage ae a pee ee S261 
Sear rae il > eee Ie ae. 00 ‘00F ‘22 DONOOD; ODS = Hie Se NOODOOISE: PSST ge eae a es a ee eT 
oe eee i oe abou BS 00 00% ‘22$ 00 000 ‘ST Reni oe TLOOROOOL IGE [ao = ecco 5 ae Sep as ge ag pee a oe ROTH T 
emia aemees = akan pec leehe  P e 00 000 ‘ST 00 ‘008 Z ¢ QONDOOSGGE: - S\F 52 Sie Pa eee ee ee Sr ee ae COAT 
~  Le oelt a Se Seas [ie pa (een 00 ‘000 ‘ST$ 00 000 ‘08$ z 00 000 ‘¢21 ne Sosa a eel ee SU wn ke Peet eT a eI 
SE ES Sn ee a | en ae ce a QOFO0O STS: oe ae a ae ep a ee ge ae ak or eee OCT 
| _suIpring 
Areqo1 yieg yiedg eres . 
m01400401d e1y} sasuedxe 90 SuIpulq 41V JO Als] AIOYSIFT [BAN 
-09G JUBISISSY E ;| [B0Is0[00Z 103) [vorsojooz | - Iva 

[BUolIpPpy | pue solreleg [euonIppy pues suyjUTIg [BH [vUOIeN [euOlIppy [euoneN aapeneie 
i ne ore 00 "928 ‘989 ieee tae een | OOKO0T CE 00 09% ‘2 00 000 ‘oz$ 00 ‘008 ‘09 00 ‘802 ‘8% [ae oe ee es, Wee eee a Se eS Le See A! 
SOS Se aegee: 00 096 ‘909 --"--" "=" -=77"| 00 090 ‘ze 00 092 ‘2 Eamneenae mann | O0LOCLESo OO;S9S0P- iene See sec ae ae eae ee ae se See seer mm COT 
o- quae oe COKOCS 909 = mentees cn censa| OONOST “Te 00 ‘009 ‘2 oe | GNU Bs 00 092 ‘9F ee ae eS es darts ea eee ae ee COL 
ee ee 00 268 “FSS = | ---7 7777777] 00 O8T ‘Tet 00 000 ‘8 Riise ae aes OU OS TELS 00 092 ‘9F eae es ee ee a so ee eee ee OOP 
ee ee ee 00 "262 ‘LS Raat So 00 ‘08S ‘1 99 ‘198 ‘8 pce tamee ncn LOONODTELS: 00 ‘099 ‘6F Se ae Se Se ann E 6 pn sy ae Pe ee ERC COT 
RS 00 ‘000 STF 00 “FOL ZIT 00 009 ST 00 ‘009 2 Ellen: Seo ues HOOMO00REY. 00 000 ‘¢F eee EN eee ee el ee oe eee LOL 
2 bee aoe ee 00 ‘0¢I SIF 00 40 ‘601$ | 00 009 ‘ST 00 ‘008 2 be sass |NOOKO00RFY, 00 000 $F feo ae ee ee ee Oe i ee ee eS cee ma |S 
See ee OSSD Grae ia Peano na 00 ‘00S ‘ST 00 ‘008 2 ie wie eee | ROOKOOOSOF, 00 ‘000 0g pee ay A a ee em ee oe CLOD 
Nine mere aa OO; OGL G1i a | Sate ae oe 00 000 &T OONO0SE LE fe 3 | (Gri 2a eee 00 000 ‘FF OO; 000) 09 Sail ee a ae ee ee ee eee 1261 
00 ‘000 FI$ OO {009 Z88Se a ses ae +00 ‘000 ‘ET$ QOKOO S25) |e asim 00 000 ‘ZF QONOOONS§S | See Sige ea eS a eee ee eee 0261 

suIpiing 91Nje194T 

4yelolly mmmesnyy jwonesmedur0d) A10jzBAIESqO | OYIQUAI0g ee ee AsojouyyW | sasuvyoxgq 1e0 

surddinbs [BUoyeN JO osverDUT |[voIsAydosy| Jo enZojeyeO p AT? Senet URdIJOULY | [BUOTJVUIOJUT A 

pure survey [euo1yeuI070T 4 0 

UOLNIYSUT UDIUOSYPIWY ay) fo 2409 aY} 07 pajsn4qur ‘sivah OT 18D] ay} Bursnp ssasbuoy fq apow suoynrsdosddn ay} Burmoys 2190, 


The report of the audit of the Smithsonian private funds is printed 

OcTOBER 2, 1929. 
Smithsonian Institution, Washington, D. C. 

Sirs: We have examined the accounts and vouchers of the Smithsonian Insti- 
tution for the fiscal year ended June 30, 1929, and certify the balance of cash 
on hand June 30, 1929, to be $216,994.28. 

The vouchers representing payments from the Smithsonian income during 
the year, each of which bears the approval of the secretary or, in his absence, 
of the acting secretary, and a certificate that the materials and services charged 
were applied to the purposes of the Institution, have been examined in con- 
nection with the books of the Institution and agree with them. 

Respectfully submitted. 

Capital AvupIT Co., 
Certified Public Accountant. 

Respectfully submitted. 
Frepertc A. DELANo, 
R. Watton Moore, 
J. C. Merriam, 
Executive Committee. 

ENDED JUNE: (3071929 


Present: Chief Justice Wiliam H. Taft, chancellor, in the chair; 
Vice President Charles G. Dawes, Senator Joseph T. Robinson, 
Representative Albert Johnson, Representative R. Walton Moore, 
Representative Walter H. Newton, Mr. Frederic A. Delano, Hon. 
Irwin B. Laughlin, Hon. Dwight W. Morrow, Hon. Charles E. 
Hughes, Dr. John C. Merriam, and the secretary, Dr. C. G. Abbot. 
Dr. Alexander Wetmore, assistant secretary, was also present. 

Mr. Delano offered the following resolution, which was adopted: 

Resolved, That the income of the Institution for the fiscal year ending June 
30, 1930, be appropriated for the service of the Institution, to be expended 
by the secretary, with the advice of the executive committee, with full dis- 
cretion on the part of the secretary as to items. 

The secretary presented his printed annual report, and then 
touched briefly upon a number of important matters that he con- 
sidered worthy of the board’s attention. 

The annual report of the National Gallery of Art Commission was 
presented, and the following resolution was adopted: 

Resolved, That the Board of Regents of the Smithsonian Institution hereby 
approves the recommendation of the National Gallery of Art Commission that 
Daniel Chester French, John EB. Lodge, James Parmelee, and Edward W. Red- 
field be reelected as members of the commission for the ensuing term of four 
years, their present terms having expired. 

Mr. Delano presented a statement regarding the lands occupied 
by the Institution and regarding its financial needs. 

After a full discussion of the matter of an insecticide patent pre 
sented to the Institution, the board referred it to the permanent 
committee for consideration. 

The Secretary announced the receipt of $3,500 from Mrs. E. H. 
Harriman, to be applied to the purchase of the William Healey Dall 
library for presentation to the Institution under the title “ The 
Harriman Alaskan Library,” and the following resolution was 

Resolved, That the thanks of the Board of Regents of the Smithsonian 
Institution be conveyed to Mrs. E. H. Harriman for her generous gift of $3,500 

for the purchase of the library of the late Dr. William Healey Dall and its 
presentation to the Institution under the title ‘‘ The Harriman Alaskan Library.” 




Present: Chief Justice William H. Taft, chancellor, in the chair; 
Vice President Charles G. Dawes, Senator Reed Smoot, Senator 
Joseph T. Robinson, Senator Claude A. Swanson, Representative 
R. Walton Moore, Mr. Frederic A. Delano, Mr. Irwin B. Laughlin, 
and the secretary, Dr. C. G. Abbot. Dr. Alexander Wetmore, assist- 
ant secretary, was also present. 

The Secretary announced that the President had approved the 
joint resolution of Congress reappointing Mr. Delano and Mr. 
Laughlin as citizen regents for the ensuing statutory term of six 
years from January 22, 1929. 

The Secretary submitted a list of gifts made to the Institution 
since the last meeting. 

Mr. Delano brought up the matter of the proposed contract 
transferring to the Research Corporation the promotion of the in- 
secticide patent presented to the Institution. Under the terms of the 
contract, the Research Corporation assumes complete responsibility 
for the commercial development of the patent, the Institution re- 
ceiving a fixed percentage of the returns as royalty. After a full dis- 
cussion the board voted to approve the contract. 

Assistant Secretary Wetmore presented a tentative program for 
necessary additional buildings for the Smithsonian Institution. 


Present: Chief Justice William H. Taft, chancellor, in the chair; 
Senator Reed Smoot, Senator Joseph T. Robinson, Representative 
R. Walton Moore, Mr. Robert S. Brookings, Mr. Frederic <A. 
Delano, Mr. Irwin B. Laughlin, Dr. John C. Merriam, and the 
secretary, Dr. C. G. Abbot. Dr. Alexander Wetmore, assistant 
secretary, was also present. 

The secretary announced that on March 4 last Mr. Dawes auto- 
matically ceased to be a regent by the expiration of his term as 
Vice President, and that upon his inauguration, Vice President 
Charles Curtis became a regent ex officio. The secretary added that 
on April 26 the Vice President had appointed Senator Claude A. 
Swanson as a regent to succeed himself. 

The secretary reported on the progress made in issuing the vol- 
umes of the Smithsonian Scientific Series, exhibiting copies of the 
first four volumes of the James Smithson Memorial Edition, and 
stating that the publishers were presenting a complete set of this 
edition to the Institution. 

The secretary brought up the offer of the art collection of Mr. John 
Gellatly, which had been made through Mr. Gari Melchers, chair- 
man of the National Gallery of Art Commission, and which had 


been favorably considered both by the permanent committee and 
by the commission. 
After discussion the following resolutions were adopted: 

Resolved, That on the basis of the recommendation of the National Gallery 
of Art Commission expressed through the resolution adopted April 18, 1929, the 
Board of Regents of the Smithsonian Institution have examined the offer of Mr. 
John Gellatly relating to the proposed gift of his art collection as expressed in 
letters to Mr. Gari Melchers, chairman of the National Gallery of Art Commis- 
sion, under dates of March 27 and March 30, 1929, and the board approves 
in principle the acceptance of this offer. The secretary is hereby requested to 
convey to Mr. Gellatly the sense of appreciation with which the board learns 
of this generous offer. 

Resolved, That the board hereby refers the furtherance of the matter to the 
permanent committee with full power to act. 

Senator Robinson, on behalf of the legal committee on the Freer 
will and gift, submitted its report on the interpretation of the terms 
of the Freer will. 





ap Fctocy cievey an eeu bai & 
syn i ch a ASN 
ron), Sento datin iE eal BE ghey ayer 

Aoietialye: the, adcentnrete ni thle often. boul mba 

eae dy aie tes, MATE: CMe Bate 
tit thin Wendeuew ey 

avis, Bias ks hward hensiy ania ie 
PRERMALINAe poamON Te es ELL ipeerre ale wh 

‘iecatee Bubignan, wo —— 

Pi we caret win Sywes mr wtnwe a yes ay CAs Seem. 

te ae ‘ 
oe eer ee 


The object of the GrnERAL APPENDIX to the Annual Report of the 
Smithsonian Institution is to furnish brief accounts of scientific dis- 
covery in particular directions; reports of investigations made by 
collaborators of the Institution; and memoirs of a general character 
or on special topics that are of interest or value to the numerous 
correspondents of the Institution. 

It has been a prominent object of the Board of Regents of the 
Smithsonian Institution from a very early date to enrich the annual 
report required of them by law with memoirs illustrating the more 
remarkable and important developments in physical and biological 
discovery, as well as showing the general character of the operations 
of the Institution; and, during the greater part of its history, this 
purpose has been carried out largely by the publication of such papers 
as would possess an interest to all attracted by scientific progress. 

In 1880, induced in part by the discontinuance of an annual sum- 
mary of progress which for 30 years previously had been issued by 
well-known private publishing firms, the secretary had a series of 
abstracts prepared by competent collaborators, showing concisely the 
prominent features of recent scientific progress in astronomy, geol- 
ogy, meteorology, physics, chemistry, mineralogy, botany, zoology, 
and anthropology. This latter plan was continued, though not alto- 
gether satisfactorily, down to and including the year 1888. 

In the report for 1889 a return was made to the earlier method of 
presenting a miscellaneous selection of papers (some of them origi- 
nal) embracing a considerable range of scientific investigation and 
discussion. This method has been continued in the present report 

for 1929. 

| xdobear eaoiteyitzevat to whoqer ;aqoltoeth taliviizay ni y8¥O 

1 1 
a he 
hoe ; ye Ur ae A an if 
i } / Wis i yl y (ae i) 
TAME EY Ok i “a 

eld Yo, troqadl Laud, al! of xsavianahs ere ts) oilt Yo roi ol i 
-8ib, sitittreing to etaioones tohid, dai? of ak noitutient usinoedtiee@ 

roivaiids Laney 2 Jo ation baw smobadivaal ods le eotstodalas © 
atrornnisio ont oF sitlay 1 deisial To ove ted? estat fsiooqa a6 mene 
 .webndéteal od alaabaogenra 
edi to ehieysH Yo bisoll edt to dnajdo Yassimong @ geod ead HI) 
lusamn of} doisce of otuh vies yey « mort mololbedt avivoad sian 
arom od} geilanenlli cinnamon diy wal yd ciadd to. bosiipet Homet 
fnoigolnid bas lacisedg ai aimomqoloveh tadtrogmt bia oldestanet 
amoitaraqo od! lo tatowtarig loseneg odt gaiwords ey Mow aa eT OTR 
Bi? yeroteid wi io neq medaery od? eeiioh Ube ;noltuditant edt to? 
argquq dove to notasildug adt yd vlagzal juro berrian aesd aad SL: a 
odatgorg sfitueior yd batosssia lla ot dearsiat 18 eeseeog bldow ae 
“me lesions oa lo songunitadoail odt yd ttaq av hoodbat 08eh ate 
vd boveet naed hart qeuoivetq esioy O8 tod doitw aertgorq to yma 
40 eshies & bed yrateioee od .2rri yoideildog stevive oe . 
ad} yloztonos guiwore oisodsios tanegmaos yd Boxagqeng etoatieda 
‘loo Yitonover ai resnyyiq oiiiaehse doyost lo asides) bitsaionE 
rtgoloos ~ynetod .vsolewnint .yaimads aieadq ‘aolantate Tae 
‘-Oila. dor ee bounitaoy 2aw valq r9ttal eilT sedloqotdine baal 
8881 xe9¢ od paibuloni has of meob “uinotewiaine sod og 

to Seiison qilrag act of shart saw muerte 0881 wi diogat odt BL 
“fgito tod to anxoz) eisqaq to coltosles evoonalieaaim » git apasrey 
bie noiiayitesr at viliiaetoe to agaer sldarebieioo » gaiderdaie (fan) 

drogert tasesrg oft si bevnitaoe nood ead bodteat sidT sian 
REOT wok” 




By Sir JamMes JEAns, Sec. R. S. 

The ancients were for the most part content to regard the universe 
as a theatre which had been specially constructed for the drama of 
human life. Men, and even the gods that man had created in his 
own image, came, lived, and disappeared after strutting their tiny 
hour upon a stage to which the eternal hills and the unchanging 
heavens formed a permanent background. While some thought 
was given to the birth of the universe, and its creation or emergence 
from chaos, very few thought of it as living its life and passing from 
birth to death in the same way as a man or a tree passes from birth to 

In modern times the idea of secular change crept into the picture. 
Geologists began to study the earth as a changing structure, and 
astronomers to give thought to the evolution of the stars, recognizing 
them as bodies which are born, live their lives of gradual change, and 
finally die. But the ultimate constituents of the universe, the atoms, 
were still supposed to be immune from change. The hypothesis 
that all matter consisted of permanent, indivisible, and unchangeable 
atoms, which had been advanced so far back as the fifth century 
B. C. by Leucippus and Democritus, remained practically unshaken 
until the end of the nineteenth century. The ageing of the universe 
was supposed to amount to nothing more than a rearrangement of 
indestructible units which were themselves incapable of any sort of 
change or decay. Like a child’s box of wooden bricks, the atoms 
made many buildings in turn. 


Then Crookes, Lenard, and, above all, Sir J. J. Thomson, began 
to break up the atom. The bricks of the universe which had been 
deemed unbreakable for more than 2,000 years were suddenly shown 
to be very susceptible to having fragments chipped off; a milestone 
was reached in 1895, when Sir. J. J. Thomson showed that these 

1 The first Henry Herbert Wills Memorial Lecture of the University of Bristol, delivered at the University 
on Oct. 30. Reprinted by permission from Supplement to Nature, Nov. 3, 1928. 



fragments were identical, no matter what type of atom they came 
from; they were of equal mass, and they carried equal negative charges 
of electricity, and so were called electrons. Two years later, Lorentz’s 
explanation of the newly discovered Zeeman effect provided evidence 
that the moving parts in atomic interiors were precisely similar 

The series of researches so initiated were, after a few years, coordi- 
nated in the Rutherford view of atomic structure, which supposed the 
chemical properties and nature of the atom to reside in an excessively 
minute central nucleus carrying a positive charge of electricity, 
about which the negatively charged electrons described wide orbits. 
By clearing a space around the central nucleus, and so preventing other 
atoms from coming too near, these electronic orbits gave size to the 
atom. The volume of space kept clear by the electrons is enormously 
greater than the total volume of the electrons; roughly, the ratio of 
volumes is that of the battlefield to the bullets. The atom, with a 
radius of about 2 107° cm., has about 100,000 times the dimensions, 
and so about 10 times the volume, of a single electron, of which the 
radius is about 2107 cm. In all probability the nucleus is even 
smaller than the electrons. The number of orbital electrons in an 
atom is called the atomic number of the atom; it ranges from unity in 
hydrogen, the lightest and simplest of atoms, to 92 in uranium, which 
is the most massive and complex atom known. 

Simultaneously with this, physical science was discovering that 
the nuclei themselves were neither permanent nor indestructible. 
In 1896, Becquerel had found that uranium salts had the remark- 
able property, as it then appeared, of spontaneously affecting pho- 
tographic plates in their vicinity. This observation led to the dis- 
covery of a new property of matter, namely, radioactivity, and all 
the results obtained in the next few years were coordinated in the 
hypothesis of spontaneous disintegration advanced by Rutherford 
and Soddy in 1903, according to which radioactivity indicates a 
spontaneous break-up of the atomic nuclei. So far from the atoms 
being permanent and indestructible, their very nuclei were now seen 
to crumble away with the mere lapse of time, so that what was once 
the nucleus of a uranium atom was transformed, after sufficient time, 
into the nucleus of a lead atom, and eight a-particles, which are the 
nuclei of helium atoms. Radiation is given off in the process, the 
radiation that affected Becquerel’s photographic plates, and so led 
to the detection of the radioactive property of matter. 

With the unimportant exceptions of potassium and rubidium, the 
property of radioactivity occurs only in the most complex and mas- 
sive of atoms, being indeed limited to those of atomic numbers above 
83. Yet, although the lighter atoms are not liable to spontaneous 


disintegration in the same way as the heavy radioactive atoms, the 
nuclei of these also are of composite structure, and can be broken up 
by artificial means. In 1920, Rutherford succeeded in breaking up 
the nuclei of atoms of oxygen and nitrogen by bombarding them with 
swiftly moving a-particles. 

The success of this experiment led to the hypothesis, which has 
not yet been established beyond all possibility of doubt, that the 
whole universe is built up of only two kinds of ultimate bricks, namely, 
electrons and protons. Each proton carries a positive charge which 
is exactly equal in amount to the negative charge carried by an 
electron. The protons are supposed to be identical with the nucleus 
of the hydrogen atom; all other nuclei are supposed to consist of 
closely packed structures of protons and electrons. 

In addition to containing material electrons and protons, the atom 
contains yet a third ingredient, namely, electromagnetic energy. 
Modern electromagnetic theory shows that all radiation carries mass 
about with it, one gram of mass being associated with 9 x 10” ergs or 
2.15 X10 calories of radiation. As a*necessary consequence, any 
substance which is emitting radiation must also be losing mass; the 
spontaneous disintegration of any radioactive substance involves a 
spontaneous decrease of weight. The ultimate fate of a gram of 
uranium may be expressed by the equation: 

0.8653 gm. lead. 
1 gram uranium =j0.1345 gm. helium. 
0.0002 gm. radiation. 

Stated in a very general form, the phenomenon of radioactivity 
may be described as a transformation of material mass into radiation 
or, to put it slightly differently, as the liberation of radiation by the 
destruction of material mass. Where 4,000 gm. of matter originally 
existed, only 3,999 gm. now remain, the remaining gram having 
gone off in the form of radiation. 

Yet, the 3,999 gm. of lead and helium contain precisely the same 
protons and electrons as the original 4,000 gm. of uranium; we may 
then. say that the 4,000 gm. of uranium ‘consisted of these electrons 
and protons together with 1 gm. of bottled-up electromagnetic 
energy which has since escaped in the form of radiation. 

So far as terrestrial experience goes, this dissolution of mass into 
radiation is entirely a one-way process. Terrestrial rocks provide 
abundant evidence of uranium having continuously broken up into 
lead, helium, and radiation for the past thousand million years or more, 
but there is no evidence of the converse process ever having occurred. 
We must suppose that there is less uranium on earth to-day than there 
was yesterday, and that by to-morrow there will be still less. As a 
consequence, the earth each day radiates away a little more heat than 



it receives from the sun, and its mass continually diminishes. Accord- 
ing to Jeffreys ? the outward flow of radiation just inside the earth’s 
surface is about 1.9 X 10-° calorie per sq. cm. per second, all but about 
13 per cent of which arises from radioactive disintegration of the sub- - 
stance of the earth. We can calculate from this that radioactive dis- 
integration causes the earth’s mass to diminish at the rate of rather 
less than an ounce a minute; at this rate, terrestrial atoms are unbot- 
tling their energy and pouring it into space in the form of radiation. 
On earth at least the stream flows ever in the same direction; complex 
atoms giving place to simple, and mass changing into radiation. It 
is natural to ask whether a study of the physics of the universe reveals 
these processes as part only of a closed cycle, so that the wastage 
which we see in progress on earth is made good elsewhere. We stand 
on the banks of a river and watch its current ever carrying water out 
to sea, but we know that this water is in due course transformed into 
clouds and rain which replenish the river. Is the physical universe a 
similar cyclic system, or ought we rather to compare it to a stream 
which, having no source of replenishment, must cease flowing after it 
has spent itself? To answer these questions we must attempt first to 
trace our terrestrial stream back to its source. 


Radioactive atoms are of many kinds, but all have in common the 
property of spontaneous disintegration. The period of time required 
for this disintegration to occur varies enormously, some types of atoms 
having long lives of thousands of millions of years, while others have 
short lives of years, days, hours, or seconds, the most ephemeral of all 
being actinium-A, with an average life of only 0.002 second. Let us 
take uranium and radium as being typical of the two classes. 

Spontaneous disintegration reduces any store of radium to half in 
1,580 years, so that if a whole earth were built of pure radium only 
a single atom would be left after a quarter of a million years. Since 
the earth is many millions of years old, we may be confident that every 
atom of radium now on earth was born on earth. Soddy, Boltwood, 
and others have investigated the ancestry of radium. Its direct par- 
ent is found to be ionium, and it traces its descent back through uran- 
ium-X to uranium itself. 

On the other hand, it takes 5,000,000,000 years for a store of 
uranium to diminish to half. As the earth was born out of the sun some 
2,000,000,000 years ago, the greater part of any uranium it may have 
brought with it out of the sun would still be in existence. As we have 
no evidence of any uranium being born on earth, and as no parent 
substance is known out of which uranium could be born, it is reason- 

2“ The Earth,” p. 83. 


able to regard the earth’s present store of uranium as the remains of 
a supply it originally brought out of the sun. An initial store of about 
10° gm. would suffice. 

This uranium can not have existed from all time for the average life 
of a uranium atom is only about 7,000,000,000 years. How, then, did 
it come into being? Was it created in the sun, or did the sun, like the 
earth, start life with a supply which has continually diminished, and 
is destined ultimately to vanish entirely? 

The answer to this question must of course depend on the age we 
assign to the sun, and an attempt to fix this takes us rather far afield. 


In a classical paper published in 1878, Clerk Maxwell studied the 
behavior of a gas whose molecules were supposed to be massive points 
repelling one another with a force which varied inversely as the fifth 
power of the distance. There was no possibility of direct collision, 
since the molecules were supposed to be of infinitesimal size, but as 
each molecule threaded its way through its fellows, pairs occasionally 
approached so close as to influence one another’s motion much as a 
direct collision would have done. At each such encounter a transfer 
of energy took place, the general tendency being towards equalizing 
energies: the molecule with the greater energy of motion was ever 
being slowed down, and that with the lesser energy speeded up. If 
the molecules were of different weights, their continued encounters 
tended to bring about a state in which heavy and light molecules all 
moved with the same energy, the lighter molecules making up for the 
smallness of their mass by the rapidity of their motion. 

It was no new discovery that the molecules of a gas tended to assume 
such a state. This had been known for some years, but Maxwell’s 
investigation gave a means of calculating the time required to bring 
about this final state of equipartition of energy. Maxwell calculated 
a time, which he called the time of relaxation, such that all deviations 
from the final state of equipartition of energy were reduced to 1/e 
(37 per cent) of their original value in this time. For ordinary air it is 

found to be about a second. 


Maxwell’s massive points, repelling according to the inverse fifth 
power of the distance, do not form a particularly good model of a gas, 
but on changing the law of a force to an attraction varying as the 
inverse square of the distance (the law of gravitation), we obtain an 
absolutely realistic model of the stars, the diameter of the stars being 
so small in comparison with their mean distances apart that the possi- 
bility of direct collisions may be ignored entirely. Just as Maxwell 
calculated the time of relaxation for his ideal gas, we can calculate it 


for a collection of massive points, having the masses and mean dis- 
tances of the stars and attracting according to the law of gravitation. 
It proves to be of the order of millions of millions of years. After inter- 
acting on one another for a certain number, then, of millions of millions 
of years, the stars must attain to a final state of equipartition of energy 
in which the average energy of all types of stars is the same, regardless 
of their mass. 

So far back as 1911, Halm had suspected an approximation to equal- 
ity in the energies of massive and light stars, and suggested that the 
velocities of the stars, like those of the molecules of a gas, might con- 
form to the law of equipartition of energy. A more exhaustive inves- 
tigation by Seares in 1922 showed the supposed approximation to be 
real. Table I shows the average total velocity (C) obtained for stars 
of different types having different mean masses. 

Everywhere, except in its first two lines, the table reveals a marked 
approximation to equality of energy of motion. The last 10 lines 
show a range of 10 to 1 in mass, but the average deviation of energy 
from the mean is only 9 percent. This equality of energy can only be 
attributed to the gravitational interaction of the stars. For if it were 
produced by any physical agency, such as pressure of radiation, 
bombardment by molecules, atoms or high-speed electrons, this agency, 
as the last column of the table shows, would have to be in thermody- 
namical equilibrium with matter at a temperature of the order of 
2x10” degrees. Since no such temperatures are known in nature, 
we must conclude that the observed equality of energy is the result of 
gravitational interactions extending over millions of millions of years. 
The stars must, then, have an age of this order of magnitude. 

Other lines of astronomical investigation lead to the same conclusion; 
I will limit myself toone. A number of stars are ‘‘binary,”’ consisting 
of two distinct masses which travel through space in double harness, 
describing closed orbits about one another because neither can escape 
from the gravitational hold of its companion. The single stars we 
have just discussed may appropriately be compared to monatomic 
molecules, but these binary stars must be compared to diatomic 
molecules. Energy can reside in their orbital motion as well as in 
their motion through space. Again we find that endless gravita- 
tional encounters must result in equipartition of energy, both from 
star to star and also between the different motions of which each 
binary system is capable. Further, when this final state is reached, 
the eccentricities of the elliptic orbits must be distributed over all 
values from e=0 to e=1 in such a way that all values of e’ are equally 


TaBLE I.—Equipartition of energy in stellar motions 

M M Mean fone 
ean mass, ean ve- sponding 
Type of star M locity, C 1 MC? tempera- 
ay ture 

Spectral type: | ° 

Per IIe YWCAIR COs INRA ATTATe: | 19.8108 | 14.8X105| 1.9510] 1.0108 

Ja iis Se ee ee Se as eee aero | 12.9 15.8 1. 62 0.8 

EA ISS) BAS eRe EAS eS Ee eS 2. S332 12.1 24.5 3. 63 1.8 

JAGR OSS LP See ee ee | 10.0 202 3. 72 1.8 

PA eee ee een an Oe ees LEAS SRA ES OY ek 8.0 29.9 3.55 ey, 

JON SOS WE Sa SF AEE OREO eee er eyes aan TOE 5.0 35.9 3. 24 1.6 

NG OL fees Sales OPE 9 2 ae a a NS SL ei 3 eae aa 47.9 3. 65 Mey/ 

(CINE 3 Se ea es 2S 5 eS Ee eee ees. 1 20 64. 6 4.07 2.0 

GBR Ee ee ee re eee oe ee eee ee ee AS 1.5 77.6 4. 57 Dae 

LRG) eas SN Ee a eee ere ee ae 1.4 79.4 4. 27 2.1 

SAG iy 3 Medan 2 RR dee wins Meee ee Tee DO BE Eo Ye 1.2 74.1 3.39 IE Ye 

AG Vt REISS hoe ry as Oh See ae eee 1.2 77.6 3. 55 Lesh 

This final law of distribution of eccentricity of orbit is independent 
of the size of the orbit, but the time of relaxation which measures the 
rate of approach to this final state is not. For the eccentricity of 
orbit is a differential effect, arising from the difference of the gravita- 
tional pulls of a passing star on the two components of the binary, and 
when these components are close together the passing star can get no 
erip on the orbit. For visual binaries, in which the components are 
usually hundreds of millions of miles apart, the “time of relaxation’’ is 
again millions of millions of years, but it is a hundred times as great as 
this for the far more compact spectroscopic binaries. 

The following table, compiled from material given by Aitken, 
shows the observed distribution of eccentricities: 

TasLe II].—The approach to equipartition of energy in binary orbits 

Siam, | Obemret ec 
aan F number o umber in 
Eccentricity of orbit ai visual bi- | final state 
aries naries 
(1) 0) 01d eee DEC Se Bien 9 5 SN ge See a ee eee 78 U 6 
COP HSNO sc ts ee eee 18 18 18 
PASC OO: Gore nn eee eee ee eee eee ee oe 16 28 30 
IWS RO Us eee eee Sete ee a ee eee ae 6 11 42 
OS io i OLESE Ere. O08 8 ee be eee ee epee ne) Shes. seer oe 1 4 54 

As we should anticipate, the spectroscopic binaries show no 
approach to the final state; most of them retain the low eccentricity 
of orbit with which they start life. The visual binaries show a good 
approach up to an eccentricity of about 0.6, but not beyond. The 
deficiency of orbits of high eccentricity may mean that gravitational 
forces have not had sufficient time to produce the highest eccentricities 
of all, but part, and perhaps all, of the deficiency must be ascribed to 
the observational difficulty of detecting orbits of high eccentricity. 

Clearly, however, the study both of orbital motions and of motions 
through space points to gravitational action extending over millions 


of millions of years. In each case there is an exception to “ prove the 
rule’. Inthe former case, it is provided by the spectroscopic binaries 
which are so compact that their constituents can defy the pulling- 
apart action of gravitation; in the latter case it is provided by the 
B-type stars which are so massive, possibly also so young, that the 
gravitational forces from lesser stars have not greatly affected their 

This and other lines of evidence, when discussed in detail, agree in 
suggesting that the general age of the stars is probably between five 
and ten million million years. It may even be possible to fix the age 
of the sun within the narrower limits of seven and eight million 
million years. 


We now have all the data for discussing the origin of the radioactive 
atoms in the sun and stars. Thorium, the longest-lived of all radio- 
active substances, is reduced to half its original amount after 15,000,- 
000,000 years of spontaneous disintegration. A mass of pure thorium 
equal to the sun (2 X 10** gm.) would be reduced to a single atom within 
three million million years. For uranium, with a half-value period of 
5,000,000,000 years, the corresponding time is less than a million 
million years. When the earth was born the sun’s age was greater 
than either of these times, so that the earth’s portion of radioactive 
matter must have been generated during the sun’s life in the sun 

The only possible escape from this conclusion would seem to lie in 
the supposition that the lives of atoms of uranium and thorium are in 
some way enormously prolonged by intense heat and fierce bombard- 
ment such as occur in the sun’s interior. We can not absolutely rule 
such a possibility out, but it is difficult to see any single consideration 
which could be adduced in its favor from the side either of experi- 
mental or of theoretical physics, and, in the present state of our 
knowledge, it would seem reasonable to disregard it. 

Assuming that these atoms were born in the sun, the problem of 
the manner of their birth takes us to the very heart of present-day 
theoretical physics. 

Let us consider, in some detail, two processes which occur on 
earth: The change of atomic make-up through a readjustment of 
electrons, and the change of nuclear make-up through spontaneous 

At first sight the two processes seem very dissimilar. The radio- 
active transformation of the nucleus is spontaneous, in the sense 
that nothing that we can do either expedites or hinders it. Each 
atom of uranium carries its own future history written inside it. It 


lives its appointed life serenely undisturbed by external accidents of 
heat or pressure; when its hour strikes it will cease to exist as 
uranium and will proceed to disintegrate into lead, helium, and 
radiation. Its nucleus slips back to a state of lower energy, the lost 
energy being put in evidence as emitted radiation. On the other hand 
the change produced in ordinary atoms by electronic rearrangement 
is extremely susceptible to external physical conditions. Every 
spectroscopist knows how to chip off one, two, or even three electrons 
from the atom at will. Nevertheless, as was first made clear in a 
remarkable paper which Einstein published in 1917,° the difference 
is merely one of degree and not of kind. 

The electrons in an atom are free to move from one orbit to another, 
and as the various possible orbits have different energies, the atom 
constitutes, to some extent, a reservoir of energy. For example, 
the hydrogen atom consists of a single proton as central nucleus, 
and a single electron revolving round it. According to Bohr’s 
theory, the electron can revolve in orbits whose diameters (or major 
axes) are proportional to the squares of the natural numbers, 1, 4, 
9, 16, 25, ... The differences of energy between the various 
orbits are easily calculated; for example, the smallest two orbits 
differ in energy by 16107" erg. If we add 16X10-” erg of energy 
to an atom in which the electron is describing the smallest orbit of 
all, it crosses over to the next orbit, absorbing the 16 x 10~” erg in the 
process and so becoming temporarily a reservoir of energy holding 
16x10-" erg. If the atom is disturbed, it may of course discharge 
the energy at any time, or it may absorb still more energy and so 
increase its store. But if it is left entirely undisturbed, the electron 
must, after a certain time, lapse back spontaneously to its original 
smaller orbit. If it were not so, Planck’s well-established law of 
black-body radiation could not be true. In this process the atom 
ejects 16X10-” erg of energy in the form of radiation and, as a 
consequence, experiences a diminution of mass to the extent of 
1.8<X10-” gm. Thus a collection of hydrogen atoms in which the 
electrons describe orbits larger than the smallest possible is similar 
to a collection of uranium atoms in that the atoms spontaneously 
lapse back to their states of lower energy as a result merely of the 
passage of time, losing mass and emitting radiation in the process. 

We have spoken of adding 16 10-” erg of energy to a hydrogen 
atom in its state of lowest energy. We can not of course do this 
simply by pouring miscellaneous energy on the atom, and expecting 
it to drink it up. The hydrogen atom only accepts energy which is 
offered it in the form of radiation of precisely the right wave length; 
it treats all other radiation with complete indifference. Every atom 

3 Phys. Zeitsch., vol. 48, p. 122, 1917. 


is selective in the sense in which a penny-in-the-slot machine is selec- 
tive; if we pour radiation of the wrong frequency on to an atom we may 
reproduce the comedy of the millionaire whose total wealth will not 
procure him a box of matches because he has not a loose penny, or we 
may reproduce the tragedy of the child who can not obtain a slab of 
chocolate because its hoarded wealth consists of farthings and half- 
pence, but we shall not disturb the hydrogen atom. 

This selective action of the atom on radiation is put in evidence in 
a variety of ways, but is perhups most simply shown in the spectra of 
the stars. Light of all wave lengths streams out from the hot interior 
of a star and bombards the atoms which form its atmosphere. These 
atoms drink up that radiation which is of precisely the right wave 
length, but have no interaction of any kind with the rest, with the 
result that the radiation which is finally emitted from the star is 
deficient in just these particular wave lengths. This is shown by the 
star showing an absorption spectrum of fine lines. As the atoms in the 
star’s atmosphere absorb this radiation they move to orbits of higher 
energy, but in course of time they lapse back to their old orbits, and 
in doing so emit energy in the form of radiation of precisely these same 
wave lengths. This does not, as might at first be thought, exactly 
neutralize the absorption of radiation, because the absorbed radiation 
was all traveling outwards, whereas the emitted radiation travels in 
all directions at random. Thus, if we view the atmosphere tangen- 
tially, as we can do with the sun’s atmosphere at a total eclipse, we 
observe the same spectrum, no longer as an absorption but as an 
emission spectrum; it no longer consists of dark, but of bright lines— 
the ‘‘flash”’ spectrum. 

Any atom, or indeed any other electrical structure, will select the 
radiation of suitable wave length from all the radiation which falls on 
it, and use the energy of this radiation in rearranging its electron 
orbits. The amount of energy e that the atom absorbs is connected 
with the wave length \ of the radiation by the quantum relation 
e\=hC, where h is Planck’s constant (6.55 X 10-* erg sec.), and C 
is the velocity of light. The quantity ¢ of energy given by this relation 
is called the “quantum” of light of wave length \, and the wave lengths 
of the radiation which any electrical structure selects are determined 
by the condition that the corresponding quantum of energy shall 
just suffice to shift its electrons from one orbit to another. Radiation 
will also be absorbed if its quantum provide sufficient energy to tear 
the electron out of the atom altogether, and set it traveling through 
space as a tree electron. All radiation of which the wave length is 
less than a certain critical limit fulfils this latter condition. 

The more compact an electrical structure is, the greater the energy 
necessary to disturb it; and the greater the quantum of energy e, 


the shorter the wave length of the corresponding radiation. It follows 
that a very compact structure can only be disturbed by radiation of 
very short wave length. 

As a rough working guide we may say that any structure will only 
be disturbed by radiation whose wave length is less than 860 times the 
dimensions of the structure. The energy needed to separate two 
electric charges +¢ and —e, at a distance r apart, is e?/r, and, in general, 
the energy needed to rearrange or break up a structure of electrons 
and protons of linear dimensions 7 will be comparable with this. 
If \ is the wave length of the requisite radiation, the energy made 
available by the absorption of this radiation is the quantum AC/X. 
Combining this with the circumstance that the value of h is very 
approximately 860 ¢?/C, we find that the requisite wave length of 
radiation is about 860 times the dimensions of the structure to be 
broken up. In brief, the reason why blue light affects photographic 
plates, while red light does not, is that the wave length of blue light is 
less, and that of red light is greater, than 860 times the diameter of 
the molecule of silver nitrate; we must get below the 860-limit before 
anything begins to happen. 

The wave length of the light emitted by an atom when it dis- 
charges its reservoir of energy is precisely the same as that of the 
light absorbed when it originally stored up this energy, for as the 
two quanta of energy are the same, the corresponding wave lengths 
are the same. It follows that the light emitted by any electrical 
structure will have a wave length of about 860 times the dimensions 
of the structure. For example, ordinary visible light has a wave 
length equal to about 860 atomic diameters. 

Atomic nuclei, like the atoms themselves, are structures of positive 
and negative electrical charges, and so ought to behave similarly 
with respect to the radiation falling uponthem. The radiation which 
the atomic nuclei emit, and consequently also that which they are 
prepared to absorb, is, however, of far shorter wave length than 
that emitted or absorbed by complete atoms. Ellis and others have 
found, for example, that the radiation which is emitted during the 
disintegration of radium-B has wave lengths of 3.52, 4.20, 4.80, 
5.13, and 23 X 10-"cm. These wave lengths are only about a hun- 
dred-thousandth part of those of visible light. The reason is, of 
course, that the nucleus has only about a hundred-thousandth part 
the dimensions of the atom. 

Since the wave length of the radiation absorbed or emitted by an 
atom is inversely proportional to the quantum of energy, it follows 
that the quantum of energy needed to work the atomic nucleus is 
about 100,000 times as great as that needed to work the atom. If 


we compare the hydrogen atom to a penny-in-the-slot machine, nothing 
less than 500-pound notes will work the radioactive nuclei. 

Yet radiation of the wave lengths just mentioned ought to be just 
as effective in rearranging the nucleus of radium-B as that of the 
longer wave length is effective in rearranging the hydrogen atom. 
At least such radiation ought to precipitate the disintegration of 
radium-B. Whether it could ever be effective in forming radium-B 
out of radium-C and atoms of helium (or a- and @-particles) is a 
somewhat different question; possibly other conditions of which 
nothing is known must be fulfilled in addition to the presence of 
radiation of the appropriate wave length. 

Probably also the radioactive nuclei, like those of nitrogen and 
oxygen, could be broken up by a sufficiently intense bombardment, 
although the experimental evidence on this point is not very definite. 
If so, each bombarding particle would have to bring to the attack 
energy equal at least to that of one quantum of the radiation in 
question, and this requires it to move with an enormously high 

In passing, we may notice that processes of the general type we 
have just been discussing form the hope of those modern alchemists 
who aspire to obtain gold by the transmutation of other metals. In 
its widest form, their ambition is to combine the electrons and protons 
of base metals with the third atomic ingredient, namely, electromag- 
netic energy, so as to form atoms of gold. Any success they may 
achieve will probably result in a gain of knowledge to abstract science 
rather than of wealth to themselves, since one of the ingredients they 
must necessarily use, namely, energy or radiation, is so expensive as 
to render the final product excessively costly. It would need at least 
an appreciable fraction of an ounce of energy to produce an ounce of 
gold, and with electric power at even a farthing per unit, energy 
and radiation cost 11,000,000 pounds per ounce. Whatever the 
gold standard may have to fear on the political side, it would appear 
to be thoroughly impregnable on the side of physics and chem- 

Every wave length of radiation has a definite temperature associated 
with it, namely, the temperature at which radiation of this particular 
wave length is most abundant. We recognize this when we speak of 
a red heat or a white heat, and, although we do not do so, we might 
quite legitimately speak in the same way of an ultra-violet heat or an 
X-ray heat. The wave length and the associated temperature are 
connected through the well-known relation: 

AT =0.2885 cm. degree 


When this particular temperature begins to be approached, but not 
before, radiation of the wave length in question becomes abundant; 
at temperatures well below this it is quite inappreciable. 

We have seen that radiation of short wave length is needed to break 
up an electric structure of small dimensions, and as we now see that 
short wave lengths are associated with high temperatures, it appears 
that the smaller a structure is, the greater the heat needed to break it 
up. Oncombining the relation just given between 7 and ) with that 
implied in the rough law of the ‘‘860 limit,” it appears that a structure 
of dimensions 7 cm. will begin to be broken up by temperature radia- 
tion when the temperature first approaches 1/3000r. Atoms, for 
example, whose general dimensions are of the order of 10~§ cm., begin 
to be broken up when the temperature approaches 30,000°; nuclei, 
whose general dimensions are of the order of 10~' em., must remain 
unaffected until the temperature approaches 3,000,000,000°. 

To take a more precise instance, yellow light of wave length 6000A 
is specially associated with the temperature 4,800°. At temperatures 
well below this there is no yellow light except such as is artificially 
created. Stars, and all other bodies, at a temperature of about 
4,800°, are of a yellowish color and show lines in the yellow region of 
their spectrum. These lines occur because yellow light removes the 
outermost electron from the atoms of calcium and similar elements. 
When a temperature of 4,800° begins to be approached, but not before, 
rearrangements of the electrons in the calcium atom begin to occur. 
This temperature is not approached on earth (except in the electric 
are and other artificial conditions) so that terrestrial calcium atoms in 
general are at rest in their states of lowest energy. Einstein’s paper 
of 1917 showed it to be a necessary deduction from Planck’s law of 
black-body radiation that a collection of calcium atoms in other states 
would behave precisely like atoms of radioactive substances to the 
extent of spontaneously slipping back to states of lower energy. 

Just as calcium atoms in the cool temperatures of the earth simulate 
the behavior of radioactive atoms, so radioactive nuclei, if raised to a 
sufficiently high temperature, would simulate the behavior of calcium 
atoms in the hot atmosphere of a star. The shortest wave length of 
radiation emitted in the transformation of uranium is about 0.5 X 
10- cm., and this corresponds to a temperature of 5,800,000,000°. 
When some such temperaiure begins to be approached, but not before, 
the constituents of the radioactive nuclei begin to rearrange themselves 
just as the constituents of the calcium atom do when a temperature of 
4,800° is approached. 

We must probably suppose that rearrangements can also be effected 
by bombarding the electric structure with material particles. If so, 


the temperature at which bombardment by electrons, nuclei, or mole- 
cules would first begin to be effective is precisely the same as that at 
which radiation of the effective wave length would first begin to be 
appreciable; the two processes begin at the same temperature. 

TasBLE III.—The mechanical effects of radiation 

Wave lengths (cm.) Natureot Effect on atom Temper a 5 (degrees Where found 
7,500 X10-8 to 3,750X10-8_| V.siblelight_| Disturbs outermost | 3,850 to 7,700_____------_- Stellar atmos- 
electrons. pheres. 
2D0<10-2tonl0 Bs eraysene-— Disturbs inner elec- | 115,000 to 29,000,000______ Stellar interiors. 
OORT Corl Og) eee ee Soft y rays__| Strip off allornearly | 58,000,000 to 290,000,000__| Central regions 
all electrons. of dense stars. 
41 Opts. Sew oe La y rays of ra-| Disturbs nuclear ar- | 720,000,000_________-_____ 
dium-B. rangement. 
OAT Ot rte. . enas 23 2 hardest iq) bicw= tts We i) wea ean ae 5,800; 000:00022 es ee 
BB GOR 19 4 Pee (eee ee Building of helium | 64,000,000,000____________ 
atom out of hydro- 
ZT Oat Sa ee ek OFT Highly-pene-| Disintegrates nuclei_| 150,000,000,000___________ 
trating ra- 
W3rCUO rie se (cone Annihilation or crea-| 2,300,000,000,000____..- 

tion of proton and 
accompanying elec- 

1 See added item on p. 179. 

We have seen, then, that the apparent difference between the behav- 
ior of the calcium atom and of the uranium nucleus reduces, in theory, 
to a mere difference of temperature, although in practice the difference 
is all the difference between 5,000° and 5,000,000,000°. The lower 
temperature is approached or exceeded in the atmospheres of most 
stars, so that the calcium atom is continually rearranging itself in 
these atmospheres, as is shown by the presence of the H and K lines 
of calcium in most stellar spectra. It is unlikely that the higher tem- 
perature is approached anywhere in the universe, although exceptions, 
arising from our ignorance rather than our knowledge, must possibly 
be made in favor of the centers of certain ‘“‘white-dwarf” stars and 
of the spiral nebule. Apart from these, no place is known hot enough 
to have any appreciable effect on the transformation, either by syn- 
thesis or by disintegration, of the radioactive elements, and we must 
conclude that they behave everywhere in the same spontaneous fatal- 
istic way that they do on earth; nowhere is there sufficiently intense 
heat to cause them to vary their conduct. 

Thus solar uranium, which, as we have already seen, must have been 
born in the sun, can scarcely have been born out of the synthesis of 
lighter elements, and so must have criginated out of the disintegration 
of heavier elements. The position with respect to solar uranium is 
precisely analogous to that we have already reached in respect of 
terrestrial radium, but there is the outstanding difference that we 


know the ancestry of terrestrial radium, whereas we do not know that 
of solar uranium. But ancestry there must be, so that we are led 
directly to the conjecture that the sun must have contained, and pre- 
sumably must still contain, atoms of atomic weight greater than that 
of uranium; astronomical evidence leads independently to the same 
conclusion. We are led to contemplate terrestrial uranium merely as 
the present generation of an ancestry that extends we know not how 
_far back. The complete series of chemical elements contains elements 
of greater atomic weight than uranium, but all such have, to the best 
of our knowledge, vanished from the earth, as uranium also is destined 
to do in time. 

Table III above shows the wave lengths of the radiation necessary 
to effect various atomic transformations. The last two columns show 
the corresponding temperatures, and the places, so far as we know, 
where this temperature is to be found. In places where the temper- 
ature is far below that mentioned in the last column but one, the trans- 
formation in question can not be affected by heat, and so can only 
occur spontaneously. Thus it is entirely a one-way process. The 
available radiation Js not of the right wave length to work the atomic 
slot machine, so that the atoms, absorbing no energy from the sur- 
rounding radiation, are continually slipping back into states of lower 
energy, if such exist; they continually transform their mass into radia- 
tion, while the converse transformation of radiation into mass can 
not occur. 

For the sake of completeness, the table has been extended so as to 
include certain other phenomena, not so far discussed, to which we 
now turn. 


Every square centimeter of the sun’s surface discharges radiation 
out into space at the rate of about 1,500 calories a second, from which 
we can calculate that the sun’s total mass is diminishing at about 
250,000,000 tons a minute. Whereas the flow of mass from the earth’s 
surface, a total loss of about an ounce a minute, is about equal to the 
flow of water from a dripping tap, the flow of mass from the sun’s sur- 
face is about 650 times the flow of water over Niagara. Many stars 
lose mass even more rapidly; S. Doradus loses mass at the rate of about 
200,000,000 Niagaras. The earth’s loss of mass is readily explained 
in terms of radioactive disintegration, but this fails entirely to explain 
the enormously greater loss experienced by the sun. Furthermore, 
the earth’s loss of mass is probably, replaced many times over by falls 
of meteors and cosmic dust, but no one has ever suspected or suggested 
any source of replenishment of the masses of the sun and stars which 
is at all comparable with their known loss. 


Thus the sun’s loss of mass is cumulative and has in all probability 
gone on at its present, or at an even greater, rate throughout the 
whole of its vast age of some seven million million years. Indeed, 
astronomical evidence makes it fairly certain that younger stars 
radiate more energetically than older stars. When allowance is 
made for this, it is found that the sun must have radiated many 
times its present mass during its life of seven million million years; 
it must have been many times as massive at birth as it is now, and of 
every ton it originally contained only a few hundredweight remain 
to-day. Since no form of radioactive disintegration with which 
we are acquainted results in such a diminution of mass as this, we 
are forced to suppose that something still more fundamental is respon- 
sible for the sun’s diminution of mass and emission of radiation. 
Of each thousand atoms that the sun contained at its birth only a 
few dozen remain to-day, and we can only conclude that all the rest 
have been annihilated and their mass set free in the form of radiation. 
This transformation of atoms into radiation, although unknown to 
terrestrial physics, must clearly be one of the fundamental physical 

processes of the universe. . 


General thermodynamical theory shows that every natural system 
tends to move toward a final state of maximum entropy by steps 
such that, statistically speaking, the entropy imcreases with every 
step. In calculating this entropy, classical thermodynamics regarded 
the chemical atoms as indivisible, indestructible, and immutible; 
the system consisted merely of permanent atoms and energy, and 
maximum entropy was attained when this energy was partitioned 
between the kinetic and potential energies of the atoms and the energy 
of radiation traveling freely through space, in such a way that no 
possible redistribution could make the entropy greater. 

Modern knowledge shows this scheme of thermodynamics to be 
totally inadequate. So far from atoms being the eternal unchange- 
able bricks of the universe, modern science finds them subject not 
only to constant change, but also to total destruction. Not only do 
their nuclei change their retinue of attendant electrons, but they them- 
selves both crumble away into simpler nuclei, and dissolve entirely 
into radiation. Furthermore, energy can reside in other forms than 
those just enumerated; it can be used, stored, and transformed in 
changing electron orbits inside the atom, in breaking up atoms, 
in rearranging and breaking up the atomic nuclei and so transmuting 
the elements; it can be liberated by the complete annihilation of mat- 
ter. Neither total energy nor total mass is any longer constant; the 
conservation both of mass and of energy has disappeared from 
physics, and only a kind of sum of the two is conserved. 


The final state of the universe must be such that the entropy can 
not be increased even by transmuting the elements or changing atoms 
into radiation. It could, of course, be calculated readily enough 
if the necessary new and enlarged scheme of thermodynamics were 
available, but competing schemes are in the field. The Bose-Ein- 
stein scheme leads to one result, the Fermi-Dirac scheme to another; 
the results on both schemes have been worked out by Jordan.‘ 

The two schemes lead to the same result in one particular limiting 
case, and this limiting case happens to give a wonderfully close ap- 
proximation to the state of the universe asa whole. The limiting case 
is that in which space is almost empty of matter, a specification 
which sounds like nonsense until we find some common standard by 
which an amount of matter may be compared with an amount of 
space. If we measure an amount of matter by the amount of space 
it occupies, then the “‘emptiness”’ of space is one of the commonplaces 
both of modern physics and of modern astronomy. It is not merely 
a question of the emptiness of the atom, which has already been no- 
ticed. Hubble® has estimated that if all the matter within about 
100,000,000 light-years of the sun were uniformly spread out, it 
would have a mean density of the order of only about 107*! gm. per 
cubic centimeter, so that even the very empty atoms would be at 
several thousand million times their diameters apart. 

We can express this emptiness of space in a more fundamental 
manner. The energy set free by the total annihilation of 1 gm. 
of matter is equal to C? or 9X10” ergs, so that the total annihila- 
tion of all the matter of the universe, assuming an average density 
of 10-*! gm. per cubic centimeter, would only provide an energy- 
density of 9X10-" ergs per cubic centimeter, which would raise 
the temperature of space from absolute zero to about 10° abs. The 
emptiness of space is indicated by the lowness of this temperature 
in comparison with the temperatures, as shown in Table III, which 
are necessary to effect atomic and subatomic changes. If we make 
the approximation of neglecting 10° in comparison with the temper- 
ature of 2,200,000,000,000° which corresponds to the annihilation 
or creation of electrons and protons, the various schemes of statis- 
tical mechanics give the same result for the number of electrons and 
protons left undissolved into radiation. Independently of the size 
of the universe, the dominating factor in this number is e ”°!”7; 
and as the index of the exponential is the ratio of the two tempera- 
tures just considered, the number is entirely negligible. Thus the 
final state of maximum entropy is one in which every atom has 

4 Zeitsch. f. Physik., 41, 711; 1927. 
5 Astrophys. Journ., 64, 368; 1926. 


dissolved away into radiation, or at least every atom which is capable 
of so doing. This conclusion must, I think, be admitted quite 
independently of any particular scheme of statistical mechanics. 
The approximation that space is empty may be stated in the alter- 
native form that the extent of space is enormously great; space, 
regarded as a receptacle for radiant energy, isa bottomless pit. In the 
terminology of the older mechanics, space has so many degrees of 
freedom that there can be no thermodynamical equilibrium so long 
as any energy is concentrated in matter. In more modern language, 
there are so many phase-cells associated with detached radiation, 
that the chance of any energy being found elsewhere is negligible. 

The road by which the universe travels to this final state is dis- 
closed by Table III. The last column is seen to contain entries 
only in its upper half; the temperatures necessary to effect the 
processes dealt with in lower half of the table are so high that, to 
the best of our knowledge, they are not to be found anywhere in 
the universe. When these latter processes occur, then, they are 
everywhere spontaneous; they are unaffected by the actual tem- 
peratures, and so absorb no radiation. Thus, the transformation, 
‘‘mass —-—> radiation,’’ occurs everywhere, and the reverse transforma- 
tion nowhere. There can be no creation of matter out of radiation, 
and no reconstruction of radio-active atoms which have once broken 
up. The fabric of the universe weathers, crumbles, and dissolves 
with age, and no restoration or reconstruction is possible. The 
second law of thermodynamics compels the material universe to move 
ever in the same direction along the same road, a road which ends 
only in death and annihilation. 


The end of this road is more easily disconcerned than its beginning. 
The atoms which are now annihilating themselves to provide the 
light and heat of the stars clearly can not have existed as atoms 
from all time; they must have begun to exist at some time not infinite- 
ly remote, and this leads us to contemplate a definite event, or series 
of events, or continuous process, of creation of matter. If we want 
a naturalistic interpretation of this creation, we may imagine radiant 
energy of any wave length less than 1.3X10-" cm. being poured 
into empty space; such radiation might conceivably crystallize into 
electrons and protons, and finally form atoms. If we want a con- 
crete picture, we may think of the finger of God agitating the ether. 
We may avoid this sort of crude imagery by insisting on space, time, 
and matter being treated together and inseparably as a single system, 
so that it becomes meaningless to speak of space and time as existing 
at all before matter existed. Such a view is consonant not only 
with ancient metaphysical theories, but also with the modern theory 
of relativity. The universe becomes a finite picture whose dimen- 


sions are a certain amount of space and a certain amount of time; 
the protons and electrons are the streaks of paint which define the 
picture against its space-time background. Traveling as far back 
in time as we can brings us not to the creation of the picture, but 
to its edge, and the origin of the picture lies as much outside the pic- 
ture as the artist is outside his canvas. On this view, discussing 
the creation of the universe in terms of time and space is like trying 
to discover the artist and the action of painting by going to the 
edge of the picture. This brings us very near to those philosophical 
systems which regard the universe as a thought in the mind of its 
Creator, and so reduce all discussion of material creation to futility. 

Both these points of view are impregnable, but so also is that of 
the plain man who, recognizing that it is impossible for the human 
mind to comprehend the full plan of the universe, decides that his 
own efforts shall stop this side of the creation of matter. 


The transformation of uranium into lead and helium involves a 
drop of energy, but in the lighter elements the energy-change is in 
the reverse direction. Four atoms of hydrogen are more, not less, 
massive than an atom of helium, so that their energy-content is 
ereater. Thus helium can never disintegrate spontaneously into 
hydrogen, although four atoms of hydrogen might spontaneously 
unite to form an atom of helium. They could not unite other than 
spontaneously, except possibly as a rare accident, since the tempera- 
ture of transformation, 64,000,000,000°, is higher than occurs in the 
universe. Whether they ever unite even spontaneously remains an 
open question on which opinions differ. Millikan at one time 
suggested this process as the origin of the highly penetrating radiation 
which bombards the earth from outer space, but recent observations 
rule this interpretation out; the observed wave length of the radiation 
is too short, so that the radiation must originate in something more 
fundamental even than the transformation of hydrogen into helium. 
Whether any such process can be found, short of the complete 
annihilation of matter, remains to be seen; personally, I feel doubtful: 

[Added October 7, 1929. Since the foregoing was written, Klein and Nishina 
have worked out a very complete mathematical theory of the absorption of 
radiation. According to this theory, the observed absorption of the highly- 
penetrating radiation indicates a wave-length of almost exactly 1.310—¥® cms. 
for its most penetrating part. Thus this part, at least, would seem to originate 
directly in the annihilation of protons and their accompanying electrons.] 

[Added January 29, 1930. The theory of Klein and Nishina has now been tested 
by Gray, Stoner and others, and is found to fit observation almost exactly. In 
view of this, it is exceedingly difficult to attribute the most penetrating radiation 
to any other source than annihilation of protons and electrons.] 

Millikan has recently suggested that this radiation may result 

from electrons and protons falling together and forming atoms in 


regions outside the stars. As a collection of oppositely charged 
particles could not remain uncombined for long, he postulates a 
continual creation of protons and electrons out of the stray radiation 
of the stars; matter is continually being annihilated in the interior 
of the stars, and re-created outside them. This gives a cyclic universe 
which might go on for ever. 

Like all other cyclic universes, however, it clashes with the second 
law of thermodynamics. A universe which is not in a state of 
Maximum entropy moves irreversibly along the path of increasing 
entropy and so can not be cyclic; one which is already in such a 
state must be macroscopically dead, and so can not be cyclic in any 
sense perceptible to us. Indeed, it is easy to find the exact spot at 
which Millikan’s concept comes into confiict with the second law of 
thermodynamics; it is that we can not have protons and electrons 
transformed into radiation at a high temperature and then have the 
process reversed at a lower temperature. 

Some may not regard this as a fatal objection to the scheme in 
question. All our discussion has been based on the supposition 
that the laws of physics remain valid at enormously high tempera- 
tures and under conditions entirely outside our experience. Conse- 
quently, all our conclusions can be avoided, and everything can be 
put back in the melting pot, by the single hypothesis that the laws 
which govern matter out in space differ from those which govern 
matter on earth. Yet we have only found it necessary to assume the 
simplest and most fundamental of physical laws, namely, the second 
law of thermodynamics and the broad general principles of the 
quantum theory; and it is hard to imagine that such wide laws fail 
outside our laboratories. The obvious path of scientific progress 
would seem to lie in the direction of inquiring what consequences are 
involved in supposing these laws to be of universal scope, and then 
testing these consequences against the ascertained facts of observa- 
tional astronomy. So far as present indications go, astronomy, so far 
from challenging these consequences, goes half-way out to meet them. 
. Apart from transitory rearrangements of atomic electrons, the 
fundamental changes in atoms consist in transitions to states of lower 
energy. Under the classical electrodynamics, an electron describing 
a circular orbit of radius r about a charge F lost energy at a rate 
3, °a2C/r* (Larmor’s formula), and this caused the radius r to decrease 
at a calculable rate; the charges inevitably and spontaneously fell 
towards one another. The quantum mechanics replaced this steady 
fall by a sequence of sudden drops, but according to Bohr’s corres- 
pondence principle the rate of fall remains statistically the same, at 
any rate so long as the orbits are large, as on the classical electro- 
dynamics; that is to say, the sum of the radii of the orbits of a whole 
crowd of atoms decreases through spontaneous jumps at just the same 


rate as though their motion was governed by the old mechanics. The 
spontaneous degradation of energy we have had under consideration 
is now seen to be the natural extension into quantum territory of that 
implied in Larmor’s classical formula. Had it not been for this de- 
gradation of energy, the atoms would have been perpetual motion 
machines; Larmor’s formula prohibited that. The quantum theory 
seemed at first to remove the prohibition and reconstitute the atom a 
perpetual motion machine. Then came Einstein’s famous paper of 
1917, which made it clear that even under the quantum theory per- 
petual motion was banned; spontaneous degradation of energy was 
shown to be implied in Planck’s formula for black-body radiation. 
Once again, then, perpetual motion disappears from physics, aad the 
grit in the bearings, which ultimately brings the machine to rest, is the 
natural quantum theory analogue of that which would have brought 
the machine to rest in the classical electrodynamics. Long ago we 
used to call it the interaction between matter and ether. 

There appears to be one exception. The classical electrodynamics 
ruled out perpetual motion machines entirely. The new physics also 
rules them out, but permits the conspicuous exception of atoms in 
their state of lowest energy; these can go on in perpetual motion to 
all eternity, because there is no state of lower energy to which they 
can drop. 

Is this exception real or is it only apparent? In a sense a state of 
still lower energy is reached when the electric charges, let us say of 
the hydrogen atom, fall into one another and the atom dissolves into 
radiation. We could remove the apparent exception from the new 
physics, and dismiss perpetual motion machines entirely from science, 
by supposing that after moving for a certain very long time in its 
state of lowest energy the hydrogen atom dissolved spontaneously 
into radiation. This might be dismissed as mere idle speculation were 
it not that the most fundamental physical process in the universe as 
a whole appears to be precisely this spontaneous dissolution of atoms 
into radiation. 

If this kind of spontaneous dissolution should prove to be the true 
mechanism of the transformation of astronomical matter into radia- 
tion, then clearly bare nuclei and free electrons must be free from 
annihilation. ‘Thus the conjecture may claim some support from the 
circumstance that the ‘‘white dwarf” stars, in which the atoms are 
broken up completely, or almost completely, into their constituent 
nuclei and electrons, emit exceedingly little radiation; their sub- 
stance would seem to be immune from annihilation. If the conjec- 
ture should ultimately prove its claim to acceptance, the main physical 
processes of the universe could all be included in one comprehensive 
generalization, and the speck of radium which we watch in the spin- 
thariscope would symbolize all the happenings of the physics of the 


a7 ON ai 

« ns nbs Dog 

avert, ts ibaa (ON, flr ight f 

Diy.) tors 

i mn 


rHROgtUE 2 

wl ‘< 


By Freprrick H. SEARES 

Assistant Director, Mount Wilson Observatory, Carnegie Institution of Washington 

[With 4 plates] 

Counting stars is not unlike counting people or sheep or pebbles on 
the seashore. The astronomer’s difficulties are not in the counting, 
but rather in knowing when the counting must start and stop. With 
patience these difficulties may be overcome, but the conclusions to be 
drawn from the numbers of stars counted are a more delicate mat- 
ter; some are indisputable, others less certain, still others highly 

First of all, we are concerned with a census of the sky; and just as 
the census taker enumerates people in different ways—according to 
residence, race, occupation, for example—so the astronomer may 
count his stars differently; but, whatever the manner of counting, it 
has always the purpose of learning how the stars are scattered through- 
out space and how the great system which they form is constructed. 

To keep clear of complexities and survey only the broad struc- 
tural features of the system, he counts, at the start, in only two ways; 
to learn fundamental things, he considers characteristics which them- 
selves are fundamentally different. At first, therefore, he observes 
only the direction of a star in the sky and its brightness as seen with 
the telescope. All other features in which stars differ, such as size, 
color, mass, motion, are left for subsequent study. It is as though 
the census taker were to count people according to their ages and the 
places in which they live, disregarding all other possible groupings, 
such as height, race, and occupation. 

1 Reprinted by permission, with minor changes, from Publications of the Astronomical Society of the 
Pacific, vol. 40, pp. 303-331, 1928. An address delivered before the Pacific Division of the American Asso- 
ciation for the Advancement of Science, at the Pomona meeting, June 14, 1928. A detailed account of the 
investigations here described, which were undertaken in part with the cooperation and assistance of Prof. 
P.J. van Rhijn of the Kapteyn Astronomical Laboratory at Groningen, and of Miss Mary Joyner and 
Miss Myrtle Richmond of the computing division of the Mount Wilson Observatory, may be found in Mt. 
Wilson Contributions, Nos. 301, 346, and 347. 



The sky has no naturally marked boundaries within which the stars 
may be counted and intercompared; but as far as direction is con- 
cerned, it is easy to find how many stars there are, say per square 
degree of the sky, in different parts of the heavens. The counting 
of stars according to brightness, however, is another matter. 

The practical difficulty, as already stated, lies in recognizing the 
limits of brightness within which the stars are to be counted. To 
overcome this, a scale of brightness is required, with which individual 
stars may be matched to determine their light; for example, a sequence 
of stars, progressing by known steps, from the most brilliant in the sky 
to the faintest seen in our telescopes. Whatever the procedure 
adopted, it is essential that the unit of measurement be known in terms 
of the intensity of star light, because the intensity of the light re- 
ceived by the eye depends partly on the distances of the stars, and 
distances we wish very much to know. Initially, no such scale 
existed, and one had to be constructed. 

The earliest records of the brightness of stars, which go back 1,800 
years to the Alexandrian astronomer Ptolemy, represent rough eye 
estimates, expressed in a unit called a magnitude. To the brightest 
stars Ptolemy assigned the first magnitude; to those just visible to the 
unaided eye, the sixth magnitude; and to stars of intermediate bright- 
ness, magnitudes 2,3,4,and 5. When the invention of the telescope 
brought fainter stars into view, Ptolemy’s scale was extended, still by 
simple eye estimates. Atlength, about a century ago, instruments for 
measuring the intensity of a star’s light were devised, and then for 
the first time the physical equivalent of the unit of magnitude became 
clear. At this point it must be noted that magnitude is a measure 
of visual sensation—a very different thing from the intensity of the 
light which produces the sensation. On measurement it turned out 
that the intensity of Ptolemy’s first-magnitude stars was about one 
hundred times that of stars of the sixth magnitude, and for conven- 
ience the simple relation thus approximately satisfied by Ptolemy’s 
magnitudes was adopted as a precise definition of the unit of magni- 
tude. As now used, therefore, the unit is such that a difference of five 
magnitudes corresponds exactly to a ratio of 100 to 1 in the intensities, 
whence a difference in brightness of one magnitude is equivalent to an 
intensity ratio of 2.512. A further detail is the beginning, or zero 
point of the scale of magnitudes, which must be the same everywhere 
in the sky, if the measures of brightness in different parts of the heay- 
ens are to be comparable. Again for convenience, the zero point 
adopted was such that the precisely defined magnitudes agree as 
closely as possible with the old values obtained by eye estimates. 

Note now how this definition applies to faint stars. It means that 
a sixth-magnitude star is one hundred times as intense as one of the 
eleventh magnitude, and hence, that the first-magnitude star, as 


compared with the eleventh, is 100100 or 10,000 times as intense; 
if we extend the scale downward another 10 magnitudes, which brings 
us to the practicable working limit of large modern telescopes, the 
intensity ratio takes on another factor of 10,000, and we have for the 
interval of 20 magnitudes a ratio of 100,000,000 to 1. The light of 
a first-magnitude star is thus 100,000,000 times as intense as that of a 
star of the twenty-first magnitude. The numbers involved are to 
each other about as the distance separating California from New 
York is to a length of two inches. 

The construction of the magnitude scale therefore requires the 
ultimate comparison of sources of light differimg by an enormous 
ratio; in part, the undertaking is analogous to finding how many 
times a length of two inches is contained in a distance of about 3,000 
miles, without having even a foot rule or an engineer’s chain to start 
the measurement. Actually the photometric probleni is far the more 
troublesome, for the unavoidable error in measuring the intensity of 
a light is much greater, proportionally, than that involved in measur- 
ing a length. Indeed it is so much the more difficult that, although 
the concept and definition of the magnitude scale have been clear 
enough for many years, it is only recently that some approach to 
practical realization has been made in the attempt to fix standard 
limits of brightness within which the stars may be counted. 

Before turning to the results of counting, the impossibility of 
counting all the stars must be noted. The whole sky over, about 
6,000 stars may be seen without a telescope; but among the fainter 
stars the numbers run into millions and hundreds of millions. For 
these even the simplest enumeration would be impossible, whereas 
much more than simple enumeration is required. In order to specify 
the group with which any star is to be counted, the scale of magni- 
tudes must be applied to the star to measure its brightness, much as a 
‘yardstick might be applied to a man to determine his height. Only 
when this has been done can it be said that the star belongs with those 
whose magnitudes are between, say, 10.0 and 10.5. But measure- 
ments of brightness take time. At Potsdam Miiller and Kempf 
spent 19 years in deriving the magnitudes of 14,000 stars. At Mount 
Wilson we have measured some 70,000 stars; but even with modern 
photographic methods, the labor involved represents the continuous 
occupation of several people for a number of years. 

To avoid a task that could never be ended, we follow the plan first 
used for the star gauges of the Herschels and count only stars in 
representative regions of the sky. We deal with samples of stars, 
just as the census taker, if pressed for time, might count the inhabit- 
ants of only every other block, or perhaps of every fifth block, of a 
great city like New York, and still arrive at useful conclusions about 
the population of the city as a whole. In any such restriction of 


the counting the samples must really represent the whole, a condition 
satisfied in practice by counting regions uniformly distributed over 
the sky, and, by using areas that are not too small. In general, 
much smaller areas may be used in counting faint stars than for stars 
of moderate brightness. Thus, for the very faint stars counted at 
Mount Wilson the sample regions are so small that their total area 
is less than a thousandth part of the sky. Notwithstanding the gen- 
eral sufficiency of small sample regions, it must not be supposed that 
the resulting counts are free from statistical irregularities. They are 
not; but those present are chiefly of a local character, and may be 
smoothed out by averaging the counts in several neighboring regions. 


From these general considerations, we turn to some of the results 
of counting, noting at once an important conclusion which follows, 
not from the actual numbers of stars counted, but from the size of 
the sample regions which is sufficient for the counting. If counts 
covering a total area of only a thousandth of the whole sky give 
useful information, then the stellar system must possess much struc- 
tural unity and regularity. Otherwise, small sample regions chosen 
at random could not reveal as they do the underlying structural 
features of the system. 

The first peculiarity to be noted in the counts themselves is the 
extraordinary rapidity with which the numbers of stars increase as 
we pass to fainter and fainter limits of brightness. Four photographs 
of the same region (pl. 1), exposed just long enough to show stars 
brighter than the twelfth, fifteenth, eighteenth, and twentieth magni- 
tudes, respectively, are perhaps as impressive as the numbers them- 

Another peculiarity is that the stars are most numerous in the 
Milky Way and decrease in numbers as we count in regions more and 
more distant, in either direction, from this cloud-like band which 
encircles the sky. This also is well shown by photographs (pl. 2) 
which record stars to the same limit of brightness in the two regions, 
one in the Milky Way itself, the other far distant therefrom. The 
phenomenon is so striking, and the changes in the numbers on the 
two sides of the Milky Way are so similar, that it suggests, as it 
did to Sir William Herschel, a symmetrical arrangement of the stars 
about the plane passing through the Milky Way clouds. The regu- 
larity of the system already inferred from the sufficiency of small 
sample regions as an indication of stellar distribution thus becomes 
the regularity of a symmetrical arrangement in which the Milky 
Way stands out as the framework of the system. 


TasBLe I.—Mean distribution of stars 

[Number of stars per square degree brighter than photographic magnitude m at different distances from 
the Milky Way] 

Galactic latitude 

m concen- 
0° 30° 60° 90° eee 
al | i al a) 2 seed Vn eee a ARS 0. 0156 0. 00741 0. 00514 0. 00452 3.5 
SIO Pla lik ta. sed ee Pu oyna 0. 0449 0. 0214 0. 0148 0. 0130 3.4 
Giyl Diaai Oe laa Did Mat iA ea ald 0. 128 0. 0614 0. 0421 0. 0372 3.4 
BOD 25) TO EOE 2 PN eg a LE 0. 361 0.173 0.118 0. 103 3.6 
7h esessgensy SES te ew dal a Relator 1.01 0. 482 0. 325 0, 278 3.6 
SEO GS ee NE Ph TE ET Teh OE eee 2. 81 1.31 0. SAL 0. 723 3.9 
TID. (is Seapine AEs a sh ye die Bi Ui ee deo 7.71 3. 49 2, 23 1,81 4.3 
1st e ett. et pitine. i 20.8 9. 06 5. 47 4, 33 4.8 
TIP ees yh Soe oh DIL Ne i llc 55.6 22.7 12.8 9. 89 5.6 
FETE pa eer tp ey a Sele yo: MOD Re StRON EE £ 146 54.4 28. 6 21.4 6.8 
TM, (Os gy alee, J 2 acl lie ad ail 371 125 61.0 44.3 8.4 
US Oe ae ene See: pereneere Oe 910 272 123 87.1 10.4 
UG ( Dap oh eal ied pale ien lab wad| 2, 140 561 WONG 163 13.2 
170BI AAS At fe oa gay ean 4, 780 1, 090 | 428 288 16.6 
Hy Wis gece eh lta cal UR Ma eed naling 10, 200 1, 990 733 482 21 
TOTO SNE aS CUE OE ae BEAL 20, 800 3, 440 1,190 769 27 
Fri) Uae Seana ah gel aac, Bl yh I Te 40, 100 5, 620 | 1,820 1, 160 34 
ZiGO SAU Fe 2 WT od Py FEE YES 73, 600 8, 690 2, 650 1, 670 44 

To study these phenomena more closely it is customary to average 
for each limit of brightness all the counts in the Milky Way and tabu- 
late the results; then, similarly, to average and tabulate the counts 
along circles parallel to the Milky Way, on either side and separated 
from it by intervals? of 5° or 10°. The result is a “mean distribu- 
tion table” (Table I). The numbers in the first column are the mag- 
nitude limits to which the stars are counted; those in the second, the 
average numbers of stars per square degree in the Milky Way brighter 
than the successive limits, while the following columns give similar 
averages for circles parallel to the Milky Way in latitudes 30°, 60°, and 

Table I recognizes the symmetrical arrangement of stars on the 
two sides of the Milky Way in that it applies to either side, and, 
in fact, is the average of the counts in the two halves of the sky. 
It shows the rapid increase in the numbers of stars with increasing 
magnitude, the general crowding of the stars toward the Milky 
Way, and now, a third peculiarity, namely, that the crowding is much 
greater for faint stars than for bright ones and increases regularly 
with the limiting brightness. This is revealed by the numbers in 
the last column, which are the ratios of the average counts for latitudes 
0° and 90°. Thus the first line of the table shows three and five- 
tenths times as many stars in the Milky Way as at latitude 90°; 

2 Angular distances measured on the sky perpendicular to the great circle through the Milky Way clouds 
(the galactic circle) are called galactic latitudes. Angular distances measured along the galactic circle 
from a certain starting-point are galacticlongitudes. ‘These coordinates are analogous to terrestrial latitude 
and longitudes used to define the position of points on the earth. 

3 For convenience the logarithms of the numbers, rather than numbers themselves, are often tabulated. 
One square degree is equivalent to about five times the area of the skyjcovered by the sun or the full moon. 
For brevity Table I gives results for only four values of the galactic latitude. A more extended table 
may be found in Mt. Wilson Contr. No. 301 (Table XVII) or in Contr. No. 346 (Table XIV). 


but for the much fainter limit in the last line, the ratio is more than 
40 to 1. 

The general crowding of stars toward the Milky Way has been 
known since the time of the Herschels, but the relatively great con- 
centration shown by the faint stars, although long suspected, was 
first definitely established only a dozen years ago by counts made at 
Mount Wilson. That so conspicuous a feature of the distribution 
could remain long in doubt illustrates the uncertainty attached to 
the magnitude scale then available. This, it was feared, might be 
affected by an error depending on distance from the Milky Way, which 
would modify the relative numbers of stars counted in the Milky 
Way and elsewhere, and hence render any estimate of the concentra- 
tion uncertain. 

Let us now try to picture what these peculiarities in the counts of 
stars mean. Table I shows that each extension of the counts over an 
additional magnitude increases the total number of stars visible in 
any direction from two to three times. The exact increase is import- 
ant and is therefore shown in Table II in detail for different parts of 
the sky. The quantities in this table are nothing but the ratios of 
the numbers standing above each other in Table I. Thus from the 
second column of Table I, 0.0449/0.0156 =2.88; 0.0128/0.0449 =2.85, 
etc. The several quotients 2.88, 2.85, etc., appear in succession in 
the second column of Table II, while similar ratios for other parts of 
the sky are in the remaining columns. ‘These ratios vary smoothly 
over the sky, and range from about 3 for bright stars near the Milky 
Way to 1.4 for faint stars at 90° distance from the galactic circle. 

TABLE II.—Star ratios 

[Factors by which total numbers of stars counted to limiting 
magnitude m are multiplied when the counts are extended 
one magnitude] 

Galactic latitude 

0° 30° 60° 90° 
ay 2. 88 2. 89 2. 87 2. 88 
ae 2. 85 2. 86 2. 85 2. 85 
ao 2. 82 2. 82 2. 81 2.77 
8. 0 2. 80 2.78 Psi Ri) 2. 70 
0 2.77 2.72 2. 68 2. 60 
we 2. 75 2. 67 2. 56 2. 50 
a 2.70 2. 59 2. 45 2. 39 
UG 2. 67 2. 50 2. 34 2.29 
eH 2. 62 2. 40 2, 23 2.17 
0 2. 55 2. 29 2.13 2.07 
ae 2. 46 2. 18 2. 02 1.97 
tg 2. 35 2. 06 1.91 1.87 
16.0 2. 93 1.94 1.81 1.77 
z2.0 2. 13 1.83 171 1.68 
en 2. 04 1.73 1.62 1. 60 
oad 1.93 1. 64 1.540 151 
20.0 1. 84 1.55 45 1.43 



The rapid increase in the numbers of stars with increasing magnitude 
recalls the old problem of the cost of shoeing the horse, with a penny 
for the first nail, two for the second, four for the third, and so on. 
Doubling the cost for each successive nail runs the total into an incred- 
ible sum; but with the stars, as shown by Table II, the numbers, 
on the whole, are rather more than doubled each time an additional 
magnitude is counted. No wonder the total is great: 

To illustrate further the meaning of Table II, imagine a small 
stellar system in which the individual stars are candles, all alike and 
equally spaced, we ourselves being at the center of the system. With 
the eye alone we should be unable to see candles beyond a certain 
distance, because the light reaching the eye would be too faint to 
produce a visual sensation. A telescope, however, would bring some 
of them into view; and for the purpose let us choose an instrument just 
powerful enough to reveal candles exactly one magnitude fainter than 
the faintest’seen without the telescope. The relation between inten- 
sity and brightness which defines the unit of magnitude tells us that 
such a telescope would penetrate about one and six-tenths times 
farther into space than the unaided eye. Now let us count all the 
candles visible from our central station, both with and without the 
telescope. ‘The numbers will be those contained in the two spheres 
whose radii are to each other as 1 to 1.6, and, since the candles are 
everywhere equally spaced, their ratio will be equal to that of the 
volumes of the two spheres, or very nearly 4 to 1. Under the condi- 
tions supposed, we must therefore expect that extending the counts 
of candles by one magnitude would multiply the number visible by 4. 

Now, since the star ratios of Table II nowhere equal this theoretical 
value and, for the most part, are far below it, there must be some 
essential difference between the real stellar system and the miniature 
system of candles. Candles, to be sure, are not stars; but for the 
moment that is not an essential difference. Stars, on the other hand, 
may not all be of the same candlepower, as the candles are. In fact, 
they are not; but it can be shown that this also is not the explanation. 
Again, some of the distant stars may be hidden by haze and dust 
scattered throughout space. This certainly would reduce the ratios 
of the numbers counted and actually may have some effect on their 
values; but the presence of absorbing material seems at most to be a 
local phenomenon, and can not be the complete explanation. The 
only other significant factor is a possible lack of uniformity in the 
spacing of the stars, and this indeed is where the difference lies. 
Uniform spacing means a factor of 4; but if the stars should thin out 
with increasing distance from our station in space, the numbers of 
faint stars would be less than we should otherwise find, and the ratios 
from magnitude to magnitude would necessarily be less than 4. The 
converse is equally true, and since in the stellar system the increase 


is less than fourfold when the counts are extended by a magnitude, 
the stars must thin out with increasing distance from the point of 
observation; further, the more the factor drops below 4, the faster 
does the thinning out take place. 

Consider now more in detail the ratios in Table IT, and first, those 
in the second column, corresponding to directions toward the Milky 
Way. From what has been said it follows that the brightest of 
these stars thin out with increasing distance, while the faint stars, 
which, as a whole, are at much greater distances, thin out even more 
rapidly. Consider now the last column, referring to the direction 
perpendicular to the plane of the Milky Way. Here the ratios are 
generally smaller than those standing opposite them in the second 
column, which leads to the important conclusion that the stars in 
this direction not only thin out, but thin out very much faster than 
they do toward the Milky Way. 

The statement that the stars thin out spate increasing distance often 
rouses the feeling of an implied contradiction with the rapidly in- 
creasing numbers of Table I. Discrimination as to what is meant 
sets the matter straight, however. The conclusion that the stars thin 
out means only that the number of stars per unit volume decreases 
with increasing distance; while the total number of stars counted 
depends on the density, it also depends on how many units of volume 
are included. Thus in the case of the candles, the extension of the 
counts by one magnitude gives a total which includes all the candles 
in a volume four times that which the eye alone can survey. The 
additional volume made accessible by the extension is therefore three 
times that already known to the unaided eye; the density of candles 
in the added volume might therefore drop to one-third that near the 
center of the collection and the total number visible would still be 
doubled by extending the counts. 

In brief, therefore, Table II indicates that the stars of our system 
are not equally scattered in space, but thin out in all directions with 
increasing distance from the point at which we make our observations, 
least rapidly in directions toward the Milky Way and fastest in a 
direction perpendicular to its plane. 

The table also suggests another inference with respect to the stellar 
system in that the ratios steadily decrease as the magnitude limit is 
extended downward. If this decrease continues for stars beyond the 
reach of existing telescopes, the ratios themselves must eventually 
become zero. Hence for some low limit of brightness no more stars 
will be added when we attempt to extend the counts to a still lower 
limit; the total number of stars in the system is therefore limited. 

The evidence afforded by star counts alone does not fully establish 
this inference as a fact, for the counts do not indicate with certainty 
the relations among fainter and still undiscovered stars; the extra- 


polation is too great. The conclusion itself, however, is well founded, 
but the proof comes from evidence other than star counts. This 
being the case, we may accept the conclusion and thus arrive at the 
certain result that the numbers in Table II would eventually become 
zero were the table sufficiently extended. 

If the limiting magnitude for which this occurs were accurately 
known, we should be able to estimate with fair approximation the 
total number of stars in the system. As it is, we know that such 
a limit exists, but the only guide to its value is the rate of decrease 
in the ratios of Table II. This rate is slow, and as the ratios for the 
faintest stars known are still rather large, the magnitudes for which 
they become zero, in different directions in the sky, are very uncertain. 

Any attempt to learn the total number of stars in the system by 
extrapolating Table II can therefore lead only to the roughest sort 
of an estimate. About a thousand million stars are within reach of 
the 100-inch reflector. If the invisible stars behave as those acces- 
sible to observation would lead us to expect, the total number in 
the system must be some thirty times greater, or of the order of 
30,000,000,000. The uncertainty of this result is illustrated by the 
fact that the estimated total in the direction of the Milky Way is 
about seventy times the number of stars actually counted. 

The stellar system thus appears to be a limited collection includ- 
ing many thousand million stars; as a first approximation it may 
be thought of as having the form of a much-flattened swarm of bees, 
with the densest part of the swarm at the center. The rate at which 
the stars thin out in different directions shows that the greatest 
extent of the system is in the direction of the Milky Way and equal 
to some six or seven times its thickness. The actual linear dimen- 
sions are very uncertain. Indeed they lie outside the conclusions 
that may be derived from star counts alone; but for completeness it 
may be added that two or three lines of evidence suggest values of two 
to three hundred thousand light years for the diameter in the plane 
of the Milky Way, although even larger values are by no means 
excluded. The gradual thinning out of the stars probably means 
that no sharply marked boundary exists, just as none exists for the 
upper limit of the earth’s atmosphere. Star counts, supplemented 
by other information, do tell us, however, something about the 
distance at which the number of stars per unit of volume drops to 
a given value, say to 1 per cent of what it is in our own neighborhood. 
Thus we should probably have to travel out in the direction of the 
Milky Way at least 30,000 light years, on the average, before we 
reached the point at which the stars had thinned out to this extent. 
In the direction perpendicular to the Milky Way the distance would 
be much less—perhaps 4,000 or 5,000 light years. 



The symmetry found in the distribution of stars on opposite sides 
of the Milky Way shows that the sun and its planets must be close 
to the plane passing through the Milky Way and the center of the 
system; but it does not follow that they are close to the central 
point of the system. The mean distribution table (Table I) was 
prepared chiefly as a means of studying how the stars crowd together 
toward the Milky Way. In order to smooth out local irregularities 
in distribution as much as possible, counts all around the sky in the 
Milky Way, and in circles parallel to the Milky Way, were combined 
into single averages, one for each latitude; further, the results for 
the two halves of the sky were also averaged. This procedure was 
well suited to the purpose then in view, and led to the conclusions 
already stated. But now we must see if the averaging process has 
concealed anything of importance. 

This inquiry has point because it is known that the stars are not 
equally numerous in all parts of the Milky Way. The irregularity 
meant is not the rapid fluctuation in numbers shown by the cloud-like 
erouping of stars, but a more fundamental difference revealed by the 
exceptional size and richness of the star clouds in the general direction 
of Sagittarius as compared with those in the opposite part of the sky. 
Because of this difference, it has often been suggested that the solar 
system may indeed be at some distance from the central point of the 
system. If so, slow progressive changes should appear in the counts 
along the Milky Way, and in fact, along any parallel circle, up to a 
high galactic latitude. We therefore turn again to the original counts 
in order to see whether they show any such change when these circles 
are followed around the sky. 

In studying the crowding of stars toward the Milky Way, we con- 
centrated attention on this one feature of the distribution by dealing 
with the average of the counts in all longitudes. This eliminated any 
influence arising from the possible progressive change with longitude 
in which we are now interested. And now we avoid any disturbance 
which might arise from the crowding toward the Milky Way by com- 
paring only counts of stars in the same latitude, and, of course, to the 
same limit of brightness. A simple procedure is to compare, for a 
given latitude, the number of stars actually counted in each region 
with the average number for the whole circuit of the sky, and then 
to see whether the differences show any progressive variation. 
Finally, to test the results we may make independent comparisons for 
several different latitudes and for a number of limits of brightness. 

Figure 1 illustrates the results for the stars brighter than the six- 
teenth magnitude, in general for every 10° up to latitude 70° on either 


300° 360° 









VE ® ola 

| | 




Ere LN 


FIGURE 1.—Deviations of the observed numbers ofstarsin different parts of the sky from the average numbers 
shown in Table I. The stars here considered are brighter than magnitude 16.0; the general similarity in 
the curves for all galactic latitudes (figures on the left), with low points around longitudes 120° to 160° 
(figures at top), and high points around 300° to 350°, indicates that the center of the system of these stars 
is in longitude 319° 


side of the Milky Way. Similar diagrams, showing very similar curves, 
were also prepared for limiting magnitudes 9.0, 11.0, 13.5, and 18.0. 
Positions along the Milky Way, or along one of the parallel circles 
identified by the galactic latitudes on the left of the diagram, are indi- 
cated by longitudes at the top, measured from a standard meridian, 
just as in the case of longitudes on the earth. Portions of curves which 
lie above the horizontal axes mean that the observed numbers of stars 
in the corresponding regions of the sky are greater than the average 
number for the whole circuit; points below the axes represent observed 
numbers which are less than the average. 

In spite of numerous irregularities, most of the curves show a gen- 
eral similarity in that in longitudes 240° to 360°, and on to 60°, they 
lie above their respective axes, while in longitudes 60° to 240° they 
drop below. This general statement disregards a conspicuous drop 
in the curves for low latitudes near longitude 360°. This irregularity 
must be disregarded, for it represents the great rift between the two 
branches of the Milky Way, where the number of stars counted is not 
representative of those probably present. There, we have reason to 
believe, great numbers of stars are blotted out by obscuring clouds of 
dust and nebulous material. 

With allowance for this anomaly, a systematic departure from the 
average numbers of stars is c early revealed in the counts, which can 
be traced to a great distance from the Milky Way. Figure 1 shows 
that in all latitudes we have counted the largest number of stars in 
the same general longitude, the smallest in the opposite longitude. 
The longitudes of the richest regions found by a numerical discussion 
of the data run as in Table III. 

Latitvdes. oe. Uleeoe Oe 209 S02 402 b0gerG02 70. 
Taneae 303 301 298 301 307 334 336 299 277 north of M. W. 
a Waa iba: 317 3828 328 332 331 345 354 340 south of M. W. 

These numbers are by no means equal; indeed they range over a 
good many degrees, especially in high latitudes. But it must be 
remembered that the stars are not distributed with exact uniformity 
and that local and purely random irregularities tend to obscure any 
structural feature, however important, when we attempt to trace that 
feature in limited portions of the data. In the present instance the 
individual longitudes cluster around a mean value of 319°; with an 
average departure of 15°. Loca! deviations from uniformity in the 
distribution fully account for the scatter in the individual values, 
whence we conclude that we have brought to light something funda- 
mental in the arrangement of stars in space. The importance of the 
phenomenon becomes clear only when we translate the deviations in 
longitude into numbers; then we find that nearly five times as many 


stars are visible in the direction of longitude 319° as in the opposite 

The accordance of the results in Table III, the progressive change 
in the curves of Figure 1 with longitude, and the fact that they 
flatten out with increasing distance from the Milky Way, all indicate 
that we are really at some distance from the center of the flattened 
system of stars. Indeed, we do not hesitate to accept this as a valid 
explanation. of the phenomena. The direction of the center itself 
must of course agree with that in which the stars are most numerous, 
and is therefore to be looked for near longitude 319°, in Sagittarius, 
where, as already noted, the richest star clouds are found. 

It is natural to ask next how far we are from the center; but 
this turns out to be a very difficult question, not yet fully settled. 
The attempt to answer it has, however, brought to light new features 
of stellar distribution to which we now turn our attention. 



Since the curves for the other magnitude limits have the general 
appearance of those for the sixteenth magnitude shown in Figure 1, 
they support the conclusion that the sun and planets are not at the 
center of the stellar system. The results for the direction of the cen- 
ter are remarkable, however, in that the mean longitude as found from 
the different series of curves is not constant, but shows a large pro- 
gressive change with limiting magnitude. Thus for stars brighter 
than the ninth magnitude, the center seems to be in longitude 270°; 
as we extend the counts to fainter limits, the direction changes slowly 
but regularly along the Milky Way some 50° toward the east, until 
for the eighteenth magnitude we find it about where, a moment ago, 
we thought it actually to be located. 

It is probable that the true center is indeed very nearly in this 
direction, and that its apparent dependence on magnitude arises from 
some peculiarity in the distribution of the brighter stars. When we 
consider counts which include only bright stars, this peculiarity 
asserts itself and spoils our calculation; when we add the faint stars, 
however, which are vastly more numerous than the bright ones, the 
peculiarity, whatever it may be, has little influence on the general dis- 
tribution, and we find very nearly the true direction. 

This conclusion is strengthened by considering a feature of the 
curves of Figure 1 which is not to be traced with the eye alone, but 
which appears clearly and consistently when we deal with the num- 
bers themselves. It consists in a small difference between curves for 
the same latitude on opposite sides of the Milky Way of the kind to 
be expected were the stars symmetrically distributed not with respect 



to the Milky Way, but about a plane slightly inclined thereto. Thus 
far we have thought of the stars as all tending to crowd toward the 
Milky Way; but now apparently we must admit that some of them 
cluster about another circle, a little tilted with respect to the Milky 
Way. Since we sometimes speak of the Milky Way itself as the gal- 
axy, we call this new circle the secondary galaxy. 

The small differences existing between curves for equal and opposite 
latitudes may be used to compute the amount and the direction of the 
tilt of the secondary galaxy; and since several pairs of curves are 
available for each limiting magnitude, a number of independent solu- 
tions may be made, the accordance of which will test the reality of the 
results. Since the existence of a secondary galaxy modifies slightly 
the longitudes already found for the center of the system, these must 
be redetermined when the position of the secondary galaxy is calcu- 
lated. The complete results for limiting magnitude 16 are shown in 

Table IV. 

npibadel:. 2s stk. Jeayared o° | 5° | 10° | 20° | 30° | 40° | 50° | 60° | 70° eereees 
Longitude of center__._____- 303 | 310 317 318 324 332 341 334 322 + 9° 
DT aI RE OA NC ATL I SORA Suga a Eh ge : 4, il Sh | P0596 zp il 
icongitidorofitilt ase sea ene 362 | 357 | 358 | 352 | 329 | 368 | 392 | 367 +12 

Here again, the agreement in values derived from different latitudes 
is all that can be expected. The mean for the tilt is 4°, in longitude 
357°, with a scatter in the individual values so small as to leave no 
doubt as to the general result. 

When we extend the calculation to other limiting magnitudes, 
however, we find that the secondary galaxy is no more a fixed thing 
than is the direction of the center of the system, and, like the direction 
of the center, depends on the limit of brightness to which the stars 
have been counted. From counts to the eighteenth magnitude we 
find a secondary galaxy which deviates but little from the Milky 
Way; and had we counts to the twenty-first or twenty-second magni- 
tude, we should probably find practical coincidence. Counts to other 
limits show, however, a very appreciable departure and a progressive 
change in the position of the secondary galaxy, which attains its 
greatest inclination to the Milky Way when only bright stars are 
included in the calculation. Figure 2 illustrates the results found 
from the Mount Wilson counts, and some by other observers from 
other data, plotted to show the changes in the direction of the center 
(L) and in the position of the secondary galaxy (p, tilt of plane; 
Ly, direction of tilt). 

These calculations afford opportunity for a closer comparison 
of the numbers of stars on opposite sides of the Milky Way. Ex- 


pressed as a ratio of the numbers on the north side to the numbers on 
the south, the results run as follows: 

Limiting magnitude -______-_- Beran a0 ile 18. 5 16. 0 18. 0 
Ratio, north ‘to*south== 22 er 0. 67 OFS OF 0. 98 OT 

Here again is a change with limiting brightness. Counting only 
to the ninth magnitude, we find 50 per cent more stars in the southern 
half of the sky than in the northern. As fainter stars are added, the 
excess decreases and disappears near the sixteenth magnitude. 
From there on the numbers in the two halves of the sky are sensibly 
equal. Moreover, the ratios for individual zones in equal latitudes, 

EA fe lc i a int it 
a st] AS ls ip Yo jul Loo! oid siefon | 
1 eg OU I a Ab 
il ees el Rp 

bh age 


FIGURE 2.—L is the longitude of the center of the stellar system as derived from stars brighter than 
various limits of magnitude; p and Lo are the tilt with respect to the Milky Way, and the direction 
of the tilt of the circles (secondary galaxy) about which the stars are symmetrically situated and 
toward which they tend to crowd 

north and south, show a similar sequence of values; hence, although 
the distribution of bright stars in latitude is notably asymmetrical, 
that of faint stars is very symmetrical. 


The probable explanation of these changes with magnitude is 
suggested by following the curves of Figure 2 back to about the sixth 
magnitude, for there we come to figures with which we are familiar in 
another connection, Immediately surrounding us in space is a large 


collection of very hot, massive stars, mostly brighter than the sixth 
magnitude, having very conspicuous lines of helium in their spectra. 
These bright helium stars lie close to the Milky Way and constitute a 
local cluster, very much flattened—so much so, in fact, that the cluster 
is little more than a thin sheet of stars, extending out a thousand light 
years or so in the general direction of the Milky Way. ‘The sun and 
planets lie a little outside the thin layer of stars, and at a distance of 
about 300 light years from the center of the collection. The direction 
of the center is in longitude 236°; the tilt of the plane about which 
the helium stars cluster is 12°, in longitude 160°. ‘These figures are 
nearly those shown by Figure 2 for the center of the system and for 
the position of the secondary galaxy derived from counts of all kinds of 
stars to the sixth magnitude. The agreement is too close to be 
simply coincidence, and we conclude that most, if not all, of the stars 
brighter than the sixth magnitude bear some close relation to the local 
cluster of helium stars. That the bright helium stars do form a 
localized cluster is easily recognized from their physical characteristics, 
which cause them to stand out from their neighbors as a unit. Since 
the stars brighter than the sixth magnitude, as a whole, are symmetri- 
cally distributed about the same plane as the helium stars, the infer- 
ence is that most of them belong to that cluster, and that together 
they constitute a local system of which the helium stars are only the 

Apparently, therefore, we must amplify our picture of the stellar 
system by supposing that a secondary aggregation of stars—the local 
system—exists within the larger system. The local system lies near 
the plane of symmetry of the larger system, but at a great distance 
from the central point. Like the larger system, it is flattened; its 
plane of symmetry is tilted 12° to that of the larger system. We our- 
selves are within the local system, 300 light years from its center 
situated in longitude 236°; the far more distant center of the larger 
system seems to be in longitude 325°, a little to the east of that indi- 
cated by the stars brighter than the eighteenth magnitude. 

Looking out on the sky, we see the intermingled stars of both 
systems. When we count the stars to the sixth magnitude only, 
we deal chiefly with those of the local system, and hence find them 
crowding toward the secondary galaxy marked by the thin stratum of 
bright helium stars; the center appears to be in longitude 236°, because 
that is the direction of the center of the local system. When we 
extend the counts to a fainter limit, we add many stars belonging to 
the larger system, and thus introduce the characteristics of that 
system. The resulting distribution is not that of either system alone, 
but something in between; the secondary galaxy is less inclined to the 
Milky Way, while the direction of the center has shifted a little east- 
ward along the Milky Way toward that of the larger system. But 


when we count to a very faint limit, we include such enormous numbers 
of stars belonging to the larger system that the local system has no 
appreciable influence on the observed distribution; the stars crowd 
toward the great fundamental plane of the Milky Way, and the center 
appears in its true direction toward Sagittarius, in longitude 325°. 

Finally, if we suppose the local system to be a little to the south of 
the plane through the Milky Way clouds, and the sun almost exactly 
in this plane, we account for the relative numbers of stars on opposite 
sides of the Milky Way—an excess of bright stars to the south, and an 
equal division of faint stars between the two halves of the sky. 

The star counts even tell us something about the size of the local 
system, for both Figure 2 and the relative numbers of stars north and 
south of the Milky Way (p. 197) show that the influence of this system 
can be traced down to about the sixteenth magnitude. From this 
circumstance alone it seems likely that we should still find stars be- 
longing to the local system at a distance of 10,000 light years from the 
sun. Other features of Figure 2, supplemented by other information, 
indicate that the members of the local system are to be counted by 
many millions, and that they comprise something like three-fourths 
of all the stars in our immediate neighborhood in space; the larger 
system would thus contribute only a fourth of the total stellar popula- 
tion near the sun. 

The dominating influence of the local system may be shown very 
simply by examining star counts in another way. In studying the 
numbers of stars added by extending the counts downward, magnitude 
after magnitude, the results in different longitudes, as already ex- 
plained, were averaged. To gain a general idea of how stars are 
scattered throughout space, we ignored the fact that we might not be 
at the center of the system, and were led by the ratios in Table II to 
conclusions which likened the stellar system to a much-flattened swarm 
of bees, thinning out in numbers from the center toward the edge. 
Now, however, we know that we are far from the center of the swarm; 
and it seems likely that were we to proceed in the direction of that 
point, we might find the stars crowding together, while in the opposite 
direction we should find them thinning out even more rapidly than 
the average counts indicate. This at least would be the expectation 
were it not for the presence of the local system. 

When we turn again to the original counts to see how those in 
different directions along the Milky Way increase in numbers as we 
add fainter and fainter stars, we find that they build up much faster 
in the direction of the center than toward the opposite point in the 
sky, but not nearly fast enough to indicate any crowding of stars as 
the center is approached. On the contrary, the ratios are such that, 
as we leave our neighborhood in space, the stars must begin to thin 
out almost at once, whatever the direction in which we proceed out- 


ward; they thin out least rapidly when we move toward the center, 
faster when we travel in the opposite direction, and fastest of all 
when we proceed toward the poles of the Milky Way. The signifi- 
cant detail is the behavior in the direction of the center of the larger 
system, which turns out to be just the opposite of that to be expected 
were the local system not present. We thus conclude, not only 
that a local system exists, but that it dominates the situation to such 
an extent that the characteristic distribution within the larger 
system which we expected to find is totally obscured. How completely 
this is the case is illustrated by the uppermost curve of Figure 3, 
which shows the numbers of stars per unit volume at different dis- 
tances from the sun in two different directions, one (left) toward 
the center of the larger system, the other (right) in the direction 
diametrically opposite. Distances of points on the curve above the 
bottom of the diagram represent numbers of stars. Even toward 
the center, the stars thin out so rapidly that at 2,000 parsecs (6,500 

has ede TIN Ne fecal etal at 
Ai ll i es et Ree Ss ale a al 

10000 5000 0 5000 10000 PARSECS 

FIGURE 3.—Variation in the number of stars per unit volume at different distances from the sun (figures at 
bottom) in the direction of the center of the stellar system (toward the left) and in the opposite direction. 
The upper curve includes all stars together. This can be resolved into two other curves, one, nearly 
symmetrical, representing the local system, and another representing the larger system. Distances in 
parsecs may be expressed in light years by multiplying by 3.26 

light years) the density is only one-half that near the sun, while at 
5,000 parsecs (16,250 light years) it is only one-fifth. The great 
concentration of density near the sun represents the influence of the 
local system. 

However we approach the matter, therefore, the larger system, in 
our Own vicinity at least, seems to sink into a position of relative 
unimportance, and, when we attempt to learn more about it, we 
meet with great difficulties. 


To proceed, we must try to get rid of the local system by removing 
its members from our counts. This is a hazardous undertaking, 
because, in general, we can not specify the system to which any given 
star belongs; and we are thus obliged to make an assumption, namely, 


that the local system is symmetrical about a central point, or at 
least that it is not highly asymmetrical. Stated in another way, 
though rather crudely, we suppose that the point within the local 
system where the stars are thickest is not far from its geometrical 
center. Such an assumption is not without inherent probability, for 
most aggregations of stars seen in the sky possess a rough symmetry 
of this kind; and within the local cluster itself, in the nucleus of 
helium stars, we find evidence of its presence. 

The operations involved in separating the local and larger systems 
are illustrated by Figure 3, where, as already explained, the upper- 
most curve represents the variation in-the number of stars per unit 
volume in the direction of the center and of the point diametrically 
opposite. From the densities corresponding to this curve we must 
subtract those contributed by the local system. By the assumption 
just made, these will be represented by a curve, nearly symmetrical, 
having a maximum coinciding closely with the sun. The size and 
shape of the curve are not otherwise specified, and the choice of a 
definite form is beset with uncertainty. Nevertheless, certain 
guiding principles may be laid down: Thus, the central density of 
the local system, represented by the height of the maximum of the 
symmetrical curve, must be greater than some minimum value; 
otherwise, after the local system has been removed, the region of 
maximum density in the larger system will remain near the sun, 
which is at variance with all our ideas as to the structure of the 
system. On the other hand, the central density of the local system 
can not exceed a certain amount without leaving in the larger system, 
close to the,sun, a region of abnormally low density. Finally, the 
relation between density and size in the local system must be such 
that the change in density in the larger system revealed by removing 
the adopted local system is everywhere smooth. 

The result of the analysis is shown by the two component curves 
in Figure 3. Under the circumstances described we should scarcely 
expect more than a qualitative indication of relations; nevertheless, 
the central density and the diameter thus found for the local system 
are in general numerical agreement with the results derived from 
Figure 2, namely, a density of three-fourths the total near the sun 
and a diameter of six or eight thousand parsecs. Further, the curve 
for the larger system shows an increase in the density in the direction 
of the center, as we should expect, but, surprisingly enough, the stars 
seem to reach their highest concentration at a distance of only 3,000 
to 6,000 light years, according to the degree of asymmetry admitted 
in the local system. 

The position of this maximum must be far short of the geometrical 
center of the system; and even where thickest, the concentration 
of stars is only about one-half that at the center of the local system. 


Regarded as the dominant portion of so vast a collection as the larger 
system, the region of maximum stellar concentration is not an impres- 
sive feature; and our instinct for symmetrical arrangements in the 
heavens makes us reluctant to accept this off-sided aggregation as 
the nucleus of the larger system, or the very unsymmetrical curve 
of Figure 3 as an indication of how the stars in this system are dis- 



At first sight it seems difficult to reconcile the improbabilities thus 
brought to ight with the symmetry for which we instinctively look. 
Nevertheless, we are not without helpful suggestions. The trend 
of cosmological thought in recent years has been in the direction of 
analogies between the stellar system and the great spiral nebule 
like Messier 33 or Messier 101 (pl. 3). In form, there is close resem- 
blance. In both cases the outline in the principal plane is roughly 
circular; and, seen edge-on (pl. 4 a, b, c), the spirals show the flat- 
tened contour found in our own system. Further, photographs 
made at Mount Wilson by Hubble with the 100-inch reflector (pl. 4) 
show that at least some of these nebule are gigantic systems of stars, 
composed of different classes of objects—diffuse nebulosity, nove, 
Cepheid variables, and ordinary giant stars of different spectral 
types, which, class for class, correspond to those of the system about 
us; and, finally, that the nebuls, if not actually as large as the stellar 
system, are nevertheless of the same general order of dimensions. 

Seen broadside (pl. 3), the curving arms of the spirals, with their 
irregular knots and condensations of stars, lack the smoothness of 
distribution that counts in our own system seem to suggest; but it 
requires little imagination to realize that were we situated in the cen- 
tral plane of a spiral like Messier 33, we should find the scattered 
aggregations of stars blending into an encircling band of Milky Way 
clouds, with irregularities perhaps no greater than those in the star 
clouds of our own galaxy. Again, the conspicuously bright central 
condensation which is characteristic of the spirals makes us wonder 
if the cosmological analogy is complete, for thus far we have looked 
in vain in.our own system for anything resembling a dominant cen- 
tral nucleus. But even this seemingly well-marked exception falls 
into line when the position of the observer is properly credited es 
its influence on appearances. 

With the examples of edge-on spirals (pl. 4) before us, imagine 
ourselves again within one of these objects, at some distance from the 
center, with our eyes turned toward the nucleus. Does it seem 
likely that we should then see the central condensation? Apparently 
not, at least not the brightest portion at the very center. Even 


casual inspection of Plate 4 a, b, c, reveals the dark broken band extend- 
ing the length of the images which is a conspicuous feature of almost 
every edge-on spiral that we know. This band consists of obscuring 
clouds of nebulous material, dark ordinarily, unless illuminated or 
stimulated to shine by some external source, and invisible, unless 
outlined by projection on a background of stars or luminous cloud. 
Photographs of spirals inclined to the line of sight suggest that these 
dark clouds extend well in toward the central condensation, and would 
blot out, in part at least, the bright central region from our imagined 
point of observation. The chances are, too, that above and below 
the dark clouds, in the general direction of the center, we might see 
outlying aggregations of stars, strewn nearly parallel to the plane of 
the nebula. The Milky Way of the nebula would then appear split 
for part of its length into two branches by a great rift, like that which 
in our own system extends from Cygnus in the north to Circinus far 
down in the southern heavens. We know that much obscuring 
material is scattered over the galactic plane among our own stars, 
and that the dark, almost starless region between the two branches of 
the Milky Way is probably a thick pall of cloud. The direction of the 
center of the system cuts into this cloud, and it has been suggested 
that but for the cloud we should see something comparable with the 
central condensation of the spirals. The off-sided concentration of 
stars which, as a central nucleus, seemed so out of harmony with the 
vastness and grandeur of the system, would then represent the crowd- 
ing of the stars naturally to be expected toward the center, modified 
and ultimately suppressed by the obscuring clouds, long before the 
center is reached. ; 

The asymmetry of distribution is further accentuated by the fact 
that the curve for the larger system shown in Figure 3 has been derived 
from counts made, not in the exact direction of the center, but in the 
branches of the Milky Way immediately above and below the central 
point. For a system perfectly symmetrical about its center, the 
distribution of density along lines thus inclined to the principal plane 
would necessarily be unsymmetrical; the maximum density would be 
less than at the center, and less distant than the central point. 
Finally, the position of the maximum may also be influenced by one 
of the local aggregations of stars which the Milky Way structure, as 
well as the appearance of the spirals, suggests as lying scattered over 
the galactic plane. 

When invoked to explain the peculiarities of stellar distribution, 
the well-known analogies between spirals and our own system answer 
very well; but, unfortunately, they leave us still in doubt as to our 
exact location within the larger system. The presence of obscuring 
material means that star counts probably can never remove that 
doubt. For the present we can only accept Shapley’s estimate 


based on the distribution of the globular clusters, which places the 
center of the system at a distance of 50,000 to 60,000 light years iu the 
direction of longitude 325°. The close agreement of the longitude with 
that found from star counts supports the belief that the clusters also 
correctly indicate the distance to the center. If the diameter of the 
system may be regarded as of the order of two or three hundred 
thousand light years, as suggested above, we should then find ourselves 
something like half-way out toward the edge of the system. 

But where does the local system, which so dominates the situation 
about us, fit into the picture? It is, perhaps, only an exceptionally 
large aggregation of stars similar to those scattered along the arms 
of the spiral nebule; or it may be a more or less independent organiza- 
tion of stars entangled within the larger system—instances of the close 
juxtaposition of two spirals, for example, are not unknown; but per- 
haps the only safe conclusion at present is that a local system of un- 
expected richness and size exists. The members of this system are 
numerous enough to impress something of their own characteristics 
on the distribution of the stars as a whole down to a low limit of 
brightness, and are therefore certainly to be counted by millions. 
In so large a collection it is natural to expect stellar luminosities and 
spectral types similar to those in the larger systems. This being the 
case, the surprisingly large dimensions found for the local system 
follow as a matter of course. 

In closing, a word of caution is to be added: The picture drawn of 
the stellar system is only a sketch in broad outlines. Conclusions 
based solely on star counts may be regarded as reliable, for it is 
probable that the counts rest on a sound photometric system; struc- 
tural features derived from analogies with spiral nebule are less 
certain but still probable; estimates of dimensions and distances 
are uncertain, and, in some instances, possibly not even of the right 
order of magnitude. . Above all, it must not be forgotten that practi- 
cally all the conclusions formulated depend on a study of but two 
characteristics of the stars—the numbers seen in different directions 
in the sky and the totals down to different limits of brightness. This 
restriction accounts in part for the lack of detail in the picture; 
at the same time it may mean that results which now seem well 
established will require modification and readjustment when other 
stellar characteristics have been intensively studied. 

Smithsonian Report, 1929.—Seares PLATE 1 


Illustrating the rapid increase in numbers of stars with decreasing brightness. The faintest stars 
shown are approximately of the twelfth, fifteenth, eighteenth, and twentieth magnitude. 

Smithsonian Report, 1929.—Seares PLAGE. 2 


Photographs of two fields of the same size, both showing stars to the eighteenth magnitude, 
The photographs illustrate the great concentration of faint stars in low galactic latitudes. 

Smithsonian Report, 1929.—Seares PLATE 3 


Examples of spiral nebulae seen broadside; photographed with the 60-inch reflector. Both nebulae are 
well resolved into stars and show dark clouds of obscuring material intermingled with the stars and with 
clouds of luminous nebulosity. 

Smithsonian Report, 1929.—Seares PLATE 4 


a, HV 24 Comae Berenices; b, N. G. C. 5746, Virgo; c, HV 19 Andromedae; photographed 
with the 60-inch reflector. In outline the nebulae resemble the flattened watch-shaped 
form of our own system. Dark obscuring clouds lying close to the central plane of the 
nebulae are conspicuous in each. 


Parts of the nebula which on smaller-scale photographs appear as knots or condensations 
are here fully resolved into stars. 




By Paut R. Heri 
U.S. Bureau of Standards 

There is an every day test which we all instinctively apply when we 
are in doubt whether a certain thing is alive. We watch for it to 
move. This is a test as old as humanity, though as we now apply it 
we introduce a logical refinement which was lacking in other days. 
Absence of motion, now as then, indicates absence of life, but the mere 
observation of motion does not always suggest to modern thought the 
presence of life. A sheet of paper may be rustled by an invisible 
breeze; stormy waves may arise in the ocean; the ground beneath our 
feet may tremble and split open; yet we of to-day see in such phe- 
nomena no reason for assuming life as a cause. 

Not so with the ancients. To them motion invariably suggested 
life, directly or indirectly involved. The sheet of paper, of course, 
was not alive, but the wind was the breath of Molus. The stormy sea 
was the direct physical result of the wrathful strokes of Neptune’s 
trident, and the heaving earth, by the same token, gave evidence of 
the displeasure of Poseidon, the earth-shaker. 

While the mythology of the ancients contained much that we now 
regard as childish and ridiculous, there is also to be found in it that 
which we must still recognize as beautiful, such as the myth of the 

The dryad was a treenymph. Every tree had its protecting spirit 
who was born with the tree, lived in or near it in intimate association, 
watching over its growth, and who died when the tree fell. The 
dryad was thus a personification of the life of the tree, and the con- 
nection between nymph and tree was far more intimate than was the 
case with the deities dominating sea or wind. Because of this pecul- 
iarly intimate relation the tree possessed life which the sea did not, 
though Neptune inhabited its depths, and which the wind did not, 
though set in motion by olus. 

The men of old, it seems drew very much the same distinction that 
we do when we speak of living and nonliving substances. Water, 

1 Presidential Address before the Philosophical Society of Washington, Jan. 5, 1929. Reprinted by per- 
mission from Journal of the Washington Academy of Sciences, vol. 19, No. 4, Feb. 19, 1929, 



they observed, never grew old or died, but a tree was obviously a 
living thing, almost one of us, growing, reproducing its kind, and 
eventually dying. And as the ancients had difficulty in forming an 
idea of life without an animating personality there arose naturally 
the concept of the inseparable tree nymph. 

Human thinking from the first has been frankly anthropomorphic, 
Only in modern times has there been any notable effort to cast out 
anthropomorphism from our philosophy, and this struggle has not yet 
resulted in victory. Even we of to-day, with hereditary habits of 
thought heavy upon us, find the concept of impersonal, physical causes 
drab and unsatisfying, and we spell Nature with a capital N. The 
dryad lingers. 

In the chemistry of other days we find an interesting case of the 
persistence of this mode of thought. The old alchemists knew that 
wine by boiling lost its intoxicating power. Because they could see 
nothing escaping they said that the ‘‘spirit of wine” had found its 
abode too hot for it, and had taken its departure. Cassio used no 
figure of speech when he apostrophized the ‘‘invisible spirit of wine” 
by which he had been so disastrously possessed of the devil, and the 
name ‘‘spirit”’ as applied to alcohol is still in common use. 

With the advance of knowledge it was found that many other 
phenomena beside intoxication owed their causes, not to spirits or 
devils, but to inanimate, prosaic chemical compounds. So strong, 
however, is heredity that the dryad, instead of disappearing from 
human thinking, merely changed her form and retreated under fire to 
a position of advantage across a natural barrier, where she long 
remained in safety. 

It was many years before this barrier was crossed. The dividing line 
between organic and inorganic substances was a sharp one in the 
eighteenth century, and from her safe refuge in the domain of organic 
chemistry the dryad long watched her baffled foes. The older chem- 
ists divided the province of their science in two by a water-tight parti- 
tion. All compounds with which they were acquainted could be 
analyzed or broken down into their elements, but not all of them could 
be built up again by human skill. Water might be formed from its 
constituents, but not sugar or starch; yet these latter substances were 
daily synthesized in the laboratory of Nature, in the tissues of animal 
or vegetable matter; and because they were never known to occur 
in mineral or inorganic matter, substances of this type were called 
from their origin, organic compounds. 

Years of experience had given rise to the belief that there existed 
between these two classes of bodies a difference in kind rather than 
in degree, and that there was some reason not understood why organic 
compounds could not be synthesized artifically. This unknown reason 
was given a name; it was called the ‘‘vital force.” 


It often happens that when the unknown is named it appears as if it 
were more than half explained. The vital force once named soon came 
to be a familiar concept. It was held to be resident in living matter, 
whether animal or vegetable, much like the dryad in the tree. It was 
believed to differ in kind from the chemical and physical forces that 
governed the formation of inorganic compounds. Under the influence 
of this vital force it was believed that all the chemical reactions of 
living matter took place, and it was even supposed to govern the 
decompositions that occurred after death. 

The belief in a vital force of this nature was universal among eigh- 
teenth century chemists, even Berzelius being found among its adher- 
ents. The vital force seems to have been regarded with something like 
the awe inspired by the supernatural, and it was well into the nine- 
teenth century before its hold on men’s minds began to relax. 

The past year, 1928, marked the century of an epoch in human 
thought, for it was just 100 years since the doctrine of a vital force 
received its logical death blow. In 1828 Wohler succeeded in produc- 
ing by laboratory methods the first organic compound. This was urea, 
which he prepared by simply heating an inorganic compound, ammo- 
nium cyanate, containing the same elements as urea, namely carbon, 
hydrogen, oxygen, and nitrogen, and in the same proportions. 

This was a body blow at the dryad, but she died hard. Her devoted 
adherents rallied to her support and explained away Wohler’s result in 
various fashions. In this they were aided by the fact that for years 
this synthesis stood alone, suggesting that there was something excep- 
tional about it. Some said that this proved merely that a mistake had 
been made; that urea was not really an organic substance, but occupied 
a place halfway between the organic and inorganic kingdoms. Others 
argued curiously that the carbon of the cyanate retained some trace or 
memory of the vital force which had ruled it when it had previously 
been a part of some organic compound. But in time other syntheses 
were achieved in such numbers that the accumulated evidence became 
overwhelming, and it was finally recognized that organic chemistry 
was only complicated inorganic chemistry, and that the difference 
between the two was one not of kind, but of degree of complexity. 

We have said that the dryad died hard. As a matter of fact she did 
not die at all—she emigrated. Dispossessed by the advancing frontier 
of knowledge from the domain of organic chemistry which had so long 
afforded her a refuge, she retreated under fire into a less understood 
region beyond—into the biological sciences. Here the complexity of 
phenomena was (and still is) so great that among the shadows the 
dryad still finds a retreat. 

Biologists of to-day are divided into two camps—vitalists and 
mechanists. Between them a conflict rages, and the fate of the dryad 
still hangs in the balance. The vitalists argue that whatever may 


have been the case in the past we have now, by the progress of our 
knowledge reached a dividing line which really marks a difference in 
kind; that there have been brought to light in the realm of biology 
phenomena of such a nature that they are not explainable by ordinary 
chemical or physical principles; that it is necessary to assume a 
principle peculiar to living matter (in other words, a ‘‘vital force’’) 
to explain them. Let us select what is perhaps an extreme case 
in illustration. 

Food taken into the stomach of man and other animals is digested 
by means of the gastric juice. Some of this food is meat (all of it in 
the case of certain animals), muscular tissue like that of the stomach 
itself. The question naturally arises why the gastric juice does not 
digest also the wall of the stomach. Is it not like trying to dissolve a 
piece of zinc in acid contained in a zinc vessel? 

It is not easy to answer this question. It can not be due in any way 
to mastication, for if a piece of meat is swallowed without chewing, the 
stomach will eventually digest it. It can not be argued that cooking 
accounts for the difference, for this is an art practiced by man alone, 
and is a comparatively late acquisition on his part. And in the face 
of the use of tripe as an article of food it can not be that the stomach 
contains a protective substance which other muscular tissue does not 

There seems to be no difference between the stomach and the food 
other than that the stomach is alive and the food dead, whatever this 
may mean; and even this explanation is hard pushed by the fact that 
the food of carnivorous animals under natural conditions usually 
reaches the stomach of the captor in a very short time after the death 
of the prey, an interval measurable almost in seconds. 

By considerations such as these the controversy between the vitalist 
and the mechanist is kept alive. The vitalist maintains that between 
the phenomena of the living and the nonliving there is a difference in 
kind, not merely in degree. Just what this difference may be he is not 
prepared to say, but he maintains its existence. The mechanist, 
on the other hand, says that exactly the same arguments have been 
advanced in the past in connection with problems that seemed just’as 
insoluble, and that these arguments have finally been disposed of by 
the progress of our knowledge. Differences in kind, once regarded as 
numerous in Nature, have slowly and steadily been resolved into 
differences in degree. Sharp lines of demarcation have been wiped out 
until the line between the living and the nonliving is perhaps the only 
one left. Such diverse phenomena as those of electricity and light 
have been found to be closely akin; man himself has been shown to be 
one with the rest of animated Nature; and if the past is any guide to 
the future, it seems that even this last sharp line will some day dis- 
appear also. 


Perhaps the vitalist himself may not realize it, but to the student of 
the philosophy of history this vague ‘‘difference in kind’”’ suggests the 
last lingering trace of what was once a dryad. As acloudlet dwindles 
and disappears in the beams of the sun, so the dryad has shrunk to a 
mere wisp of vapor, which with a little more light seems destined to 
disappear forever. 

But now that we have finished pointing out the mote that is in the 
biologist’s eye, let us examine our own clarity of vision. Are we 
physical scientists in any measure responsible for the lingering of the 

By the latter half of the nineteenth century physical theory had 
become a well knit, sharply crystallized and self-sufficient body of 
doctrine. While it was recognized fully and generally that much was 
as yet unknown, it was felt quite as generally that what had been 
established would, with perhaps a little amendment and modification, 
stand forever. The physical theory of the last century was much 
admired by its devotees, upon whom it reacted in turn to the extent of 
making them at times a bit dogmatic. If there was a conflict between 
physics and a sister science, physics must be right. 

The classical instance of this attitude is the famous controversy 
over the age of the earth, between the physicists on the one hand and 
the geologists and biologists on the other. Perhaps nothing in the 
annals of nineteenth century physics made such an impression upon 
the sister sciences. This controversy lasted for 33 years with unabated 
vigor, and was not finally settled until the discovery of radioactive 
substances. : 

In 1862, upon the basis of the laws of the conduction of heat as laid 
down by Fourier, Kelvin calculated that the time that had elapsed 
since the earth had solidified from a molten state could not be less than 
20,000,000 or more than 400,000,000 years. He admitted that 
rather wide limits were necessary, but was inclined to attach more 
weight to the lower figure than to the higher. In this he was con- 
firmed by a similar calculation made by Helmholtz of the age of the 

At this estimate biologists and geologists stood aghast. The pros- 
pect of having to pack into a paltry 400,000,000 years the whole 
progress of organic evolution from amceba to man seemed to biologists 
unreasonable. And with the geologists the situation was still worse. 
It was generally recognized that a very long period of time must have 
elapsed after solidification before life of the most primitive form made 
its appearance, and this period, in addition to that required by evolu- 
tion, must be made to fit Kelvin’s Procrustean bed. Moreover, it was 
felt by geologists that such a view involved a return to eighteenth 
century ideas, from which geology was just beginning to emerge. 


Prior to the nineteenth century geological thought was of the 
catastrophic school. It was held that natural forces were more active 
and powerful in past geological ages than they now are; that great 
convulsions of Nature had riven the crust asunder into valleys and 
elevated other portions into mountains. By the middle of the nine- 
teenth century the opposte, or uniformitarian school of thought had 
achieved the ascendency, largely through the influence of the geologist 
Lyell. On this view it was held that geological processes had never 
differed seriously from those of the present day. As a consequence of 
this doctrine an immense antiquity was required for the earliest 
geological strata, and with this almost unlimited time at their disposal 
biologists felt unhampered. 

Then came Kelvin’s bombshell. Protest and appeal were not lack- 
ing, but Kelvin was inexorable. Physics, he said, could grant no 
more, and physics held the power of the purse of time. 

The widespread and long-continued interest in this controversy is 
evidenced by the many letters published on the subject in ‘‘ Nature”’ 
from January to April, 1895. As proof of the fact that Kelvin did 
not stand alone in this matter it is of interest to note that not a single 
physicist failed to support him in theory, though there was a general 
feeling that perhaps his limits might be widened somewhat. The 
discussion was finally summed up by its initiator, Prof. John Perry, 
who expressed the opinion that the upper limit assigned by Kelvin 
might perhaps be multiplied by four. But this concession brought 
about no rapprochement. The two sides were not near enough to 
dicker. : 

A few years later the deadlock was finally resolved by the discovery 
of radioactivity. This new and totally unexpected source of terrestrial 
heat nullified Kelvin’s fundamental postulate, and allowed as much 
time as the most extreme views could require. 

Rightly or wrongly, this celebrated case had an unfortunate effect 
upon interscientific relations. The biologists in particular felt that 
the character of their problems and the evidence for their conclusions 
were not appreciated by the physicists. ‘The impression was gained. 
that physics was for some reason incompetent to treat of biological 
questions, and that the life sciences required for their complete discus- 
sion and development something that was not and could not be found 
in physical theory. It may scarcely be doubted, I think, that this 
impression of the inadequacy of physics went far toward strengthening 
and prolonging the life of the vitalistic hypothesis. 

But, to be fair, we must recognize that the vitalism of to-day is not 
that of a century ago. To use a term borrowed from mineralogy, 
it is but a pseudomorph of its predecessor, cast in the mold of the 
older form and simulating its outward shape, but inwardly of a differ- 
ent composition. The neovitalist of to-day disclaims utterly anything 


savoring of the occult or the supernatural; short of this, he is ready to 
accept any adequate explanation of life. He maintains, however, 
with equal firmness that even modern physical theory lacks something 
necessary to explain vital phenomena; that no interplay of atoms, 
however complicated, can account for the simplest manifestation of 
life. In brief, the vitalist looks outward for the explanation of life; 
the mechanist looks inward. 

The attitude of the mechanist is, for the present, largely one of 
faith and hope rather than sight. He admits that modern physical 
theory affords no explanation of life, and that there is no reason to 
believe we are any nearer a solution now than we were a century 
ago. But, encouraged by precedent, he holds steadily his faith that 
some new and unexpected discovery may at any time clear our 
vision as radioactivity clarified that of our predecessors. And he 
is confident that when the solution of this mystery is reached it will 
be found to be internal rather than external. 

But while we are waiting for something of this kind to happen, 
may we by any chance find some foreshadowing of a possible com- 
mon ground in existing physical theory? 

Let us imagine, if we can, some one whose physical experience has 
been limited to solids and who is ignorant of molecules and atoms. 
The latter will not be so difficult when we remember that it has not 
been so very long ago that we were all ignorant of any subatomic 
structure. Matter, to our supposed observer, is continuous and 
infinitely divisible without alteration in its properties; its structure is 
perfectly uniform to the last conceivable degree. Suppose further 
that he observes for the first time the melting of a solid. That which 
would probably impress him most in this process would be its abrupt- 
ness, its sharp initiation. By continual influx of heat the solid suffers 
a Steady rise of temperature, which seems as though it might continue 
indefinitely as long as heat is supplied. But suddenly, without warn- 
ing or apparent cause, a critical point isreached. Though the influx 
of heat is not halted the temperature stops rising. A new effect is 
seen, different in kind from any phenomenon known in solids. We 
say that the body is undergoing a change of state and is becoming a 
liquid. In this new state new laws govern its behavior; new proper- 
ties are evident, differing in kind, not in degree, from those of solids. 

Our unsophisticated observer might well wonder at this curious 
behavior; but should we, from our superior knowledge attempt to tell 
him that this difference in appearance and behavior is not a matter of 
composition or outside forces, but of internal structure, we might 
find him rather incredulous. 

“No,” he might say. ‘‘Something has happened to stop the rise of 
temperature. There has been an introduction of a new factor into 
the situation. You speak of structural difference. I do not under- 



stand you. The structure of a solid, as I am familiar with it, could 
not be more simple than it is—continuous, infinitely divisible, uni- 
form throughout, with no shade of difference anywhere upon which 
to build up an explanation. No; we must look outside for the cause 
of this change. Liquid phenomena are not expressible in terms of the 
properties of solids. He who maintains that they are is a mechanist.”’ 

In this belief he might be confirmed if he pushed the heating of the 
liquid far enough. At a second critical point, again unheralded and 
without apparent reason, the liquid begins to boil, and the resulting 
gas exhibits a new set of phenomena, differing in kind from anything 
to be found in either solids or liquids. The new phenomena in this 
case depart even more widely from those of the other states than was 
the case at the first critical point. 

To us, with our knowledge of molecules, the explanation of these 
critical points and different states is comparatively simple and inter- 
nal. Itis true that the phenomena of one state are not to be expressed 
in terms of the properties of another; the behavior of gases can not be 
deduced from the laws of elastic solids or of incompressible liquids. 
The solution does not lie in a line joining one state to another, but goes 
back from each state to the common basis of molecular structure 
underlying all states, something of which our observer is yet to become 
aware. And until a similar common ground for the phenomena of 
living and nonliving matter is recognized there must be a difference 
of opinion between the vitalist and the mechanist. 

What this common basis may be we can not as yet surmise. It 
remains for some new discovery to open our eyes. It must be some- 
thing deeper and more fundamental than molecules or atoms. In so 
far the vitalist is right; and in so far as he maintains that the mere 
interplay of atoms contains the key to the mystery, the mechanist is 
wrong. But such a common basis, underlying and forming part of 
nonliving as well as living matter, would be an internal factor, and 
it is for such a factor that the mechanist is looking. 

The parallel here suggested is worth pushing farther. The past 
history of Nature has been one of change, of growth, of that develop- 
ment which we call evolution. Her future, if hindsight is to be 
trusted, will carry this evolution onward to a consummation of which 
we can as yet form no conception. Nature, we may say, has been 
steadily warming up to her work since the beginning of things. And 
in this warming up process we may distinguish several critical stages, 
strangely suggestive of the different states of matter. 

The first of these critical points was reached millions of years ago, 
when life first made its appearance, a totally new phenomenon super- 
imposed upon inanimate Nature. For untold ages life was impossible 
on the earth, but eventually, when conditions allowed, life appeared, 
no one knows how. With its appearance a new order of things was 


introduced, and phenomena not to be found in inorganic Nature began 
to show themselves. With the advent of the organic, new motives of 
action are recognizable, and new combinations are possible. The 
vitalist explains this by bringing in a mysterious something from the 
outside; the mechanist is persuaded that matter in acquiring life has 
not ceased to be a conservative system; only in its behavior is it 

Moreover, this transformation has not been complete. Living and 
nohliving matter exist side by side and will probably continue to do so. 
The physicist would call this the coexistence of two phases at one 
temperature, like a mixture of ice and water at the freezing point, 
each following its own laws and exhibiting its own characteristic 
properties under the same environment. 

We may, perhaps, by poetic license think of the first beginnings of 
life as feeling strange and lonely in the midst of the nonliving matter 
surrounding them, so different in properties, in behavior. And 
perhaps we may imagine that the works and ways of nonliving matter 
occasionally grated on the sensibilities of the living, and called forth 
the protest: ‘Why are you so mechanical? Why not show a little 
flexibility occasionally?’ But this protest, we may imagine, was 
wasted. “It is my ancient way,’ replied nonliving Nature. ‘‘the 
way I did for millions of years before you newcomers appeared upon 
the scene. J can not mend my case. Why not do as I do and be 

But this is just what living matter will not do. Like white men in 
the Tropics, it maintains its standard of living among an overwhelming 
majority of an inferior grade of civilization. 

Millions of years have passed. Life is no longer a newcomer, a 
feeble colony, but has waxed mighty, and has become the outstanding 
feature of the earth’s surface. And now we have reached a second 
critical point. Life has attained such a degree of complexity that 
a new set of phenomena is beginning to make its appearance, some- 
thing different in kind from anything that has been before; as dif- 
ferent in its turn as was life itself compared to inanimate matter; 
something superimposed upon life as life of old was superimposed 
upon the nonliving. And it is, appropriately enough, in man, the 
highest type of life, the flower of creation, the peak of evolution, 
“the heir of all the ages in the foremost rank of time,” that this new 
thing first makes itself manifest—a moral sense, an ethical feeling, 
which often finds itself as much a stranger in its environment as life 
must have felt among the crystals and colloids among which it began 
its existence. Jf we must find a single word to express this new quality 
let us call it “Soul.” 

Within us is developing a new thing, as wonderful as life itself and 
no less rich in possibilities. Life in its turn has brought forth some- 


thing of a higher order, transcending itself, as it once transcended 
nonliving matter. And that this new thing has elected to make its 
appearance in and through us, the highest of Nature’s children, what 
is more reasonable? Do men gather figs of thistles? 

But here the vitalist takes his last stand. ‘I know,” says he, 
“that past history points your way; that one step after another, I 
have been forced to give ground. I, who once held that no one but 
God could make an organic compound, have lived to see it done by 
high-school students. You mechanists, on the other hand, have 
pressed steadily forward. But beware lest, flushed with success and 
intoxicated with power, you attempt too much and achieve your own 
downfall. What you tell me now goes beyond all bounds of credence. 
Am I to understand that all that makes a man, his ethics, his poetry, 
his music, his aspirations, his ideals, are from within? Are these, too, 
of the earth, earthy? Never! ‘These, at last, must come from with- 
out. Can ideals rise higher than their source?”’ 

Of the earth, earthy! But why should there be anything mean or 
unworthy about that which comes from within rather than from 
without? Is the macrocosm essentially nobler than the microcosm? 

True, tradition runs that way. Man at different times has set his 
gods in the most inaccessible places, on the summit of Mount Olympus, 
or across the rainbow bridge in Asgard; but the greatest idealist that 
our race has produced broke with this tradition when he said: ‘‘The 
kingdom of God is within you.” 

And perhaps it may be true that ideals can rise higher than their 
apparent source. Just as every great genius had parents of less than 
his own ability, who yet in some mysterious way endowed him with 
more than they themselves possessed, so Nature has produced within 
us something without precedent in the life history of the earth. And 
as a parent watches with pride a child who gives early promise of 
outdistancing his elders, so Mother Nature may be watching us. 

What is this new thing which Nature has brought forth, and with 
the development of which we have been intrusted? No man can say, 
but it is a fair inference that it will go far. Life has gone far from a 
tiny speck of protoplasm; who knows to what lengths this new thing, 
this mind, this soul, if you will, may carry us? For it doth not yet 
appear what we shall be. 

By Artuur H. Compron 

[With 5 plates] 

As long ago as the seventeenth century, Newton defended the view 
that light consists of streams of little particles, shot with tremendous 
speed from a candle or the sun or any other source of light. At the 
dawn of the nineteenth century, however, experiments were performed 
which were thought to give positive evidence that light consists of 
waves. Maxwell interpreted them as electromagnetic waves, and in 
such terms we have ever since been explaining light rays, X rays, and 
radio rays. We have measured the length of the waves, their fre- 
quency and other characteristics, and have felt that we know them 
intimately. Recently, however, a group of electrical effects of light 
has been discovered for which the idea of light waves suggests no 
explanation, but whose interpretation is obvious according to a 
modified form of Newton’s old theory of light projectiles. 


When the physicist speaks of light he thinks not only of those radia- 
tions which affect the eye. He refers rather to a wide range of radia- 
tions, similar to visible light in essential nature, but differing in the 
quality described variously by the terms color, wave length, or fre- 

At one end of this series of radiations are the wireless, or radio 
rays, with which in recent years we have become so familiar. 

Measured in terms of the length of a wave, electric waves extend 
from many miles in length down through the radio waves of say 300 
meters, to the very short waves resulting from tiny sparks, which may 
be no more than a tenth of a millimeter in length. These rays over- 
lap in wave length the longest heat waves radiated by hot bodies, and 
may be detected and measured by the same instruments. A familiar 
source of such heat rays is the reflector type of electric heater, the 
kind that warms one side of us in a chilly room. The greater part of 
these heat rays are intermediate in wave length between the shortest 
electric waves and visible light. Such a heater, however, glows a dull 

red, showing that its rays extend into the visible region. 



Ordinary visible light is well represented by the radiation from a 
carbon arc. If its rays are passed through a prism, they are spread 
into a spectrum of many colors, from red to violet, which the prism 
has separated from each other. Beyond the red end of the spectrum 
lie the heat rays. Indeed if we should place a radiometer just beyond 
the red end of the spectrum, we should find it strongly affected by 
the heat rays from the arc. The question arises, are there similar 
radiations beyond the violet which we are unable to see? * 

If a fluorescent screen of platinum barium cyanide is brought up, 
we notice a brilliant green glow extending far beyond the violet light 
visible on the ordinary screen. Evidently our failure to see light in 
this region is not because there is no light, but because our eyes are 
insensitive to rays of this type. The fluorescent screen changes their 
color so that we can see them. ‘These are the ultra-violet rays, of 



FIGURE 1.—Coolidge X-ray tube. Electrons shot from the cathode against the target produce these 
X rays, which are light of very short wave length 

which we have heard so much recently in connection with summer 
sunshine and prevention of rickets. 

As one goes farther into the ultra-violet the rays become rapidly 
absorbed by air, and can be studied only in a vacuum. But at still 
shorter wave lengths the rays are again less readily absorbed as we 
approach the region of X rays. A high-tension transformer shoots 
the electrons at high speed from the hot wire cathode against the tung- 
sten target and there X rays are emitted (fig. 1). It is like shooting 
a rapid-fire gun at a steel plate. The bullets represent the electrons 
shot from the cathode, and the noise resulting when the bullets bang 
against the plate represents the X rays. 

Just as in the case of ultra-violet light, these X rays do not affect 
our eyes. Their existence can, however, be shown by placing in 
their path the same screen as was used to detect the ultra-violet rays. 


That these rays are of the same nature as light is shown by the fact 
that we have found it possible to reflect and refract them, to polarize 
and diffract them. They are indeed light of ten thousand times 
shorter wave length. 

One of the most important properties of X rays is their ability to 
ionize air and make it electrically conducting. Such ionization can 
also be produced by the gamma rays from radium. Whereas, how- 
ever, X rays may be half absorbed in an inch of water, it takes a foot 
of water to absorb half of the gamma rays from radium, correspond- 
ing to the much shorter wave length of the radioactive rays. 

But the end is not yet. There exists a kind of highly penetrating 
radiation which is especially prominent at high altitudes, and is sup- 
posed to come from some source outside the earth. These cosmic rays, 
as they are called, will penetrate 10 or 20 feet of water before they are 

Flectric or Radio Rays tent Ultra- Gamma 
L 7) 

( —SSSSS—SS==_=4 ——_______ 
Broadcasting Heat Rays X-rays Cosmic 
B Ra 

. Complete Spectrum of Electromagnetic Radiation, 1929 (estate 

FIGURE 2.—Complete spectrum of electromagnetic radiation on a logarithmic scale. Visible light is 

only a small but very important part of this spectrum 
half absorbed. It is possible that these rays are like cathode rays, 
rather than X rays, though they are usually thought to be of the latter 

In Figure 2 we see graphically how these different rays are related 
to each other. At the extreme left I have arbitrarily started the 
spectrum at a wave length of 18 kilometers, which is the wave length 
of certain trans-Atlantic wireless signals. There is no reason why 
longer waves could not be produced if desired. The electric waves 
continue in an unbroken spectrum down to 0.1 mm., rays recently 
studied at Cleveland by the late Doctor Nichols and Mr. Tear. Over- 
lapping these electric rays are the heat waves, which have been ob- 
served from about 0.03 ecm. to 0.00003 cm., including the whole of the 
visible region. The heat rays in turn are overlapped by the ultra- 
violet rays, produced by electric discharges; and these reach well into 
the region described as X rays. Beyond these are in turn the gamma 
rays and the cosmic rays. Thus over a range of wave lengths of from 
2X107-" cm. to 210° cm. there is found to be a continuous spectrum 
of radiations, of which visible light occupies only a very narrow band. 

The great breadth of this wave-length range will perhaps be better 
appreciated if we expand the scale until the wave of a cosmic ray has a 
length equal to the thickness of a post card. The longest wireless 
wave would on this scale extend from here to the nearest fixed star. 


When the physicist speaks of light, he refers to all the radiations 
included in this vast range. We believe that they are all the same 
kind of thing, and that anything which may be said about the nature 
of the rays in one part of this region is equally true of the rest. 


There are many ways in which light acts like a wave in an elastic 
medium. Such elastic waves move with a speed which is the same for 
all wave lengths and all intensities, just as does light. Waves, like 
light rays, can be reflected and refracted. The polarization of light 
is a property characteristic of the transverse waves in an elastic solid. 
It is true that if one examines the constancy of the speed of light in 
detail, difficulties arise; for it is found that its speed is the same rela- 
tive to an observer no matter how fast the observer is going. This 
would not be true if light were a wave in an ordinary elastic medium. 
Maxwell’s identification of light as electromagnetic waves, however, 
removes this difficulty. 

The crucial test for the existence of waves, however, has always been 
that of diffraction and interference. Imagine a row of pebbles dropped 
into a pond at the same instant. The effect would be similar to that 
shown in Plate 1, Figure1. In this figure we picture a series of waves 
passing through a succession of openings in a grid. After passing 
through, the crests of the emerging wavelets recombine to form a new 
wave going straight ahead. But in addition, the wavelet just emerg- 
ing from one opening may combine with the first wave from the next 
opening, the second from the next, and so on, forming a new wave 
front inclined at a definite angle to the first. The angle between these 
two waves, as will be seen from this diagram, is determined by the dis- 
tance between successive waves, i. e., the wave length, and by the 
distance between successive openings in the grid. The figure at the 
right shows how the emergent wave may combine with the second wave 
from the adjacent opening, the fourth from the second opening, and so 
on, and form a wave front propagated at a larger angle. 

That such a variety of wave formation is not purely imaginary is 
shown in Plate 1, Figure 2, which is a photograph of ripples on the sur- 
face of mercury, taken after they have passed through a comblike 
grid. Notice how one group of waves combines to form a wave front 
going straight ahead. But in addition, on either side of the central 
beam, we find two beams forming where the paths from successive 
openings in the grid differ by one wave length. Out at a large angle 
we see even the second order of the diffracted beam. 

If we were unable to see the separate waves, but knew the kind of 
erid through which the béam of ripples had passed, not only could we 
say that this is the way the beam should be split up if it consists of 
waves, but we could even tell what the wave length of the ripples must 
be in order to give these particular angles between the diffracted beams. 


The same experiment may be performed with a beam of light. In 
Plate 2, Figure 1, is shown a set of some 200 vertical lines. If these 
lines are photographed onto a lantern slide, they form a grid through 
which a beam of light may be made to pass. The upper part of 
Plate 2, Figure 2, shows a beam of light projected onto a photographic 
plate. The middle part of the figure shows the same beam of light, 
but this time projected through such a lantern slide grid having about 
100 lines to theinch. The original spot of light is now split into three, 
a bright one in the center, the direct ray, and a diffracted ray on either 
side. It is just as in the case of the mercury ripples passing through 
the grid. 

If this is really a case of the diffraction of waves, as we have sup- 
posed, if a grating with lines closer together is used, the separation 
between the diffracted images should be correspondingly greater. 
The lower part of Plate 2, Figure 2, shows our beam of light projected 
this time through a grid photographed with about 300 lines to the 
inch. The separation of the diffracted beams is now much greater. 


FIGURE 3.—Apparatus for diffracting X rays from a ruled reflection grating 

When these diffracted images are thrown on a screen, one can see that 
their outer edges are red and their inner edges blue. This means that 
red light is of the greater wave length. In fact we could easily, from 
this experiment, tell what the wave length of light is—the distance 
from the central image to the diffracted image is to the distance from 
the grating to the screen as the wave length of the light is to the dis- 
tance between the lines on the grating. When one carries through 
the calculation, he finds that the wave length of light is about one 
fifty-thousandth of an inch. 

If we can rely on such a test, light must consist of waves. 

Diffraction of X rays.—Precisely similar experiments can, however, 
be done with X rays. In place of a projection lantern we must, 
however, use an X-ray tube and a pair of slits as shown in Figure 38. 
The lantern slide with the lines on it is replaced by a polished mirror 
on which lines are ruled 50 to the millimeter. The resulting photo- 
eraph is shown in Plate 2, Figure 3. When the ruled mirror is with- 


drawn we have the single vertical line D. With the grating in place 
we see a bright central reflected image O with companions on either 
side. Thus X rays can also be diffracted, and must therefore, like 
light, consist of waves. 


For a hundred years no one had seriously questioned the truth of the 
wave theory. In 1900, however, Planck published the results of a 
long study of the problem of the radiation of heat and light from a hot 
body. This difficult theoretical study, which has stood the test of 
time, showed that if a body when heated is to become first red hot, 
then yellow, and then white, the oscillators in it which are giving out 
the radiation must not radiate continuously as the electromagnetic 
theory would demand. They must rather radiate suddenly little 
portions of energy. The amount of energy in each portion must 
further, according to Planck, be proportional to the frequency. 
This is the origin of the celebrated ‘‘quantum”’ theory. 

On account of the difficult character of the reasoning involved in 
Planck’s argument, his conclusions carried weight only among those 
who were especially interested in theoretical physics. Among these 
was Einstein, who called attention to the fact that Planck’s con- 
clusions would fit exactly with the view that the radiation was not 
emitted in waves at all, but as little particles, each possessing a por- 
tion of energy proportional to the frequency of the Sea as 
Planck had assumed. 

Einstein and the photoelectric effect—An opportunity to apply this 
idea was afforded by the photoelectric effect. It is found that when 
light, as from an arc, falls upon certain metals, such as zinc or sodium, 
a current of negative electricity in the form of electrons escapes from 
the metallic surface. This photoelectric effect is especially promi- 
nent with X rays, for these rays eject electrons from all sorts of sub- 
stances. In Plate 3, Figure 1, is shown one of C. T. R. Wilson’s 
photographs of the trails left by electrons ejected by X rays passing 
through air and a sheet of copper. These electrons, shot out of the 
air and the metal by the action of the X rays, are the X-ray photo- 

The most remarkable property of these photoelectrons is the speed 
at which they move. We have seen, as in Figure 4, that X rays are 
the waves produced when the cathode electrons bombard a metal 
target inside the X-ray tube. Let us suppose that a cathode electron 
strikes the target at a speed of a hundred thousand miles a second 
(they move tremendously fast). The resulting X ray, after passing 
through the walls of the X-ray tube and perhaps a block of wood, may 
eject a photoelectron from a metal plate placed on the far side. The 
speed of this photoelectron is then found to be almost as great as 
that of the original cathode electron. 


The surprising nature of this phenomenon may be illustrated by 
considering a similar event with water waves. Imagine two diving 
boards on opposite sides of a wide pond. A boy dives from one board 
into the water with a splash which sends ripples out over the pool. 
By the time they reach the second boy, who is swimming in the water 
beside the other diving board some distance away, these ripples are 
much too small to notice. We should be greatly surprised if these 
insignificant ripples should lift the second swimmer bodily from the 
water and set him on his diving board. 

If, however, it is impossible for a water ripple to do such a thing it 
is just as impossible for an ether ripple, sent out when an electron dives 


FIGURE 4,—The speed of the photoelectrons éjected from the metal plate at P is almost as great as the 
speed of the cathode electrons which produce the X rays at the target T 

into the target of an X-ray tube, to jerk an electron out of a second 
piece of metal with a speed equal to that of the first electron. 

It was considerations of this kind which showed to Einstein the 
futility of trying to account for the photoelectric effect on the basis of 
waves. He saw, however, that this effect might be explained if light 
and X rays consist of particles. These particles are now commonly 
called ‘“‘ photons.” The picture of the X-ray experiment on this 
view would be that when the electron strikes the target of an X-ray 
tube, its energy of motion is transformed into a photon, that is, a 
particle of X rays which goes with the speed of light to the second piece 


of metal. Here the photon gives up its energy to one of the electrons 
of which the metal is composed, and throws it out with an energy 
of motion equal to that of the first electron. 

In this way Einstein was able to account in a very satisfactory 
way for the phenomenon of the ejection of electrons by light and 
X rays. 

How X rays are scattered—KEKven more direct evidence that light 
consists of particles has come from a study of scattered X rays. 
If a piece of paper is held in the light of a lamp, the paper scatters 
hight from the lamp into our eyes. In the same way, if the lamp were 
an X-ray tube, the paper would scatter X rays into our eyes. If 
light and X rays are waves, scattered X rays are like an echo. When 
one whistles in front of a wall, the echo comes back with the same 
pitch as the original sound. This must be so, for each wave of the 
sound is reflected from the wall, as many waves return as strike, and 
the frequency or pitch of the echoed wave is the same as that of the 
original wave. In the case of scattered X rays, the echo should simi- 
larly be thrown back by the electrons in the scattering material, 
and should likewise have the same pitch or frequency as the incident 

We can measure the pitch, or what amounts to the same thing, the 
wave length of a beam of scattered X rays, using the apparatus shown 
in Plate 3, Figure 2. Rays from the target T of the X-ray tube were 
scattered by a block of carbon at R, and the wave length of the echoed 
rays was measured by an X-ray spectrometer. By swinging the X- 
ray tube in line with the slits, it was possible to get a direct com- 
parison with the wave length of the original rays. 

Plate 4, Figure 1, shows the result of the experiment. Above is 
plotted the spectrum of the original X-ray beam. Below is shown the 
spectrum of the X rays scattered in three different directions. A part 
of the scattered rays is of the original wave length; but, as you see, 
most of the rays are increased in wave length. This would corres- 
pond to a lower pitch for the echo than for the original sound. 

As we have seen, this change in wave length is contrary to the 
predictions of the wave theory. If we take Hinstein’s idea of X-ray 
particles, however, we find a simple explanation of the effect. On this 
view, we may suppose that each photon of the scattered X rays is 
deflected by a single electron, Figure 5. Picture a golf ball bouncing 
from a football. A part of the golf ball’s energy is spent in setting 
the football in motion. Thus the golf ball bounces off having less 
energy than when it struck. In the same way the electron from which 
the X-ray photon bounces will recoil, taking part of the photon’s 
energy, and the deflected photon will have less energy than before it 
struck the electron. This reduction in energy of the X-ray photon 
corresponds, according to Planck’s original quantum theory, to a 


decrease in frequency of the scattered X rays, just as the experiments 
show. In fact, the theory is so definite that it is possible to calculate 
just how great a change in frequency should occur, and the calculation 
is found to correspond accurately with the experiments. 

Trailing a photon.—lIf this explanation is the correct one it should, 
however, be possible to find the electrons which recoil from the impact 
of the X-ray particles. Before this theory of the origin of scattered 
X rays was suggested, no such recoiling electrons had ever been 
noticed. Within a few months after its proposal, however, C. T. R. 
Wilson succeeded in photographing the tracks left when electrons in 


FIGURE 5.—Recoil of an electron. When an incident X-ray photon glances from an electron, the 
electron recoils from the impact, taking part of the photon’s energy 

air recoil from the X rays which they scatter. Plate 4, Figure 2, 
shows one of his typical photographs. The X rays here are going 
from left to right. At top and bottom will be seen the long trails 
left by two photoelectrons, which as we have seen take up the whole 
energy of a photon. In between are a number of shorter trails, all 
with their tails toward the X-ray tube. These are the electrons 
which have been struck by flying X-ray photons. Some have been 
struck squarely, and are knocked straight ahead. Others have 
received only a glancing blow, and have recoiled at an angle. Thus 
we have observed not only the loss in energy of the deflected photons, 


as shown by the lowering in pitch of the X-ray echo, but we have 
found also the recoiling electrons from which the photons have 

In order, however, to satisfy ourselves by a crucial test whether 
X rays act like particles, an experiment was devised which should 
enable us to follow the path of the photon after it has been deflected 
by an electron. In Figure 6 we see at the left what we may call the 
X-ray gun, which shoots a few X rays through a cloud-expansion 
chamber. In this chamber is photographed the trail of every electron 
set in motion by the X rays. So feeble a beam of X rays is used that 
on the average only one or two recoil electrons will appear at a time. 
Let us suppose, as in the figure, that the electron struck by the 
X-ray particle recoils downward. This must mean that the X-ray 

B oc 
>< Bo 
opvu « 
mee = 
O#S kb 
gO = 
<i =) 
L| form a | 
Jeo of w 7) 


FIGURE 6.—Diagram of an experiment in which one observes both the recoiling electron and the 
direction in which the deflected photon proceeds 

particle has been deflected upward toward A. If this X ray should 
strike another electron before it leaves the chamber, this event must 
occur at some point along the line OA. It can not occur on the same 
side as the recoil electron. If, however, the X ray is a wave, spreading 
in all directions, there is no more reason why the second electron 
associated with the scattered ray should appear at A than at B. A 
series of photographs which shows the relation between the direction 
of recoil of the scattering electron R and the location of the second 
electron struck by the scattered X ray, thus affords a crucial test 
between the conceptions of X rays as spreading waves and X rays as 

From a large number of photographs taken in this manner it has 
become evident that an X ray is scattered in a definite direction, 

like a particle. But if X rays, so also all the rest of the family of 
electromagnetic radiations. It would thus seem that by these ex- 
periments Kinstein’s notion of light as made up of particles is estab- 


We thus seem to have satisfactory proof from our interference and 
diffraction experiments that light consists of waves. The photo- 
electric and scattering experiments afford equally satisfactory evi- 
dence that light consists of particles. How can these two apparently 
conflicting concepts be reconciled? 

Electron waves.—Before attempting to answer this question let us 
notice that this dilemma applies not only to radiation but also in 
other fundamental fields of physics. When the evidence was growing 
strong that radiation, which we had always thought of as waves, had 
also the properties of particles, L. de Broglie asked, may it not then 
be possible that electrons, which we know as particles, may have the 
properties of waves? An extension of Planck and Einstein’s quantum 
theory enabled him to calculate what the wave length corresponding 
to a moving electron should be. In photographs like Plate 3, Figure 
1, and Plate 4, Figure 2, we have ocular evidence that electrons are 
very real particles indeed. Nevertheless, De Brogle’s suggestion 
was promptly subjected to experimental test by Davisson and Germer 
at New York, and later by Thomson, Rupp, Kickuchi, and others. 

Let us consider Thomson’s experiments, which are typical of them 
all. Our crucial evidence for the wave character of light was the fact 
that light could be diffracted by a grating of lines ruled on glass. 
X rays were diffracted in the same way; but before this had been 
shown possible, it was found that X rays could be diffracted by 
the regularly arranged atoms in a crystal. The layers of atoms took 
the place of the lines ruled on glass. Plate 5, Figure 1, shows how this 
experiment has been done by Hull, at Schenectady. X rays pass 
through a pair of diaphragms and a mass of powdered crystals placed 
at C, and strike a photographic plate at P. Rays diffracted by the 
layers of atoms in the crystal strike at such points as P,, P., etc., 
giving rise to a series of rings about the center. Ifamass of powdered 
aluminum crystals is placed at C, Hull obtains the photograph shown 
in Plate 5, Figure 2. You see the central image, and around it the 
diffraction rings. It was this crystal diffraction that first gave con- 
vineing evidence that X rays, like light, consist of waves. 

G. P. Thomson has performed a precisely similar experiment with 
electrons. The X-ray beam in the last slide was replaced by a beam 
of cathode electrons, and gold leaf took the place of the aluminum. 
The resulting photograph is shown in Plate 5, Figure 3. Though it 


is not quite as sharp as the photograph taken with the X rays, we can 
see distinctly the central image, and several rings of diffracted elec- 
trons. If Plate 5, Figure 2, demonstrated the wave character of X 
rays, does not Plate 5, Figure 3, prove equally definitely the wave 
character of electrons? 

We are thus faced with the fact that the fundamental things in 
nature, matter, and radiation, present to us a dual aspect. In certain 
ways they act like particles, in others like waves. The experiments 
tell us that we must seize both horns of the dilemma. 


During the last year or two there has gradually developed a solution 
of this puzzle, which though at first rather difficult to grasp, seems to be 
free from logical contradictions and essentially capable of describing 
the phenomena which our experiments reveal. A mere mention of 
some of the names connected with this development will suggest some- 
thing of the complexities through which the theory has gradually 
gone. There are Duane, Slater, and Swann in this country, De 
Broglie in France, Heisenberg and Schrédinger in Germany, Bohr in 
Denmark, Dirac in England, among others, who have contributed to 
the growth of this explanation. 

The point of departure of this theory is the mathematical proof 
that the dynamics of a particle may be expressed in terms of the pro- 
pagation of a group of waves. That is, the particle may be replaced 
by a wave train—the two, so far as their motion is concerned, may be 
made mathematically equivalent. The motion of a particle such as 
an electron or a photon in a straight line is represented by a plane 
wave. The wave length is determined by the momentum of the 
particle, and the length of the train of waves by the precision with 
which the momentum is known. In the case of the photon, this 
wave may be taken as the ordinary electromagnetic wave. The 
wave corresponding to the moving electron is called by the name of 
its inventor, a De Broglie wave. 

Consider, for example, the deflection of a photon by an electron on 
this basis, that is, the scattering of an X ray. The incident photon 
is represented by a train of plane electromagnetic waves. The recoil- 
ing electron is likewise represented by a train of plane De Broglie waves 
propagated in the direction of recoil. These electron waves form a 
kind of grating by which the incident electromagnetic waves are 
diffracted. The diffracted waves represent in turn the deflected 
photon. They are increased in wave length by the diffraction because 
the grating is receding, resulting in a Doppler effect. 

In this solution of the problem we note that before we could deter- 
mine the direction in which the X ray was to be deflected, it was 
necessary to know the direction of recoil of the electron. In this 


respect the solution is indeterminate; but its indeterminateness cor- 
responds to an indeterminateness in the experiment itself. There is 
no way of performing the experiment so as to make the electron recoil 
in a definite direction as a result of an encounter with a photon. It is 
a beauty of the theory that it is determinate only where the experi- 
ment itself is determinate, and leaves arbitrary those parameters 
which the experiment is incapable of defining. 

It is not usually possible to describe the motion of either a beam of 
light or a beam of electrons without introducing both the concepts of 
particles and waves. There are certain localized regions in which at a 
certain moment energy exists, and this may be taken as a definition 
of what we mean by a particle. Butin predicting where these localized 
positions are to be at a later instant, a consideration of the propaga- 
tion of the corresponding waves is usually our most satisfactory mode 
of attack. 

Attention should be called to the fact that the electromagnetic 
waves and the De Broglie waves are according to this theory waves of 
probability. Consider as an example the diffraction pattern of a beam 
of light or of electrons, reflected from a ruled grating, and falling on 
a photographic plate. In the intense portion of the diffraction pattern 
there is a high probability that a grain of the photographic plate will be 
affected. In corpuscular language, there is a high probability that a 
photon or electron, as the case may be, will strike this portion of the 
plate. Where the diffraction pattern is of zero intensity, the proba- 
bility of a particle striking is zero, and the plate is unaffected. Thus 
there is a high probability that a photon will be present where the 
‘intensity’ of an electromagnetic wave is great, and a lesser prob- 
ability where this ‘‘intensity”’ is smaller. 

It is a corollary that the energy of the radiation lies in the photons, 
and not in the waves. For we mean by energy the ability to do work, 
and we find that when radiation does anything it acts in particles. 

In this connection it may be noted that this wave-mechanics 
theory does not enable us to locate a photon or an electron definitely 
except at the instant at which it does something. When it activates 
a grain on a photographic plate, or ionizes an atom which may be 
observed in a cloud expansion chamber, we can say that the particle 
was at that point at the instant of the event. But in between such 
events the particle can not be definitely located. Some positions 
are more probable than others, in proportion as the corresponding 
wave is more intense in these positions. But there is no definite 
position that can be assigned to the particle in between its actions 
on other particles. Thus it becomes meaningless to attempt to 
assign any definite path to a particle. It is like assigning a definite 
path to a ray of light: The more sharply we try to define it by narrow 
slits, the more widely the ray is spread by diffraction. 



If it were possible to photograph instantaneously the photons in 
an intense beam of light, we might expect them to have somewhat 
the appearance of Figure 7. Where the electric field of the correspond- 
ing electromagnetic wave is a maximum, there will be a maximum 
density of distribution of the photons. There is, however, this 
defect with our picture, that there seems to be no possible way in 
which we can experimentally locate the individual photons within 
the wave. Our picture must thus be considered to be a purely imag- 
inary one. It will, however, serve to indicate that the conceptions 
of waves and particles are not irreconcilable. 

Perhaps enough has been said to show that by grasping both 
horns it has been found possible to overcome the dilemma. Though 
no simple picture has been invented affording a mechanical model 
of a light ray, by combining the notions of waves and particles a 

FIGURE 7.—Waves of photons. The curve represents a continuous electromagnetic wave; below the 
curve the wave is represented as successive sheets of photons 

logically consistent theory has been devised which seems essentially 
capable of accounting for the properties of light as we know them. 

Radio rays, heat rays, visible and ultra-violet light, all are thus 
different varieties of light. We find from experiments on diffraction 
and interference that light consists of waves. The photoelectric 
effect and the scattering of X rays give equally convincing reasons 
for believing that light consists of particles. For centuries it has 
been supposed that the two conceptions are contradictory. Goaded 
on, however, by obstinate experiments, we seem to have found a 
way out. We continue to think of light propagated as electromag- 
netic waves; but whenever the light does something, it does it as 
photons. Light is thus in some respects similar to waves and in 
others to particles, but can not be identified completely with either. 

Smithsonian Report, 1929.—Compton 

yi ] 
re oY Hy yee 
SY MOM a, 
i) ipesieal 7p) se My 
; URN) a 
ees, QO ¢ ) ( 
6 LUNN ! ; NR 
| nee) L ea 
| 0% ; OU) 
4a Pata oa 
/ 3 3)=9) 
/ t 


», ee 


S £2 = 
Ry HVE Peat ge x 
CE oa ag «GS > 
¢: % LP Bae 5 



Smithsonian Report, 1929.—Compton PEATE, 2 

| | | | | 
| | | WHIHHII 


D O 


2, The upper portion is the direct beam, the middle portion that through 100 lines to the inch, and 
the lower portion photographed through a grid of 330 lines to the inch. 3, Diffraction pattern 
of X rays. Disthe direct beam, O the directly reflected beam, and the other lines are due to dif- 


USa@NVHO a want 
: AVU-X 



xOd Cva1 

€ ALVW 1d u0}dwi0)—"*676 | ‘qaoday uetuosyzItg 

Smithsonian Report, 1929.—Compton 

Ka Line 



Scattered by 

Graphite at 


6°30" 7° 7°30 



2) RECO] EE CoROIN Ss annie 

Smithsonian Report, 1929.—Compton PLATE 5 


2 3 



By Gorpon B. WILKEs 

[With 3 plates] 

The appearance of refrigerating machinery for domestic use has 
created among laymen an abiding interest in the mechanical methods 
of artificial cooling. Domestic refrigeration of one kind or another 
is here to stay and it is probable that an extensive development of 
cooling and ventilating machinery for the home is just around the 
corner. Already many of our theaters and public halls have installed 
devices for cooling the air during the warm months, and only ashort 
time ago a combined heating and air cooling unit was advertised for 
private residences. If the temperature of our living quarters drops 
8° or 10° to around 60° F., we feel uncomfortable and start the heating 
system; but if a warm day arrives in summer with a temperature 
20° or 30° above 70° F., we are uncomfortable because we have had 
no easy means of cooling the air. I can see no reason why, during 
the next few years, it will not become a rather common practice in 
the more expensive homes to have some means of cooling the air in 
summer as well as a means of heating it to a comfortable temperature 
during winter. 

Some fifty-odd years ago, Lord Kelvm (Sir Wiliam Thomson) 
demonstrated, by means of a simple lecture-table experiment, that 
the sensation of cold was a purely relative matter. He placed three 
basins of water on the table: one hot, one ice cold, and the third at 
room temperature. Placing his right hand in the hot water and his 
left in the cold water for a few moments, he quickly transferred both 
hands to the basin with water at room temperature. In attempting 
to describe the sensation he was forced to conclude that either his 
left hand or his right hand was deceiving him, for the water felt cold 
to his right and warm to his left hand. Since, therefore, the sensation 
of cold is largely a relative matter, we shall assume for our purposes 
that cold signifies any temperature below 70° F., ordinary room tem- 
perature. Let us also agree to understand that all of the temperatures 
referred to are in degrees on the Fahrenheit scale, the one we use for 
most work outside the laboratory. 

1 Reprinted by permission from The Technology Review, March, 1929, 999 


Primitive man found that an over supply of meat from a success- 
ful hunt could be preserved for a longer period of time if he kept it 
in an underground cavern, a well, or in the water from a spring or 
other relatively cool place. In a temperate climate like that in 
New England, the temperature of the air may vary as much as 40° in 
a day and as much as 100° throughout the year. The daily variation 
affects underground temperatures only to a slight extent at a depth 
of 2 or 3 feet, while the annual variation is lost at a depth of 25 to 
50 feet. There the temperature remains practically constant through- 
out the year and usually approximates the average yearly tempera- 
ture of the surface. For this reason, water from deep wells usually 
has a temperature that is the same throughout the year; similarly, 
spring water is at almost constant temperature because this water 
comes from a considerable depth below the ground surface. Anyone 
who has had the opportunity to visit caves in different seasons, nearly 
always finds them warm in winter and cool in summer. This and 
the common method of placing water pipes a few feet underground 
to prevent freezing in cold weather, illustrate the fact that the 
variation in air temperature soon disappears at a sufficient depth 

Nearly everyone is familiar with the use of ice and salt to produce 
temperatures low enough to freeze ice cream. If ice and salt are 
mixed in proper proportions, it is not difficult to produce a tempera- 
ture of 0° F., and by using calcium chloride in place of salt, con- 
siderably lower temperatures may be attained. There are many 
other substances that may be used with ice to produce temperatures 
below the freezing point of water, such as ammonium nitrate, alcohol, 
hydrochloric acid, and so on. The use of niter (potassium nitrate) 
with snow or ice has long been known. As early as 1550 it is said 
the Roman nobles cooled their wines by snow and niter. 

In temperate climates, ice has for many years been used to produce 
low temperatures. Its melting point is 32° F. which represents the 
lowest temperature that one can expect to reach with the use of ice 
alone, but the ordinary domestic ice box is more frequently in the 
neighborhood of 50° F. as a recent survey of a large number of 
refrigerators determined. Despite the enormous sales of electrical 
and gas-heated refrigerators In recent years, ice will continue to 
be used, probably in somewhat lesser quantities, for many years to 
come, because of the low cost and the lack of many minor troubles 
that are bound to arise from any mechanical unit. 

The cooling effect of evaporation has been utilized for centuries 
by the peoples living in hot, dry climates who store their drinking 
water in porous earthenware jars. Moisture oozes through the walls 
to the outside of the vessel where it evaporates, the effect of which is 
sufficient to lower the temperature of the water from 10° to 20° 


below that of the surrounding air. This simple primitive expedient, 
strangely enough, contains the germ of the principle upon which are 
based all of the mechanical refrigeration systems now in domestic 
use. The. principle is this: that evaporation—or what is the same 
thing, the transition from the liquid to the vapor state—requires a 
large amount of heat energy, which must be supplied by the liquid 
itself or the immediate surroundings. If one is boiling water, most 
of the heat energy comes from the heated air around the vessel and 
the air is thereby cooled. If water is evaporating from the surface of 
an earthenware water jar, the heat comes from the vessel and the 
surrounding air, both of which are cooled in the process. 

One must also recognize the fact that the temperature at which 
a liquid boils (its ‘‘boiling point’”’) depends upon the pressure. With 
the atmospheric pressure as it is at sea level, water boils at approxi- 
mately 212° F., but if the pressure be increased twenty times, the 
boiling point is increased to about 417° F. If the pressure be suffici- 
ently lowered, one can make water boil at room temperature or even 
at 32°, the ordinary freezing point. 

This we can readily demonstrate on the lecture table by repeating 
what is known as Leslie’s Experiment. If we place some water at 
room temperature in a thermos bottle and reduce the pressure until 
the water boils, heat will be drawn from the remaining water (since 
little can come from the surroundings) and it will become cooler. 
Then if we continue to reduce the pressure in order to keep the 
water boiling, it will soon reach a temperature of 32° F. and some of 
the water will be converted into ice, inasmuch as water does not nor- 
mally exist in the liquid state at a temperature below 32° F. 

The boiling points of all other liquids vary with the pressure and 
consequently all that has been said in regard te water applies equally 
well to ammonia, sulphur dioxide, carbon dioxide, and so on; only, 
of course, the temperature-pressure conditions may be very different 
from those of water. This principle of cooling by evaporation or 
boiling of various liquids is, as I have already mentioned, the founda- 
tion upon which nearly all of our refrigerating machines are con- 

Refrigerating units for home use are, in general, of two different 
types—those using a small electrically driven pump, the compression 
type, and those using heat generated by a gas or kerosene oil burner, 
the absorption type. The operating principle of each is simple, the 
former particularly so. A suitable liquid (called the refrigerant) 
such as ammonia, sulphur dioxide, carbon dioxide, methyl chloride, 
or ethyl chloride, is placed in the cooling coil inside the refrigerator 
cabinet, where it is made to “boil” by having the pressure upon it 
reduced with the motor-driven pump. This pump receives the vapor 
from the coil at low pressure, compresses it, and passes it along to 


either an air-cooled or a water-cooled condenser. The compressing 
of the vapor increases its temperature so that when it reaches the 
condenser the high pressure and the cooling action of the condenser 
are enough to liquefy it. The liquid refrigerant is then directed back 
into the cooling coil in the refrigerator, and the cycle is repeated. 

Electrical refrigeration is very similar to a steam heating plant in a 
private residence. There water is boiled over the fire box and the 
steam or water vapor carried by pipes to radiators where on con- 
densing it gives up heat to the room. The condensed steam then 
returns to the boiler where the cycle is repeated. In other words, the 
boiling of the water keeps the boiler relatively cool and thus acts as a 
refrigerating system for the boiler that would otherwise become 
very hot. Heat is transferred from the boiler to the radiators in 
steam heating, while in electrical refrigeration, heat is transferred 
from the refrigerator to the condenser coils in much the same way. 
In steam heating, the water is made to boil by the addition of heat, 
while in electrical refrigeration the liquid is made to boil by the 
reduction in pressure caused by the pump. 

The Audiffren unit, the first entirely self-contained machine, is 
interesting. It was invented by a French priest, Abbé Audiffren, 
some 25 years ago, and placed on a commercial basis in this country 
in 1911. The unit resembles a large dumb-bell, with one ball, con- 
taining the compressor, revolving in cooling water and with the other 
ball used as an expansion or cooling chamber. ‘This latter ball can 
be immersed in brine or water for cooling purposes. The unit is 
charged with a mixture of sulphur dioxide and lubricating oil at the 
factory, which is sufficient for many years’ use. The photograph 
(pl. 2, fig. 1) shows one of the original French machines that was sent 
to the Heat Measurements Laboratory of the Massachusetts Institute 
of Technology in the summer of 1911. This particular machine has 
been in intermittent service for the past 18 years, operating per- 
fectly, and it has never been opened for inspection or repairs. 

“Refrigeration by heat’? makes an interesting slogan, but the 
layman rarely understands the principles back of the absorption 
method of refrigeration, although more than 50 years ago small 
domestic refrigeration units using this principle were sold to the 
public. Cold water absorbs enormous quantities of ammonia gas, 
but if a solution of ammonia and water be heated much of the am- 
monia can be driven out of solution. Ferdinand Carré, many years 
ago, used two containers connected by a pipe, in one of which a strong 
solution of ammonia and water was placed. Adding heat to this 
solution by means of a charcoal fire, the ammonia was driven out 
and as the other container was kept cool by immersing it in water, 
the ammonia gas would condense there in increasing quantities until 
most of the ammonia was evolved. Now, if the weak solution were 


cooled, the ammonia would be reabsorbed, thus reducing the pressure 
on the other chamber so that the ammonia liquid boiled, producing 
a considerable cooling effect. This type of machine is still being sold 
and if one is willing to heat the unit for about an hour each day with 
kerosene or gas, it will keep a refrigerator at a useful temperature for 
the preservation of food. 

This same principle has been developed by many manufacturers 
so that there are large commercial machines using this process as a 
means of continuous refrigeration. There are also several domestic 
refrigerators using this principle with gas as the form of fuel for 
heating; one of these machines, in fact, operates without a single 
moving part, except for the thermostat control of the gas valve. 

Another important principle of cooling is the Joule-Thompson 
Effect or the cooling of a gas by expansion from a high to a low 
pressure. If the gas can be made to do work while expanding, a 
still greater cooling effect will be produced and the economy of 
operation will be increased, since the gas in expanding can be made 
to help compress the incoming gas. There are some refrigerating 
machines based upon this principle, using air as the refrigerant. 

Carbon dioxide is a by-product of many industries and conse- 
quently is an inexpensive gas. It is usually sold in the liquid form 
under a pressure of about 850 pounds per square inch. Nearly all 
substances can exist in three different states, solid, liquid, or gaseous, 
provided the temperature and pressure conditions are suitable. If 
sufficient heat is added to solid iron, it can be converted into the 
liquid state, and if the temperature could be raised still higher a point 
would be reached where it would be converted into iron vapor. We 
are all familiar with the three states of water, such as steam, water, 
and ice; and within the past 50 years we have learned that the so- 
called permanent gases can be converted to liquids or even solids, 
provided the temperature is sufficiently low and the pressure is 
suitable. Now, if a cylinder of liquid carbon dioxide under 850 
pounds per square inch pressure is inverted so that when the valve 
is opened only liquid will escape, you will find that there is a great 
cooling effect, due to the vaporization of the liquid, since carbon 
dioxide can not exist as a liquid at room temperature and under 
atmospheric pressure. This cooling effect is so great that some of 
the escaping liquid is cooled to such a temperature that it can no 
longer exist as a liquid, but is converted to the solid state or carbon 
dioxide snow. If a strong cloth bag is tied over the outlet from the 
tank, the gas will pass through the bag but the solid or snow can be 
collected. This snow is at a temperature of 109° F. below zero and 
for many years has been used as a cooling agent in laboratory work. 
The snow itself sublimes or goes directly from the solid to the gaseous 
state under atmospheric pressure and does not make very good ther- 


mal contact with materials that one wishes to cool; consequently, it 
is frequently mixed with alcohol or ether to overcome this disad- 
vantage of poor contact. 

Within the last few years methods have been devised to use this 
carbon dioxide snow industrially. The snow as formed above can be 
compressed in hydraulic presses so as to form a dense, hard cake with 
a specific gravity of about 1.1 or slightly heavier than water. This 
dense snow or ‘‘dry ice,’’ as it is called, because it goes directly into a 
gas from the solid, is being used to a considerable extent for packing 
ice cream or frozen fish where the temperature must be kept consid- 
erably below the freezing point. One large manufacturer of ice cream 
in Cambridge, Mass., is shipping 75 per cent of his ice cream packed 
in carbon dioxide snow rather than with the old salt and ice mixture. 
One gallon of ice cream is placed in a corrugated cardboard box and 
then a small paper bag is placed on top containing from one to two 
pounds of ‘‘dry ice,” depending upon the atmospheric temperature. 
This will keep the ice cream in excellent condition for from six to 
eight hours, and there are many obvious advantages, such as less 
bulk to the containers, inexpensive containers that can be discarded, 
thus saving a collection trip, and no wet mixture of salt and ice 

Ice cream can be shipped long distances by this method and frozen 
fish have remained in freight cars for over five days without attention 
when packed with this material. It has been recently stated that in 
shipping ice cream from Philadelphia to New York City, 200 pounds 
of ‘dry ice”’ at from 5 to 10 cents per pound has replaced 3,000 pounds 
of water ice and 600 pounds of salt. In this case 3,400 pounds of extra 
freight is avoided besides the other advantages. Dry ice lasts excep- 
tionally well even when exposed to a temperature of 70° F. Recently 
a 25-pound cake was left on the lecture table for 24 hours exposed to 
room temperature and even after that period of time 2 or 3 pounds 
were still left. When packed in insulated containers, it will, of 
course, last longer. It is reported that a New York apartment house 
is using it in all its refrigerators. 

Another recent use of carbon dioxide snow is the carbon dioxide 
snow fire extinguisher. This is merely a tank of liquid carbon 
dioxide under pressure with a hose and nozzle connected so that when 
the valve is opened, carbon dioxide gas and snow will be delivered 
from the nozzle. This extinguisher is particularly effective on 
electrical fires, such as generators or telephone switchboards, because 
it will not conduct electricity and does not injure the electrical 
apparatus. It is also very effective on gasoline or oil fires. Since 
the gas is much heavier than air, the fire is smothered and the 
extremely low temperature of the snow cools the burning material 
below the ignition temperature. 


If air is compressed to some 3,000 pounds per square inch and then 
allowed to expand to atmospheric pressure, it is cooled approximately 
50°F. With the aid of a regenerative coil, this cooled, expanded air can 
be forced into close contact with the high-pressure air, thus cooling the 
high-pressure air. If this process is continued, a point will soon be 
reached where the cooling effect will cause some of the escaping air to 
be cooled to the liquefaction temperature and liquid air can be col- 
lected at the bottom of the expansion coil. For some time after the 
discovery of the method of producing liquid air, the material was 
largely for laboratory use only, but now the commercial use has 
increased to such an extent that there is scarcely a large-sized city 
that does not have at least one liquid-air plant in operation. In the 
modern plants, the expanding air operates a compressor, thus increas- 
ing the efficiency over the earlier laboratory methods. 

Air contains roughly 20 per cent oxygen and 80 per cent nitrogen, 
but the boiling point of nitrogen is 320° F. below zero while oxygen 
boils at only 297° F. below zero. Due to this difference in boiling 
temperatures the nitrogen tends to vaporize first and it is possible to 
separate these two substances by fractional distillation in much the 
same way as gasoline is separated from crude oil, but no external 
heat is required to boil liquid air because the normal boiling point is 
about 310° F. below zero. 

Liquid air is also used in high-vacuum work and is used for the 
production of helium from natural gasin Texas. A prominent mining 
engineer states that 90 per cent of the explosive work in the mines in 
Mexico is carried out with liquid oxygen as the explosive rather than 
gun powder. If blotting paper is rolled up and saturated with liquid 
oxygen and then tamped into a drilled hole, it can be ignited electri- 
cally and an explosion similar to that of gunpowder will result. 

ee SR 
me Di sila ts ll 
Sacre, AMARC) o Ot b 


ut fn hy te wa 
Avihaoensesi & lo 




t 31LW1d SYP "676| “Moday ueruosyqug 

“4ouIg Bo 
107BAITIAJOI OY} UIGIIM podr[d St Jey IO oY} ‘4J9T EY} 3B [ASSeEA ay) 0} pal[dde st JrayT 


¢ aLvld : SPAM — 676 ‘Oday ueruosyatWG 

Smithsonian Report, 1929.—Wilkes PLATE 3 




By ©. CO. DALY, Cr Back, fh. te. Ss 

Professor of Inorganic Chemistry, University of Liverpool 

‘ — 

There is no process within the confines of chemistry which is of 
ereater interest and importance than that by means of which the 
living plant prepares the food on which its life and growth depend. 
This food consists of starch and sugars, together grouped under the 
general name of carbohydrates, and of certain nitrogen-containing 
compounds known as proteins. The material from which the plant 
starts is carbonic acid, or a solution of carbon dioxide, which it 
obtains from the air, in water which it obtains through its roots 
from the soil. From this substance alone the plant is able to prepare 
its supply of carbohydrates, and it is true to say that this chemical 
process is the fundamental basis of the whole of terrestrial life. 
This may truly be asserted because the production of the proteins 
is very closely associated with it and the initial stage is common to 
the two. 

The formation of carbohydrates from carbonic acid when ex- 
pressed by a chemical equation looks simple enough. There is no 
doubt that the first product of the process that can be recognized in 
the plant is a simple sugar, and thus the equation can be written 

6H,.CO, = GASEROR == 60, 

where the simple carbohydrate is either glucose or fructose. These 
simple sugars undergo condensation immediately they are formed to 
give cane sugar or one of the starches, and these changes can readily 
be written as simple chemical equations. 

The mechanism by means of which the plant achieves the syn- 
thesis of these complex compounds from carbonic acid has long been 
a mystery to chemists and to botanists. It is known that the agency 
used by the plant to effect its purpose is sunlight, and thus the term 
photosynthesis has been applied to the operation. It is also known 
that the plant makes use of certain pigments, such as chlorophyll, 

1 Presented at the weekly evening meeting of the Royal Institution of Great Britain, Feb. 3, 1928. Re- 
printed by permission of the Royal Institution. 


and it is to these that the color of the leaves is due. The mystery 
of it all lay in the fact that no one knew what actually takes place, 
and, indeed, the more chemists and botanists explored, the more 
puzzling did the problem seem to be. 

Perhaps the most puzzling fact of all is that the plant only makes 
use of sunlight, when all our previous knowledge of light reactions 
leads us to believe that such light is quite incapable of inducing 
photosynthesis. This may readily be understood if the amount of 
energy involved in the synthesis is considered. It has been proved 
experimentally that in order to synthesize 1 gram molecule (180 
grams) of glucose or fructose there must be supplied to the carbonic 
acid a minimum quantity of energy equal to 673,800 ‘Calories. 
While it is known that the plant manages in some way to absorb 
the necessary energy in the form of light, the physicist tells us that 
it can not directly absorb enough energy from sunlight. Thus the 
photosynthesis can be brought about by red light of the wave length 
660uu when the energy directly absorbed can only be 260,000 calories 
which is far below the minimum quantity required. 

The experience gained from the ordinary reactions of photo- 
chemistry leads to the belief that if it is required to convert carbonic 
acid into sugars by means of light alone, it will be necessary to use 
ultra-violet light which is absorbed by carbonic acid, that is to say, 
light of wave length 210uy. It is obvious from this that some un- 
known factor is operating in vital photosynthesis. 

In any endeavor to elucidate the mystery, it is evident that the 
first line of inquiry must be to study the action of the short wave 
ultra-violet ight upon carbonic acid. This was first investigated by 
Moore and Webster in 1913, who found no evidence of any reaction 
taking place. They found, however, that in the presence of cer- 
tain catalysts, such as colloidal iron hydroxide, small quantities of 
formaldehyde were produced. Since these results appeared to be at 
variance with general experience in photochemical investigations, 
they were again examined some years later in Liverpool, and it was 
then found that when a stream of carbon dioxide was passed through 
water irradiated by the light from a quartz mercury lamp, small 
quantities of formaldehyde were produced. ‘This result seemed to be 
very satisfactory, since the formaldehyde could be looked upon as an 
intermediate stage on the way to carbohydrates, especially in view of 
the fact that Moore and Webster had proved that formaldehyde was 
converted by light into substance, with properties similar to the 
simple sugars. 

Our observations were criticized by Porter and Ramsperger, who 
stated that if rigid precautions were taken to guard against the pres- 
ence of every trace of impurity, no formaldehyde was produced. The 
suggestion was implied by them that the origin of the formaldehyde 


was to be found in some unknown impurity. There is, however, an 
alternative possibility, and one which is more in keeping with the 
known facts of the natural photosynthesis in the living leaf. There 
is no doubt that in this reaction the carbonic acid is converted 
directly into carbohydrates and that formaldehyde as such is not 
produced, and it seemed that the most probable explanation of the 
discrepancy between our results and those of Porter and Ramsperger 
was that the action of the ultra-violet light is to establish a photo- 
chemical equilibrium. 

6H,CO,;—C;H205+ 60s, 

which reverts to carbonic acid again in the dark. In the presence 
of oxidizable impurities a small amount of carbohydrates will be 
formed, which will be photochemically decomposed to formaldehyde. 
This decomposition of all the carbohydrates by means of ultra-violet 
light is well known. 

There is no need to give here the details of the experiments which 
were carried out to test this view, and it is sufficient to say that con- 
clusive proof was obtained of the reality of the equilibrium; that is to 
say, carbohydrates were found to be present jn the solution during 
irradiation by ultra-violet light, and these vanished very quickly 
after the irradiation was stopped. 

This gave us at once a starting point, because it seems evident 
that if a harmless inorganic reducing agent were added to the soiu- 
tion, carbohydrates should be formed in quantity on exposure to 
the ultra-violet light. Such a reducing agent is ferrous bicarbonate, 
and great hopes were raised when it was found that a saturated 
solution of this compound, which was completely colorless when 
prepared, gave a copious precipitate of ferric oxide on exposure to 
ultra-violet light. It was evident that the oxidation took place by 
reason of the oxygen in the carbohydrate equilibrium in accordance 
with the equation 

4Fe (HCO;). a5 O, = 2Fe,0, Si 4H.O ai 8CO, 

and indeed it was found that on evaporation of the exposed solution 
a simple sugar was obtained. The quantity produced was very 
disappointing and far less than was anticipated, and the conclusion 
was forced upon us that some unknown factor was taking part in the 

During many unsuccessful endeavors to improve the yield of the 
carbohydrates, it was noticed that the ferric oxide was not produced 
in the body of the solution, but only on the walls of the quartz con- 
taining vessels and on the surface of the iron rods used to make the 
bicarbonate. This led us to suspect that the surface was a determin- 
ing factor, and we at once changed the experimental method so as to 


increase the surface as much as possible. In order to secure this a 
suspension of pure aluminium powder in water maintained by a 
stream of carbon dioxide, was exposed to ultra-violet light. Increased 
yields of carbohydrates were at once obtained, but it was also found 
that the best yields were obtained when the aluminium powder had 
been allowed to coat itself with hydroxide by remaining in contact 
with the water before the exposure to light. This latter observation 
very materially changed our ideas, since it established the fact that 
the surface phenomenon is of far greater importance than the re- 
ducing action, and indeed raised the question as to whether the latter 
plays any réle at all in the process. 

In order finally to decide this question an aqueous suspension of 
pure and freshly prepared aluminium hydroxide, maintained by a 
stream of carbon dioxide, was exposed to ultra-violet light. There 
was obtained after filtration and evaporation of the solution a quantity 
of carbohydrates equal in weight to that produced when aluminium 
powder was used. This conclusively proved the fundamental signifi- 
cance of the rdle played by the surface, and at the same time the 
reducing action was found to be entirely unnecessary. Identical 
results were obtained with other powders, such as aluminium, zinc, 
and magnesium carbonates. 

During the course of these experiments it occurred to one of my 
students (Dr. W. E. Stephen) that if a green powder were used in place 
of the white ones the photosynthesis might take place in visible light, 
the green color being suggested by the green color of the plant- 
pigment chlorophyll. This was found actually to be the case, since 
a suspension of nickel carbonate maintained by a stream of carbon 
dioxide in water, on exposure to the light from an ordinary tungsten 
filament lamp, gave a larger yield of carbohydrates than any of the 
white powders in ultra-violet light. We soon found that there was 
no especial virtue in the green color, and that equally good results 
were given by pink cobalt carbonate. 

Apart from the interest which accrues from the fact that the 
photosynthesis is thus achieved in a way which shows a real analogy 
with the natural phenomenon, the method with a colored surface 
and visible light has the very material advantage in that the danger 
of photochemical decomposition by ultra-violet light is completely 
eliminated, with the result that the products are obtained in a purer 

From the above description of the direct photosynthesis of carbo- 
hydrates from carbonic acid in the laboratory several points arise 
which require discussion and explanation. In the first place it may 
be stated that the most rigid control experiments which we could 
devise have definitely established the fact that the carbohydrates 
are not due to the presence of impurities. 


One of the greatest difficulties met with in this work was the 
preparation of the various materials used for the surfaces, since it is 
absolutely essential that these be completely free from any trace of 
alkali. It is well known that when metallic hydroxides and carbon- 
ates are precipitated they tend to absorb the alkali, and the removal 
of this is extraordinarily troublesome. The absence of any alkaline 
reaction in the filtrate after the powder has been boiled with water 
is no criterion of purity, and the only satisfactory method is to pass 
carbon dioxide into a suspension of the powder in water for two 
hours in the dark, and the filtrate after concentration must yield no 
weighable quantity of alkaline carbonate. 

It was frequently found that the carbonates of nickel and cobalt, 
even when completely freed from alkali, were entirely ineffective in 
promoting photosynthesis. These can, however, be activated either 
by heating to 120° or by exposure in thin layers to ultra-violet light, 
and this fact afforded a very convincing method of carrying out 
controls. A quantity of one of these inactive powders gives no trace 
of carbohydrates when exposed to visible light in the manner de- 
scribed. The same sample of powder when activated and used in 
the same apparatus, with the same water, the same light, and carbon 
dioxide from the same source, gives a good yield of carbohydrates. 
So, once and for all, is all doubt removed as to the possible effect 
of impurities. 

For the benefit of those who may wish to repeat these experiments, 
it may be stated that more recently it has been found possible to 
prepare nickel carbonate by a new method which is free from the 
objections characteristic of its precipitation by means of alkali 
carbonate. A solution of carbonic acid in conductivity water is 
electrolyzed, the electrodes being made of nickel plates. The current 
is taken from a 220-volt circuit, and sufficient resistance is intercalated 
to reduce the current density to from 1 or 2 amperes per square 
decimeter. The electrolyte is cooled by glass coils through which a 
stream of water is maintained. With electrodes 190 square centi- 
meters in area it is possible to prepare 30 grams of pure carbonate in 
24 hours. The carbonate should be collected every day by filtration, 
and it is advisable to clean the electrodes with emery paper every 
third day. 

To sum up the results, so far as they have been described, it has 
been found possible in the laboratory to produce carbohydrates 
directly from carbonic acid by a process which is physically similar 
to that of the living plant. The essential difficulty in our under- 
standing of the natural photosynthesis has been solved, namely the 
use of visible light as the agent in a process which the elementary 
laws of photochemistry taught us to believe could only be achieved 


by means of ultra-violet light. As so often happens the explanation 
when found is very simple. The great amount of energy required to 
convert the carbonic acid into carbohydrates is supplied to it in two 
portions, one by the surface and the other by the visible light. 

Nothing has as yet been said of the actual carbohydrates which 
have been photosynthesized in the laboratory. Although as yet our 
information is still meager, there is no doubt that the photosynthetic 
sirup is a mixture containing glucose or fructose, or both. There 
are also present more complex carbohydrates, which can be resolved 
to the simple sugars by the action of dilute acid. The analogy with 
the products of natural photosynthesis is too close to be passed by 
without comment. 

Although it has not as yet been possible to carry out a complete 
analysis of this sirup, owing to the difficulty of preparing a sufficiently 
large amount, interesting information has been gained from the 
investigation of the sugar sirup obtained by the action of light upon 
formaldehyde solution. This has been pursued during the last three 
years. We owe a debt of gratitude to Sir James Irvine for the 
signal help he has given us in this work. He himself was the first, 
in association with Doctor Francis, to prove that glucose is one of the 
substances actually produced. By oxidation of the sugars to the 
acids by means of bromine, and the crystallization of the salts of 
these with brucine, cinchonine, and quinine, we have obtained 
d-gluconic and also d-erythronic acids. This not only confirms 
Irvine and Francis in their proof of glucose, but it also proves that 
fructose is formed just as in the living plant. In addition to that, 
there is produced a mixture of complex acids which afford convincing 
evidence of the synthesis of complex carbohydrates. 

Although it may be thought that the use of formaldehyde as the 
starting point takes away something from the interest, yet it must be 
remembered that it makes but little difference whether in actual fact 
we start from carbonic acid or formaldehyde. Without doubt the 
first substance, transiently formed in either case, is the same, namely, 
activated formaldehyde which polymerizes to the sugars. 

The similarity between the vital and the laboratory processes is 
not confined to the fact that the products from the two are the same. 
Botanists tell us that in the living plant the photosynthesis takes 
place on a surface, so also is a surface necessary in the laboratory. 
It has been found possible to compare the quantities of carbohydrates 
synthesized for equal areas exposed to light in the case of living 
leaves and the glass vessels of the laboratory. These quantities are 
about the same. Some plants produce more and other produce less 
than we are able to synthesize. This similarity may be emphasized, 
because surely Dame Nature in the living leaf has produced the best 
machine she could for her purpose of food production for her children 
of the vegetable kingdom. 


There is yet another striking feature which is common to the 
two, photosynthesis in vivo and in vitro. The light must not be too 
strong in either, for if it is too strong then harmful results at once 
supervene. This is due to the poisoning of the surface by the 
oxygen which is set free. In both cases this poisoning slowly rights 
itself, and in both the synthesis must not proceed at a greater rate 
than that of the recovery of the surface from its poisoning. 

In fine, so far as we have been able to carry the investigations, 
the processes in the living plant and in the laboratory show most 
striking resemblance, not only in the compounds which are formed, 
but in every feature which is characteristic of either of them. 

For my own part I would go further than this, because I believe 
that these experimental results help us to gain some understanding of 
the chemistry of life, the chemistry which is so different from that of 
man’s achievements with his test tube, flask, and beaker. Within the 

‘confines of vital chemistry reactions take place which are so far 
outside our own experimental experience that it came to be believed 
by many that they were under the control of a mysterious force, to 
which the name of vis vitalis was given. One of these processes has 
been touched upon to-night, the condensation of the simple sugars, 
glucose and fructose, to form cane sugar, starch, and inulin. No one 
has yet succeeded in effecting these syntheses in his laboratory, but 
it would seem that something of that nature takes place in our 
photosynthesis. Why then is it that even this step forward has 
been gained? 

The one lesson that we have gained from photosynthesis is that 
the definitive factor is the very large amount of energy which must 
be supplied to the carbonic acid before the synthesis of the simple 
sugars takes place. The means of supplying that energy do not 
concern the argument. The synthesis proceeds at an energy level 
which is far higher than is the case in the reactions of ordinary 
chemistry, and the sugars are formed at that high energy level. I 
myself believe that the condensation reactions to give the more 
complex carbohydrates are those which are characteristic of the 
simple sugars when they exist at the high energy level. The reason 
why no one has succeeded up till now in inducing these reactions 
to take place is because no one has hitherto been able to supply the 
large energy Increment necessary. 

I myself believe that we find in this the key which unlocks the 
door of vital chemistry, and that the chemistry of all life is one 
of high energy, our laboratory experience being confined to the 
chemistry of low energy. From this viewpoint I see a wondrous 
vista unfold itself, wherein new understanding, new hopes, and new 
possibilities reveal themselves. Health and vitality must essentially 
depend on the high energy level being maintained; any lowering of 



that level will lead to poor health and weak vitality. Knowledge 
comes to us of the means whereby the high level may be kept un- 
impaired. The most important sources from which we can absorb 
high energy are fresh food and ultra-violet light. From the one we 
learn the necessity of the rapid distribution of our food supply before 
its high energy is lost, from the other we gain a real understanding 
of the benefits of ultra-violet light therapy, and, more important still, 
of the dangers of its misuse. We gain an insight into the chemistry 
of vitamins, which in the light of our new knowledge reveal them- 
selves as stores of high energy, bottled sunshine so to speak, which 
yield their energy to restore and maintain the vitality of decadent 
tissues. A vision thus comes to us of a new chemistry with limits 
far flung beyond those which constrain our knowledge of to-day, a 
chemistry which will embrace and coordinate not only the properties 
of inanimate matter upon this earth, not only the wondrous mecha- 
nism of the life of man in health and in disease, but in addition the 
stupendous marvels of the birth and growth of the worlds outside 
our own. From those who would decry this as a mere speculation I 
beg forgiveness, and plead that speculation based on sure experi- 
mental fact is the life blood of true scientific research. 


By N. M. Buiau, A. R. C. Se.; A. I. C. 

The discovery of a new chemical element can hardly, with scien- 
tific knowledge at its present advanced stage, be regarded as a fun- 
damental or epoch-making achievement, nor indeed as one exerting 
a revolutionary influence on scientific thought as a whole. Never- 
theless, the fact that four new elements have been discovered within 
the last six years, and that they have been found to take their place 
in the accepted scheme of chemical classification patiently evolved 
with advancing knowledge, is a matter of considerable satisfaction 
and importance, and one liable to receive less than its due share of 
attention and recognition. It happens that occasionally an out- 
standing scientific discovery is made as the result of chance, as was 
to some extent the case with Réntgen radiations; or again, a perfectly 
obvious line of research may, in some inexplicable way, be entirely 
overlooked over a long period of years. The opportunity is at length 
recognized by some astute investigator who, following the line of 
reasoning to its logical conclusion, adds an important result or dis- 
covery to the annals of science. As an example of such may be men- 
tioned the isolation of argon and the rare gases of the atmosphere by 
Rayleigh and Ramsay, who happily developed the work of Caven- 
dish over a century previously. In the majority of cases, however, 
the achievements of science have been the result of carefully and 
logically following up a lengthy train of reasoning and research, in 
which due regard is paid to contemporary advances“and modifica- 
tions of thought, and to a skillful coordination of progressive theory 
and improved practical technique. In such a category may be placed 
the recent discoveries of new chemical elements, which it is pro- 
posed to consider shortly in the light of the foregoing remarks. 

A periodic classification of the known chemical elements had grad- 
ually been evolved, in which, however, there were numerous and fully 
recognized difficulties, not the least of which were certain anomalies 
and irregularities in the values of the atomic weights of the elements, 

1 Reprinted, with minor changes, by permission of the editor of Scientia, from Scientia, Internationa 
Review of Scientific Synthesis, vol. XLIII, No. CXII-4, Apr. 1, 1928. Publishers, G. E. Stechert and 
Co., New York. 



and the difficulty of satisfactorily accommodating the rare earth group 
of metals. Some 16 years ago the science of chemistry, primarily 
concerned as it is with the elements which form the basis of its studies 
was, in one important respect, somewhat in the dark, in spite of the 
periodic table, as regards a matter of primary importance, the total 
number of elements possible in the scheme of nature. As its name 
implies the classification was largely guided by the natural recur- 
rence of periodic chemical and physical properties of the elements. 
Full credit is due to Mendeleef for his remarkable prediction of the 
‘‘eka’”’? elements, though this depended on analogies suggested by _ 
the table, and lacked definite mathematical support such as was 
to be supplied by the discovery about to be reviewed. 

In 1913 a young English scientist, H. G. Moseley, developed a 
study of the X-ray spectra of the elements in the light of the nuclear 
theory of the atom advanced in 1911. According to this theory, 
which is now firmly established, the elements are regarded as consist- 
ing of a central positively charged nucleus around which rotate elec- 
trons or negative electrical particles, in definite orbits. The suc- 
cessive elements are built up by the addition of an increasing number 
of.orbital electrons accompanied by a more complex development of 
the nucleus. Starting from hydrogen as unity, having one orbital 
electron, the elements can be arranged in order of increasing number of 
orbital electrons, and to each successive element an ordinal number 
can be assigned. These numbers are termed atomic numbers, and 
Moseley found a simple numerical relation between these numbers 
and the frequency of the characteristic line in the X-ray spectrum of 
any particular element. This epoch-making discovery threw a flood 
of light on the problem of classifying the elements; atomic weights 
were now displaced from their position of importance by the still 
more fundamental atomic numbers, to which the former were found 
to be approximately proportional. He thus corrected those instances 
in the periodic table in which it was known that the properties of 
certain pairs of elements demanded that their positions should be 
interchanged, a course which could not be reconciled with their 
arrangement in order of increasing atomic weight. Laborious re- 
searches, e. g. in the case of iodine and tellurium, had in the past been 
conducted under the impression that the accepted atomic weights 
were inaccurate, and the application of Moseley’s discovery cleared 
away the difficulty. 

The attendant difficulty of fractional atomic weights was cleared 
up at about the same time by the work of Soddy and later Aston on 
isotopes, which were shown to be elements existing in two or more 
chemically inseparable forms having the same atomic number, but 
slightly different atomic weights, the varying proportions of these 
forms accounting for the fractional atomic weights as determined 


chemically. Moseley’s relation revealed gaps in the sequence of 
atomic numbers as determined by spectroscopic data, and these gaps 
indicated undiscovered elements, agreeing in every case with those 
predicted by the periodic table, but with the addition of a gap No. 61 
among the rare earths. Moreover the relation actually made it 
possible to calculate in advance the line frequency for the undis- 
covered elements, and thus provided a most definite means of testing 
the claim of any newly discovered substance to be regarded as a miss- 
ing element, and of identifying its nature and position. The definite 
utility of this principle will be noted in a subsequent section of this 
survey. At this time (1913-14) gaps in the table indicated missing 
elements as follows: 43 and 75, analogues of manganese; 61, a rare earth 
element; 85, a halogen; 87, an alkali metal, and an element 91. Mose- 
ley assumed that 72 was filled by celtium, which as will subsequently 
be seen was not the case. According to the work of Soddy, Hahn, and 
Meitner (1918), 91 is considered to be filled by a radioactive product, 
protoactinium, in the actinium series. Moseley’s principle served to 
settle the total number of possible elements with a finality which 
would never have been possible from a classification built only on 
analogies and chemical properties; the fact that the latter more 
indefinite method had overlooked only one element was therefore 
quite fortuitous. The rare earth group of metals, besides being 
difficult of separation, contained in itself no conclusive indication of 
the number of elements which it contained so that Moseley’s work 
settled, in this respect, a troublesome difficulty. It has tobe recorded 
with regret that Moseley met his death at Gallipoli in 1915 at the 
early age of 28 years. His name has, however, an assured place for 
all time among the pioneers of scientific progress. 

further stage in the advance of chemical theory has now been 
surveyed; the disputed difficulties of the periodic scheme have been 
adjusted in keeping with general developments; an advance has been 
made, but the work of past decades has not been pulled down to be 
reconstructed on other lines, rather have the discordant features of 
this work been gently adjusted to the scheme of nature now more 
clearly revealed. The next stage shows a further striking develop- 
ment in this direction, and is supplied by Bohr’s application of the 
quantum theory to atomic structure. As yet there was no indication 
as to whether elements of higher atomic number than uranium (92) 
might possibly exist, nor was there any developed and supported 
scheme for the arrangement of electrons in their orbits, nor any 
fundamental explanation of the well defined periodic groups of 
elements, or of the existence of the rare earth group. Bohr defined 
according to quantum principles the orbits in which electrons should 
be free to move, and evolved a scheme of electron grouping in accord- 
ance with the recurrence of periodic properties, in which the rare 


earths found a natural and essential place. It was moreover shown 
that for no a priori reason could uranium be regarded as the final 
element of the table, but that a continuation of the scheme of electron 
grouping allowed a theoretical conclusion with an element of atomic 
number 118. The whole work was supported by, and coordinated 
with the extensive and weighty evidence of spectroscopic research. 
The application of Bohr’s quantum orbit development scheme made 
it clear that the element of atomic number 72 could not be a rare 
earth metal celtium as was originally supposed, but must be an 
undiscovered higher analogue of zirconium and titanium, likely to 
exist in ores of these metals, while on the chemical side this was sup-. 
ported by the fact that discordant values of the atomic weight of 
titanium pointed to the presence of minute traces of an undiscovered 
analogue. This view was soon brilliantly and completely confirmed 
by the discovery of hafnium by Coster and Hevesy in zirconium 
minerals in 1923. The lines in the X-ray spectrum of the new element 
were found to be well defined; the amount of metal present was quite 
appreciable and easily separated from the rare earths, all in agreement 
with theoretical considerations. 

Special interest has always been attached to the fact that the 
periodic table had indicated an undiscovered halogen and an alkali 
metal. Moseley’s scheme confirmed gaps for atomic numbers 85 and 
87 corresponding respectively to these elements, and it was somewhat 
surprising that elements of two such well-defined and distinctive 
groups should have so long eluded discovery. Among elements of 
this region, however, a further factor demanded attention, that of radio- 
activity. Under what conditions might these two elements be reason- 
ably expected to exist? According to their place in the table and also 
from their atomic numbers, they occupied alternate positions among 
the most characteristically radioactive elements. Moreover potassium 
and rubidium had long been known to exhibit a faint radioactivity, 
although extensive work on them had failed to reveal the presence of 
any higher analogues to explain this phenomenon. Suggestions were 
forthcoming in connection therewith; Loring proposed the view that 
elements of low atomic number may be regarded as having absorbed 
corpuscular radiation, and an intermediate stage in which an element 
absorbs radiation and emits it radioactively suggests itself to account 
for the observed radioactivity of potassium and rubidium, without the 
apparent accumulation of any radioactive product. On the other 
hand, Hahn discussed the possibility of 85 and 87 occurring in the 
subsidiary disintegration series of one of the radioactive elements; 
but little evidence can be advanced in support of such a view. He 
and also Hevesy independently tried to detect 87 by a study of the 
disintegration of mesothorium-2, but in neither case was any con- 
clusive result obtained. 


Although superfically it might appear curious that a discovery of 
note should be made independently and simultaneously, as occasionally 
happens, by two or more investigators, actually this is by no means 
remarkable since coordinated practical and theoretical progress is 
likely to suggest a line of investigation to more than one experimenter, 
each of whom would refrain from publishing a report of his work until 
he had amply confirmed it and satisfied himself as to its success. 
This is well illustrated by subsequent developments in the present 
sphere of thought, for a marked impetus had been given by Moseley’s 
law to the problem of isolating the remaining elements; the energy of 
experimenters had been conserved and directed into channels offering 
reasonable prospect of success; no longer was the search to be pursued 
under the guidance of only meager principles, effort was not to be 
dissipated in the attempted isolation of elements which could have no 
existence. From such considerations is the greatness of Moseley’s 
work realized. 

Further gaps in the atomic number sequence of known elements 
indicated two undiscovered analogues of manganese, numbers 43 and 
75. Obviously these should be sought in manganese minerals and 
could be expected to be present only in extremely minute quantities. 
At least three groups of investigators are known from published results 
to have been engaged in this search. The discovery of the two 
elements was first announced in 1925 by three German chemists, 
Noddack, Tacke, and Berg as a result of what appeared to be a parti- 
_cularly well-organized piece of research, using platinum ores and the 
mineral columbite as starting materials. A curious reticence has, 
however, been observed by these same authors in supporting their 
results, and in replying to certain criticisms which have been made. 
Special attention is therefore due to the work of Druce and Loring in 
England, and DolejSek and Heyrovsky at Prague. The two English 
workers were engaged in searching for possible elements of higher 
atomic number than 92, by an examination of the impurities in pure and 
commercial manganese products, and their X-ray spectrum photo- 
graphs amply demonstrate and confirm the presence of 75. The 
method employed consisted in the chemical removal of contaminating 
heavy metals, and the subjection of the purified product to X-ray 
analysis. The lines obtained and supported by previous calculation 
gave definite indication of 75 (dwi-manganese) and in addition there 
were less definite or less well-defined lines, pointing to 87 (eka-cesium) 
the missing alkali metal, and to 85 (eka-iodine) the missing halogen; 
very faint but inconclusive indication of 93 was also obtained. The 
fact that the new element was detected even in ‘‘pure’”’ manganese 
sulphate, and had until then escaped observation in so common a 
material points to the extreme sensitivity of the X-ray analysis method 
employed, and to a high technique in measuring and interpreting the 


spectral lines. Owing to the ease with which the lines are masked by 
those of contaminating elements, a careful preliminary separation of 
these elements was necessary, and for the same reason it was found 
more satisfactory to use ‘‘pure’’ manganese salts than the mineral 
pyrolusite, even though the former contained a far smaller percentage 
of the elements sought than the latter commercial ore. This consider- 
ation has been quoted to throw some doubt on the spectroscopic 
evidence of the German workers, whose preliminary separation 
does not appear to have been sufficiently complete. 

Successful support and confirmation of the work of Druce and 
Loring, as well as further illustration of the use of perfected experi- 
mental method, is afforded by the work of the two Czech scientists, 
who had invented an improved type of electrolysis apparatus termed 
“the dropping-mercury cathode,” for which several important advan- 
tages are claimed over the normal type of apparatus. It has a more 
extensive range of utility, permits work to a much greater degree of 
precision, and used in conjunction with a device termed “a polaro- 
graph,” photographs a permanent automatic record in the form of 
potential curves, of the electrolytic reaction. A study of the curves 
gives definite indication of the deposition of minute traces of a particu- 
lar product. By the use of this apparatus, DolejSek and Heyrovsky 
obtained indications of elements 43 and 75. The latter was confirmed 
by subsequent X-ray analysis, although evidence of 43 was inconclusive. 
The materials used and the results obtained agree completely with the 
work of Druce and Loring and afford valuable independent confir- . 
mation and support. 

The latest element whose discovery was announced in 1926 was 
the previously discussed rare-earth metal 61. This has been detected 
by Harris, Yntema, and Hopkins in America. 

The discovery is of special interest as the group of rare-earth ele- 
ments lying between lanthanum (57) and lutecium (71) is now known 
to be complete. The group finds a natural place in Bohr’s generalized 
table of elements, and is beautifully explained in his quantum orbit 
development scheme. As long ago as 1902 Brauner suggested the 
probability of a missing element between samarium and neodymium 
as the difference in atomic weight between these two elements is greater 
than that between their neighbors. He showed also that a study of 
the periodicity of the hydrides indicated a missing element, according 
to the scheme CsH. Ba H,. La H3;. CH,. Pr H;. Nd H». (XH). 

The main difficulty encountered in this group has been the selec- 
tion of a satisfactory and efficient means of separation, and the method 
employed was repeated fractional crystallizations of the double mag- 
nesium bromate instead of the usual procedure by means of the double 
magnesium nitrate. The element was confirmed by its absorption 
spectrum band, which would be masked unless the preliminary separa- 


tion had been efficient, hence the importance of selecting a double 
salt whose solubility should differ appreciably from that of the corre- 
sponding salt of associated members of the group. A further confirm- 
ation was supplied by the line frequencies obtained from the X-ray 
spectrum of the product. Since this work has been published an 
announcement has been made that two Italian scientists have been 
engaged since 1922 on the problem of detecting and isolating 61 in 
rare earth minerals, using repeated fractional crystallizations as a 
means of separation. A thorough examination of the absorption and 
emission spectrum of the product obtained was in progress when the 
report of the American chemists appeared. The latter have proposed 
illinium as the name of the new element. As yet, of course, very little 
experimental information is available as to the properties of the newly 
discovered elements. An extensive field of work remains to be covered 
in devising simpler and improved methods of isolation followed by a 
detailed study of chemical and physical properties, and possible prac- 
tical uses and applications. Many of the rarest and most sparsely 
distributed elements have been found to possess peculiar properties 
suiting them to special applications. This may similarly be the case 
with the new substances giving them an importance distinct from 
their academic interest. 

As the whole problem stands at present, the definite indication and 
discovery of 85 and 87, as well as any of atomic number higher than 
92 has still to be accomplished. There can be little doubt that further 
applications and refinements of the lines of research which have been 
reviewed above will at an early date bring this important and interest- 
ing line of work to a conclusion. 


sy , Ma dee ty 


By H. Stanuey Reperove, B.S8c., A. I. C. 

The science of chemistry has invaded almost every department 
of daily life, without the man in the street being at all cognizant 
of the debt he owes to it. Nor is it realized how many common 
domestic operations, like cooking a dinner, for example, really 
consist in causing a number of more or less complicated chemical 
reactions to take place in the materials employed. By the man 
in the street and the housewife in the kitchen, ‘‘chemicals’’ are 
thought to be substances of a nature quite distinct from the things 
they daily handle and to be chiefly characterized by the possession 
of a ‘‘nasty smell.” 

There is, indeed, an important difference between the ‘‘substances”’ 
of the chemist and the raw products of nature, whether of animal, 
vegetable or mineral origin; and it is very germane to the present 
study to ask, Wherein does this difference lie? ‘The answer is that 
chemical substances are ‘‘pure.’’ It is true that when we seek to 
define what is meant by “purity” certain philosophical difficulties 
crop up, as Ostwald pointed out many years ago, and a long dis- 
cussion could be entered into on the question, for example, whether 
solutions are chemical compounds or merely mixtures. For prac- 
tical purposes, however, ‘‘purity’”’ is well understood to denote 
obedience to the stoichiometric laws. A pure substance, moreover, 
possesses certain peculiar physical properties, such as a constant 
boiling point. 

No doubt very few chemical substances ordinarily sold as pure 
are realy pure, it being, indeed, extraordinarily difficult to obtain 
an absclutely pure substance. But chemistry—shall I say?—strives 
after purity and attains very nearly to it. 

On the other-hand, nature’s products are never pure; they are 
invariably mixtures, and usually very complex ones, taxing the skill 
of the analytical chemist to unravel the riddle of their composition. 

The application of the term “impure” to the products of nature, 
it will be understood, carries with it no implication of inferiority, 

1 Reprinted by permission from Science Progress, July, 1929. 



which the man in the street, borrowing from the use of the word 
in the moral sphere, attaches to it when it is applied in the domain 
of material things. As a matter of fact, the ‘‘impurities’”’ present 
in natural products often enhance their value judged from human 
standpoints. Thus, from a purely chemical point of view, the trace 
of cholesterol in cod-liver oil is an impurity, the trace of ergosterol 
an impurity in the cholesterol, and the trace of vitamin D an impurity 
in the ergosterol. It is just this last impurity, however, which makes 
cod-liver oil so valuable a preventive of rickets. 

I take another illustration more cognate to the subject of synthetic 
perfumes. The natural perfume material of jasmine has been 
pretty completely analyzed. It consists mainly of benzyl acetate, 
a substance easily synthesized from toluene. Now, benzyl acetate 
has a pleasant odor, reminding one very strongly of that of jasmine 
flowers; but it is certainly very inferior to this. The natural jasmine 
odor owes its perfection to the presence of other odorous bodies in 
association with the benzyl acetate, of which the most important 
are benzyl alcohol, linalol, linalyl acetate, methyl anthranilate, indole, 
and a ketonic body called ‘‘jasmone.’’ 

In the cases of many pleasantly odorous plants, the main constit- 
uent of the natural otto is known, as well as the chemical composition 
of the main ‘‘impurities,”’ or, if the word seems a misnomer, let us 
say “subsidiary substances.’’ Nowadays, it is usually a short step 
from the discovery of the chemical composition of a substance to 
its synthetic production, and, in many cases, these substances have 
been synthetically prepared. One can say, practically as a general 
rule, that the odor of the main substance gives a crude representation 
of the natural perfume of a flower. This odor is much improved by 
the addition of suitable proportions of the subsidiary substances. 
It still, however, almost invariably falls short of perfection; the 
reason being that there are further “impurities” present in most 
minute traces in the natural otto, which chemical analysis has failed 
to identify, but whose odors play their part in producing the a ea 
of the flower. 

Two important points emerge; first, the fact that eile ole 
small amounts of certain substances are capable of exciting the 
sense of smell, and may by their presence or otherwise modify the 
odor of a perfume; and, secondly, the fact that substances| whose 
odors are unpleasant in a pure state may develop a pleasant fragrance 
in a state of extreme dilution and play an essential part in imptoving, 
from an esthetic point of view, the fragrance of a perfume. Indole, 
present in the natural otto of the jasmine, is a casein point. Skatole, 
whose odor is one of the most unpleasant conceivable, affords an 
even more striking instance, since, used in tiny traces, this substance 
is distinctly valuable in compounding certain perfumes. 



Synthetic perfumes have been criticized as having “coarse” 
odors. It will be appreciated that this coarseness may arise, not 
because of any positive property of the preparation, but because it 
lacks some of the essential ‘‘impurities.”” This explains why the 
growth of the synthetic perfume industry has not killed the natural 
perfume industry. Indeed, the effect has been quite the opposite, and 
the two industries are closely linked together. Chemical research 
has enabled many of the substances which are responsible for the sweet 
odors of flowers to be produced at a relatively low cost by synthetic 
means. Perfect perfumes, however, can not be made with synthetic 
materials alone; to produce quite satisfactory results a proportion of 
the necessary ‘impurities’? must be introduced by mixing with the 
artificial product a small amount of the natural one. The consequent 
cheapening in the cost of perfumes has resulted in a big increase in the 
demand for them to the benefit of both sides of the perfume industry. 

Some analogies can be drawn between the aniline dye industry and 
that of synthetic perfumes. We must not, however, fall into the 
error of the man in the street, who seems to imagine that every 
chemical product comes from coal-tar. Certainly many synthetic 
perfume materials do, though some of the most important are made 
from raw products of a quite different nature. 

In this connection the question arises, Where is the line to be drawn 
between a natural product and an artificial one? Essential oils 
obtained from plants by steam distillation are classed as natural 
products; but 1t would be rash to assume that no chemical changes 
whateve take place as a result of this operation. In the case, for 
example, of bitter almonds, it is well known that the essential oil is 
presentin the kernels of the nuts, not as such, but in the form of a 
glucosice, amygdalin, which has first to be decomposed, the agent for 
effectiny this decomposition, emulsin, being also provided by the 

It seems reasonable, however, to class the products of such opera- 
tions 1s steam distillation, and extraction with fats (enfleurage) or 
with 1eutral solvents like petroleum ether, as essentially “natural 
produ:ts,” those obtained by the two latter processes having indeed 
specia claims to be so considered, as their odors exactly represent 
those >f the flowers from which they are derived. 

By means of fractional distillation and, in some cases, by taking 
advaitage of the property possessed by aldehydes of forming crystal- 
line ompounds with sodium bi-sulphite, certain of the constituents of 
essenial oils can be isolated in a state of purity. Such products, 
usualy called ‘‘natural isolates,” are, of course, in no sense ‘‘syn- 
theti’’; but they may very well be classed with the substances of 
syntletic origin inasmuch as they are ‘‘pure.”” The oils distilled from 
certan species of grasses belonging to the genus Cymbopogon are 


especially useful owing to their cheapness. Thus, from lemon-grass 
oil, distilled from C. citratus and especially C. fleruosus, the important 
alcohol, citral, is isolated. Palmarosa oil, distilled from C. martini, 
constitutes the main source for the isolation of the alcohol, geraniol, 
one of the constituents of otto of roses. Citronella oil, distilled from 
CO. nardus, provides a further source of this alcohol. The aldehyde, 
citronellal, is also isolated from this oil. Another very important 
natural isolate is the phenol-ether, eugenol, obtained from oil of cloves. 
In some instances these ‘‘natural isolates’’ provide starting points for 
the synthetic production of other important odorous substances, of 
which examples will be mentioned later. 

So far I have written as though the one object of synthetic chemistry, 
as applied to perfumery, was the production by artificial means of the 
various constituents of floral ottos, in order that by mixing these 
together a chemically-exact replica of each and every|otto might 
thereby be obtained. This is certainly one objective; but it by no 
means exhausts the field of research and practical achievement. 
In some instances, such as that of otto of roses, chemistry has admi- 
rably succeeded in its task, though, even so, the synthetic »tto suffers 
from the imperfection common to all such preparations, and, for the 
production of a scent which is unmistakably that of the rote, a small 
proportion of natural material must be added, preferably thatiobtained 
by enfleurage, or by the extraction of roses with petroleum ejher. 

Speaking generally, however, it may be said, in referenc? to this 
task, that chemistry, while so far not always successful in solving the 
problem, has done more than this. In some instances, natiral per- 
fume materials have up to date eluded analysis, and ther exact 
chemical composition remains unknown. This is the case wth am- 
bergris, an important perfume of animal origin; or, to take an itstance 
of a plant perfume, the exact constitution of the camphojaceous 
alcohol which is the main constituent of oil of patchouli still eRe 
mysterious. \ 

These are only two instances out of many, and much rejearch 
remains to be done before it will be possible to say that the pefume 
of plants has yielded up its last secret. In some cases, however, in 
which it has not yet been possible to prepare synthetically a subitance 
identical with the natural product, research has ultimated » the 
discovery of substances resembling this product in odor with asuffi- 
cient degree of exactitude to take its place, to a greater or esser 
extent, in the art of perfumery. | 

An important example is provided by musk, the exact chenical 
composition of which is doubtful, though the main odorous prin- 
ciple would appear to be a methyl-cyclo-penta-decanone. Sereral 
synthetic ‘‘musks’’ have been prepared, exhaling the deligntful 

fragrance of this exquisite perfume, which can be obtained far hore 





cheaply than genuine musk and which have, to a considerable extent, 
replaced it save in the most costly perfumes. These artificial musks 
consist of nitro-aromatic compounds and bear no chemical relation- 
ship to natural musk whatever. The best is probably that known 
as ‘‘Musk Ambrette,” which is a nitrated butyl-meta-cresol-methy]- 
ether. Other imitation musks are provided by ‘‘Musk Ketone” 
(di-nitro-butyl-meta-xylyl-methyl-ketone) and ‘‘Musk Xylene’’ (tri- 
nitro-butyl-meta-xylene). The first artificial musk of commercial 
importance, it is interesting to note, was discovered accidentally 
by Baur so far back as 1888. 

Moreover, in addition to producing imitations of some natural 
perfume materials and chemically exact replicas of others, chemistry 
has enriched the art of perfumery, with a whole multitude of odorous 
substances by means of which not only can the odor of flowers be 
imitated whose natural ottos it has not been found practicable to 
extract, but innumerable new nuances of fragrance can be produced. 

It would be easy to fill pages with a bare catalogue of the chemical 
products whose odors render them of value in the making of scent. 
Many of shese are very complex bodies, difficult to prepare and 
consequenily of a costly nature, which are only employed in minute 
quantities for producing certain particular bouquets and “‘parfums 
de fantaise.”’ It will be more interesting to restrict our attention 
to some of the commoner synthetic products which are of everyday 
use in tle confection of perfumes. 

One ¢ the first synthetic products to be used in perfumery was 
nitro-bazene, or ‘‘oil of mirbane.’’ In the chapter devoted to 
‘‘Matesals used in Perfumery,” in his The Book of Perfumes, pub- 
lished i 1867, Rimmel wrote: ‘‘The artificial series comprises all the 
various flavors produced by chemical combinations. Of these the 
most «tensively used in perfumery is the nitro-benzene, usually 
called mirbane, or artificial essence of almonds. * * * Artificial 
essences of lemon and cinnamon have also been produced, but have not 
been Irought to sufficient perfection to be available for practical use.’’ 

Ii vas not a very auspicious beginning; for, not only is the odor 
of ucro-benzene very crude, but the substance is poisonous, and 
doe not occur in the essential oil of bitter almonds. However, it 
wanot long before real synthetic oil of bitter almonds, benzaldehyde, 
male its appearance, and nowadays the use of this substance, which 
is xtensively synthesized from toluene, either by direct oxidation 
ory chlorination followed by treatment with caustic soda, has very 
lazely replaced the use of the natural oil both for perfumery purposes 
ail for flavoring confectionery, etc., nitro-benzene being only em- 
piyed to-day for scenting the cheapest and most inferior brands of 


Benzyl acetate has already been mentioned as the main consti- 
tuent of the natural otto of jasmine. This is merely one of an enorm- 
ous number of synthetically prepared esters which are valnable in 
perfumery, compounds belonging to this type often having agreeable 
odors. Certain of the esters of salicylic acid and cinnamic acid are 
particularly useful. Methyl salicylate is well known under the name 
of ‘oil of wintergreen.”” Amy! salicylate has a very pleasant odor, 
resembling that of certain species of orchids. It is extensively em- 
ployed in making artificial orchid and clover perfumes. Some of the 
esters of cinnamic acid are well adapted for perfuming face powders. 

The flavor of vanilla is one universally liked. The odor of the 
natural product, the dried and cured fruits of Vanilla planifolia and 
allied species of orchids, is almost entirely due to the aldehyde, vanil- 
lin, the synthetic production of which is one of the great triumphs 
of synthetic perfume chemistry. Nowadays, the use of synthetic 
vanillin has largely replaced that of natural vanilla bothias a flavor- 
ing agent and, especially, in perfumery. The substance js made by 
several processes, in England from oil of cloves, on the Continent 
from guaiacol. Added to a perfume, vanillin gives a quality of 
sweetness and softness. Moreover, it possesses good fixative powers, 
serving to retard the evaporation of more volatile ingredieits. 

The synthesis from clove oil is of particular interest. The essential 
oil of cloves consists very largely of eugenol, which substance, as 
already mentioned, can be easily isolated from it. On tnatment 
with caustic potash, eugenol undergoes an isomeric change, yielding 
iso-eugenol, itself a valuable perfume material, which foms the 
basis of most artificial carnation scents. On careful oxidation, 
iso-eugenol passes into vanillin. | 

Safrol, obtained as a by-product in the separation of camphor 
from camphor oil, undergoes similar reactions, being convered by 
treatment with caustic potash into the isomeric iso-safrol, vhich, 
when cautiously oxidized, yields the aldehyde, piperonal. Ths sub- 
stance, better known as ‘‘heliotropine,”’ exhales a delicious olor of 
heliotrope, in the flowers of which plant it probably occurs ascpm- 
panied by vanillin and other substances of an odorous charter. 
It is much employed in perfumery, being especially useful on accant 
of its low price. | 

Another very inexpensive and agreeable artificial perfume mateial 
is terpineol, which is manufactured from turpentine. This terpne 
alcohol has an odor resembling that of the lilac, and, being very reis- 
tant to the action of alkalies, is particularly adapted for scenting sos 
and hair washes, for which purpose it is extensively employed. 

A newer synthetic product, which enables a more exact imitation f 
the rather sharp odor of lilac blossoms to be obtained, is phenyl-pr- 
pionic aldehyde. 


The odor of new-mown hay is very attractive and characteristic. 
Synthetic chemistry enables scents exhaling this fragrance to be easily 
prepared. The odor of new-mown hay is almost entirely due to cou- 
marin, which occurs in Anthoxanthum odoratum (sweet vernal grass) 
and other plants. Itis also the chief odorous principle of tonka beans, 
an extract of which was the chief material at one time used for making 
perfumes having odors of the new-mown hay type. Nowadays cou- 
marin is prepared synthetically on a large scale, not only for the pur- 
pose of making these perfumes, but also for use with many other 
types of perfume materials as a fixative. It is often mixed with van- 
illin for the various purposes for which the latter substance is employed. 

The synthesis of coumarin from phenol is particularly interesting. 
The phenol can first be converted into saliclic aldehyde, which yields 
coumarin by the action of acetic anhydride and sodium acetate. Sali- 
cylic aldehyde, itself, has some applications in perfumery. Its odor 
resembles that of meadow sweet, in which plant it actually occurs. 

In Persia, and elsewhere in the East, the odor of the rose is held in 
the highest esteem, and many readers may be inclined to agree with 
those easterns who consider otto of roses to afford the finest of all per- 
fumes. Nevertheless, as was recognized years ago, the odor of the 
otto, obtained by steam distillation, falls short of that of the flower 
itself. For long the reason for this remained a mystery. But modern 
chemistry solved the riddle and supplied the means of remedying the 
defect. The cause is due to the fact that one of the constituents of the 
natural otto, phenyl ethyl alcohol, is rather soluble in water and is, 
therefore, washed out of the oil in the process of manufacture, being 
obtained almost entirely in the rose water. Phenyl ethyl alcohol is 
now made synthetically by the reduction of esters of phenyl acetic 
acid; and by its aid very good synthetic rose ottos can be made. 
Other essential ingredients include the alcohols, geraniol and citronellol. 
The first, as already mentioned, is isolated from the cheap oils of citro- 
nella and palmarosa; the second is made by the reduction of citronellal 
isolated from the first of these two oils. 

Another product obtained from citronella also calls for mention on 
account of its importance. This is hydroxy-citronellal, a substance 
which provides a good example of those synthetic products which 
enable the fragrances of flowers to be very exactly imitated, the extrac- 
tion of whose natural ottos has not been found practicable. Hydroxy- 
citronellal is obtained by the hydration of citronellal, and is used for 
making scents exhaling odors resembling those of lily-of-the-valley 
(muguet), cyclamen, lilac, and lime-tree blossoms. 

There are those who would give pride of place to the sweet violet 
amongst flowers of pleasant odor. Certainly scents exhaling the fra- 
grance of this lovely little flower, which was so highly esteemed by the 
ancient Greeks, are exceedingly popular to-day, and can be quite 



cheaply obtained, thanks to synthetic chemistry. Except in the case 
of the most expensive, they contain no perfume material obtained 
from the violet itself, except, perhaps, a small proportion of the extract 
of violet leaves, added to give freshness to the odor. 

Prior to the discovery of ‘‘synthetic violet,” the preparation of sat- 
isfactory violet perfumes was a very difficult proposition, owing to the 
fact that the flowers contain only microscopic amounts of perfume 
material. The odor of the violet is a rare one in nature, orris-root and 
cassie (Acacia farnesiana) being about the only available natural 
sources from which a tolerable substitute for the violet can be ob- 

An investigation by Tiemann and Kriiger of the constitution of the 
oil of orris-root revealed the fact that its odor is almost entirely due to 
a ketone, which was christened “‘irone.’”’ These chemists prepared an 
isomer of this substance by condensing citral with acetone. By heat- 
ing this substance with dilute sulphuric acid in the presence of a little 
glycerol, it was hoped that an isomeric change would take place result- 
ing in the formation of irone. An isomeric change did take place; but 
the product was not irone, since synthesized by a different process. It 
was a substance, to be named “‘ionone,”’ with an intense odor of violets, 
much nearer to that of the flower than the anticipated irone. © 

Nowadays, ionone is the basic material of all violet perfumes, and is 
one of the most important synthetic products in the art of perfumery. 
Actually it is not a chemical individual, but a mixture of two isomers. 
These can be separated. ‘Their odors are not identical, and each has 
its several uses in the manufacture of various types of violet scents. 

Another very important synthetic product employed in the confec- 
tion of these and other perfumes is methyl heptine carbonate, which, 
used in minute quantities, gives that note of “‘freshness”’ so character- 
istic of the fragrance of sweet violets. 

The list of synthetic materials used in perfumery could be extended 
indefinitely. But enough has been said to indicate how important a 
branch of chemistry the preparation of synthetic perfumes is. The 
average Hnglishman, perhaps, is apt to think of perfumery as a rather 
frivolous subject. Actually, not only great technical skill and artistic 
sensibility are required for the confection of a fine perfume, but often 
years of scientific research have gone to the making of it. Every year 
brings forth new discoveries, more and more new substances, syntheti- 
cally prepared, being added to the number of materials available for 
use by the perfume artist. As the mass of material accumulates, it 
may be hoped that we approach nearer to the solution of the problem 
of the relation between odor and chemical constitution, and to that 
of the even more inscrutable puzzle of why certain classes of odors are 
pleasant, others unpleasant, to the olfactory nerves of human beings. 


a By Reainautp A. Daty 

Reality is never skin-deep. The true nature of the earth and its 
full wealth of hidden treasures can not be argued from the visible 
rocks, the rocks upon which we live and out of which we make our 
living. The face of the earth, with its upstanding continents and 
depressed ocean deeps, its vast ornament of plateau and mountain 
chain, is molded by structure and process in hidden depths. 

During the nineteenth century the geologists, a mere handful among 
the world’s workers, studied the rocks at the surface, the accessible 
skin of the globe. They established many principal points in our 
planet’s history. While with the astronomers space was deepening, 
a million years became for the rock men the unit of time with which 
to outline earth’s dramatic story. Thus, incidentally, the way was 
opened for the doctrine of organic evolution, demanding hundreds of 
millions of years, to become secured science rather than mere specula- 
tion. The first, main jobs of the geologist were to map the exposures 
of the rocks at the surface of the earth’s skin or “‘crust,”’ to distinguish 
the kinds and relative ages of the rocks, and, in general, to gather 
the many facts that must be accounted for in the final explanation 
of continent, ocean, plateau, and mountain range. Yet the century 
closed without having revealed definite origins for these and for 
many smaller details of the earth’s surface and ‘‘crust.’’ With in- 
creasing clearness geologists became convinced, however, that the 
main secret of highland and lowland, dry land and deep ocean, 
Himalaya and Mediterranean, barren rock and ore-bearing rock, 
must be sought in the invisible, the deep underground of the earth. 

The nineteenth century bequeathed to the twentieth an outstand- 
ing responsibility—to invent and use new methods of exploring the 
earth’s body far beyond the reach of direct penetration by the geol- 
ogist’s eye or by mine and bore hole. What is the nature of the 
materials below the visible rocks? How are those materials arranged? 
What energies are stored in the globe, ready to do geological work 
when the occasion comes? Where is the earth’s body strong, truly 

1 Reprinted by permission from the Harvard Alumni Bulletin, Oct. 18, 1928, pai 


solid, able to bear loads indefinitely? Where is it weak, so weak as 
to permit movements of the material horizontally and vertically, 
under the urge of moderate internal pressures? 

These questions represent fundamentals of the new earth-lore, 
already rapidly growing in our own century as investigators continue 
to employ new methods of research. The problems are largely mat- 
ters for the physicist, but an unusual kind of physicist, one who makes 
experiments, like any of his fellows, but keeps thinking of a whole 
planet. He is an earth physicist, a ‘‘geophysicist.’”’ The interpre- 
tation of messages from the earth’s interior demands all the resources 
of ordinary physics and of extraordinary mathematics. The geo- 
physicist is of a noble company, all of whom are reading messages 
from the untouchable reality of things. The inwardness of things— 
atoms, crystals, mountains, planets, stars, nebulas, universes—is the 
quarry of these hunters of genius and Promethean boldness. The 
unseen atom has been shown to be no less miraculous than the invisible 
interior of sun or star. And now, lately, the inner earth as a whole is 
the gripping subject of research for some of the intellectual giants of 
our time. To a considerable extent the methods used by all these 
students of the invisible, the essence of each problem, are in principle 
the same. 

The feature common to most of the productive methods is the use 
of waves, vibrations, rhythmic motions. From the interior of star 
or nebula come light waves, heat waves, and whole troops of different 
unfelt waves. Each of these waves, whatever its nature, radiates 
through the “ether.” With the speed of light, each rushes along 
lines that are always perpendicular to the front of the wave. These 
lines are the wave paths or “rays” of the astrophysicist. In the 
exploration of the universe of stars, he uses light rays, actinic rays, 
heat rays, and cosmic rays of less familiar kinds. The exquisite 
internal architecture of crystals is being rapidly revealed with X rays. 
The atom is becoming understood through its radiant effects and 
through experimental tests with external rays. 

So it is with the new study of the earth; its profounder exploration 
is possible by means of waves, which may be of either natural or arti- 
ficial origin. Waves extremely short, as measured from “crest” to 
“‘erest,”’ are the X rays, used in learning the atomic architecture of 
crystals. The somewhat longer waves of light tell us about the nature 
of stars. The still longer sound waves are now used to give the depths 
of the invisible ocean floor. ‘‘Radio”’ waves, yet longer, are telling 
the aerologists much about the nature of the inaccessible, upper 
atmosphere. For the study of the earth’s skin, to the depth of a 
score of miles or so, the controlled shocks by artificial explosives, 
which give elastic waves longer than even “radio” waves, are used. 
Longest of all are the elastic waves set going when the hammer of 


the deadly earthquake strikes. Man is learning to harness for his 
inquiring use the very wrath of the earth; the tremblings of our 
vibrant globe are used to “‘X-ray”’ the deep interior. 

When with his hands one bends a stick until it breaks, the sudden 
snap sends vibrations, often painful, along muscle, bone, and nerve of 
the arms. The “strain” of the stick is relieved by fracture, and the 
elastic energy accumulated in the stick during the bending is largely 
converted into the energy of wave motion. In a somewhat similar 
way the rocks of the earth’s crust have been, and now are being, 
strained; every day, somewhere, they are snapping and sending out 
elastic waves from one or more centers. The passage of these waves 
in the earth we call an earthquake, a seismic disturbance. 

Each heavy shock creates waves of several kinds. The kind which 
travels fastest is like a sound wave; it is propagated by the alternation 
of compression and rarefaction in the rocks. The particles of the 
rocks here vibrate to and fro, in the direction of wave motion, that 
is, along the wave path or wave “ray.’’ Waves of this type, techni- 
cally called longitudinal waves, can pass from rock into the fluid of 
ocean, lake, or atmosphere, and if the vibrations are frequent and 
energetic enough, are heard with the unaided ear. Somewhat slower 
is a second kind of wave which follows nearly the same path in the 
rocks, but is distinguished by the fact that now the rock particles 
vibrate at right angles to the direction of propagation. Waves of the 
second type, called transverse waves, are analogous to waves of 
light. Unlike the latter, however, the transverse seismic waves are 
propagated in solids only and can not pass through a liquid or gas. 

These two kinds of waves, longitudinal and transverse, each radiat- 
ing from the center of shock, correspond after a fashion to the X rays 
used by the surgeon for exploring the deep inside of the human body. 
Similarly, the deep inside of the earth is being explored with the two 
kinds of seismic (earthquake) waves, waves whose diverging paths, or 
“rays, plunge right down into the vast interior of the globe and 
emerge, with their messages, thousands of miles from the center of 
shock. The longitudinal waves emerge even at the antipodes. 

A major earthquake has enormous energy. At and near the center 
of shock it shatters the works of man and may rupture the very hills 
and mountain sides. As each wave front spreads into the earth, the 
intensity of the vibration falls very rapidly, so that not many hun- 
dreds of miles from the center the heaviest shock can not be felt by a 
human being. Much less can he, at the ‘‘other side” of the globe, 
feel the impact of a wave which has plunged to a depth of a thousand 
miles or more and emerges under his feet. 

In order to watch and time accurately each wave, as its ray emerges 
on the ‘‘other side,’ highly sensitive instruments are used. These 
wonderful instruments, called seismographs, magnify the motion of the 


vibrating rock and give a written record, or “‘graph,” of that motion. 
They form the main equipment of seismographic stations. The 
mechanical or photographic record of a distant shock is the seismo- 
gram, a kind of hieroglyphic message from the mysterious heart of the 
planet. Each seismogram from a strong earthquake is a long, com- 
plex curve traced up and down on the registering paper of the seis- 
mograph. Usually the impulses of the longitudinal and transverse 
waves are evident to the expert seismologist, but in every case he 
finds represented much more than these two simple kinds of motion. 
He sees, in fact, a whole train of waves, which came racing out of the 
earth, often for much more than an hour after the first impulse was 
registered. A generation ago, most of the complex message could not 
be read. Then seismologists bethought themselves of a Rosetta 

Observation and theory soon showed that earthquake waves are 

closely analogous to the familiar waves of sound and light. Like 
these, the seismic rays are reflected and refracted at surfaces between 
different kinds of material. Seismic rays, during their passage through 
the earth, are broken up and dispersed, just as the sun’s light is 
‘dispersed, in prism or rain drop, to make the glory of the rainbow. 
Seismic rays are diffracted, just as light rays are diffracted, at the 
interfaces of contrasted materials. As sound travels faster in water 
than in air, faster in rock than in either, so seismic waves travel faster 
in some kinds of rock than in other kinds. Long study of sound and 
light has led to the discovery of the laws of wave motion, and these 
have made increasingly clear the meaning of seismograms. The 
analogy with sound and light is the Rosetta stone. 

The discovery of the famous original enabled Napoleon’s experts to 
begin the reading of Egypt’s ancient literature. In like manner the 
seismologists, using the difficult but manageable Greek of modern 
physics, are beginning the task of making earthquakes tell the nature 
of the earth’s interior and translating into significant speech the 
hieroglyphics written by the seismograph. It is a long task, requiring 
high intelligence and the patient accumulation of earthquake data 
from all parts of the globe, from ocean basin as well as from continent. 
The work is only just begun; yet the results already obtained are of 
supreme interest to the philosopher, to the geologist, and to the pro- 
ducer of petroleum, metals, and other materials from the rocks. 

For here, too, the man of pure science, the seismologist, ‘‘fussing 
with experiments of no use to anyone,’’ has proved to be another 
goose that has laid a golden egg. The methods developed by the 
worker in another ‘‘pure”’ science, seismology, are now, with the help 
of artificial earthquakes, locating structures that lead to hidden deposits 
of oil. So, millions are to be saved in the cost of bore holes, and new 
oil, probably by the hundreds of millions of barrels, will be added to 


the world supply. With electrical, magnetic, and gravitational 
methods—all products of the ‘“‘unpractical”’ man of ‘‘pure’’ science— 
valuable indications of hidden metal-bearing ores are secured, and 
the expense of exploration by bore holes and shafts is greatly reduced. 
Seismological methods promise to be adaptable to this kind of detec- 
tive work. Conquering the difficulties that still remain, future 
research should make this branch of geophysics, even in the search 
after metals, pay for its upkeep many times over. 

The depths of the ocean are now being quickly and accurately 
measured by the echo of sound waves from the bottom of the sea. 
This method, incomparably more rapid and less expensive than the 
old one by sounding line, is based on a principle fundamental in 
seismology. With variation of detail, ‘‘sonic’’ sounding, the use of 
waves reflected from underlying rock, is employed to measure the 
thickness of glaciers. 

Thus, the Hintereisferner glacier of the Alps has recently been 
proved to be 830 feet thick in the middle. When, with the similar 
use of explosion shocks and the seismograph, the thickness of the 
Antarctic and Greenland ice caps are measured, we shall have precious 
data for guiding thought on the conditions of North America and 
Europe during the glacial period. Furthermore, we could then esti- 
mate how far the sea level was everywhere lowered when the water 
of these ice caps was abstracted from the ocean and piled up, solid, 
on the land. 

But from depths far greater than glacier floor, ocean floor, or 
mineral deposit, come the messages from nature’s earthquakes. 
A few illustrations of success in detecting the anatomy of a planet 
will show the real majesty of the questions and answers that already 
inspire the all-too-few workers in the new science of geophysics. 

One of the outstanding seismological discoveries of recent years is 
the shelled character of our planet. At the center, and outward to 
a little more than one-half of its radius, the earth is homogeneous in 
high degree. This so-called ‘‘core”’ is surrounded by successive shells 
or layers of material. Each shell, out to a level about 30 miles from 
the surface, is relatively homogeneous, and its material differs from 
that of the shell above or below, as well as from the material of the 
central core. The contacts between the shells and between the deep- 
est shell and the core are technically called ‘‘ discontinuities.” 

The discontinuity, or break of material, at the surface of the core 
is one of the most remarkable of all. It is located at a level about 
1,500 miles below the earth’s surface, nearly 2,500 miles from its 
center. A second principal break, found only under the continents 
and larger islands—and thus representing only parts of a complete 
earth shell—is situated at the average depth of about 30 miles, 
Other discontinuities, limiting complete shells of the earth’s body, 


have been reported at depths of about 75 miles, 250 miles, 750 miles, 
and 1,100 miles. All of these four breaks require further study. 
Their estimated depths may be somewhat changed, and other dis- 
continuities may be discovered, but it is already clear in a general 
way how the earth is constituted—layer on layer. There is good 
evidence that the core and layers described are composed of matter 
which increases in density as the depth increases. Hence, so far as 
the great body of the earthis concerned, itis built stable, and convective 
overturn with catastrophe to life seems impossible. 

The velocity of the longitudinal wave in the earth’s core has been 
measured. The value obtained is appropriate to that of the metallic 
iron of the meteorites. However, the velocity is lower than that 
expected if the core iron were crystalline and solid, like the iron of our 
museum meteorites. The velocity of the longitudinal wave suggests, 
rather, that the core iron is fluid. In agreement with this conclusion, 
the slower, transverse wave seems not to be propagated through the 
core; we have learned that the transverse wave can not persist in a 
fluid. If further research corroborates this tentative deduction by 
seismologists, a whole set of new, fascinating problems is opened up. 

One question is that of temperature. The pressure on the core iron 
ranges from 15,000,000 to 50,000,000 pounds to the square inch. 
Under such colossal pressures the iron can be fluid only on the con- 
dition that the temperature of the core is enormously high—at tens of 
thousands of degrees centigrade. Both pressure and temperature are 
far beyond the range of the experimental laboratory. The physical 
state of the core iron can not as yet be described. Is it a liquid, a gas, 
or iron in a “‘state’’ unknown to physics? The conditions of the 
earth’s core are starlike. From their study can physicists of the 
future tell us something more of the true nature of the stars? If they 
can, they will be pretty sure, incidentally, to shed new light on the 
structure and life story of the atoms; for the secret of the star and the 
secret of the atom are proving to be part of a single problem, the ulti- 
mate nature of matter. 

Again, if the core is fluid, it is infinitely weak. It can offer no 
permanent resistance to forces which tend to distort the earth’s body. 
Hence other questions for future research: Is this mobility of the 
earth’s core important in the explanation of the slow upheavings and 
down-sinkings of great areas of the earth’s ‘‘crust’’? Is the sensitive 
core involved even in the tumult of mountain building? No one can 
now tell, but speculate we must, for it is to-day’s speculation that 
leads to to-morrow’s science. 

The exact nature of the earth shells overlying the core and totaling 
1,500 miles in thickness, is another problem for the future. Pre- 
sumably, the deepest of these shells is a more rigid, because cooler, 
chemical equivalent of the ‘‘fluid”’ core, but it is not yet clear how 


thicl. this more rigid ‘‘iron’’ may be. The published conclusions as to 
the composition and precise thicknesses of the still higher shells are un- 
certain and demand further testing. Yet the principle that the earth is 
layered seems proved once for all and leads to an apparently inescap- 
able and highly significant conclusion: The shell structure of the earth 
seems to defy explanation unless it be assumed that our planet was 
formerly molten. It must have been fluid enough to stratify itself by 
gravity. The ‘‘heavier’”’ materials sank toward the center, the 
‘“‘lichter’? materials rose toward the surface, and the whole mass 
finally arranged itself as layers or shells, with the very dense iron in 
the central region. It seems necessary to assume primitive fluidity 
right to the surface, and, further, to assume that the earth was thus 
fluid after practically all of its substance had been collected in the 
planet-making process. This general deduction must control future 
research on the cosmogonic problem—the origin of the earth and its 
brothers and sisters of the solar system. The earth was born in 
fervent heat and in the beginning was fervently hot, even at the 

While telling us much about the heart of the earth, the seismogram is 
still more authoritative and eloquent concerning the uppermost 
layers of the globe. By studying the instrumental records of the 
reflections, refractions, accelerations, and retardations of earthquake 
waves, seismologists have found that the continental rocks reach 
downwards about 30 miles. At that level there is a rather abrupt 
change to a world-circling shell of a quite different nature. The 
dominant rock of the continents is granite. According to the facts of 
geology, as of seismology, the underlying shell or substratum is the 
heavier, dark-colored basalt, and is apparently the source of this 
commonest of lavas and the primary seat of all volcanic energies. 

The depth of the continental rock, so determined from the writing 
of the longitudinal and transverse waves on seismographs, is con- 
firmed by study of a different kind of vibrations which come pouring 
into the station still later than the transverse wave. This third 
division of a typical seismogram is written by a long train of oscilla- 
tions, corresponding to what are called surface waves, because they 
faithfully follow the great curve of the earth’s rocky skin. Surface 
waves are the strongest of all the vibrations recorded by distant earth- 
quakes. They are caused by the reflection of the longitudinal and 
transverse waves as these, coming from the interior, impinge at low 
angles upon the contact of rock with ocean water and of rock with the 
air. That contact acts like the wall of a gigantic whispering gallery. 
From the character and velocities of the surface waves, expert seis- 
mologists have corroborated the evidence, won from the longitudinal 
and transverse waves, concerning the nature and depth of the conti- 
nental rock. 


But the surface waves inform us also about the kind of rock imme- 
diately beneath the deep oceans, whose waters hide from view about 
two-thirds of the solid surface of the whole earth. The measured 
velocities of the surface waves show that the earth’s skin beneath 
the deep oceans is crystallized basalt. Thus the material forming 
an earth shell directly beneath the continents is continuous with, 
and chemically identical with, the surface rock under the deep sea. 

Granite, the principal rock of the continents, is a relatively light 
rock. Basalt, the essential rock beneath the oceans, is relatively 
heavy. It is for this reason that the continents float high on the 
earth’s body; they are pressed up by the surrounding, heavy, solid 
basalt, much as icebergs are pressed up by the denser water of the sea. 
This is why we have dry land, with its endless importance for man and 
organic life in general. 

Seismology tells us why our home is stable, in spite of mighty 
forces which tend to level the earth’s crust and drown us all. We 
may confidently expect also that this continued “X-raying”’ of the 
outer earth will furnish new information as to the reason why moun- 
tains stand so high and are able to keep their heads in the clouds, far 
above the general level of the continents. And to geophysics, espe- 
cially to seismology, we look for new help in finding out the conditions 
for the earth’s periodic revolutions when mountain chains were born 
and sea-bottoms became the pinnacles of the world. 


By I. P. Totmacuorr 


The extinction of species, genera, families, orders, classes, and even 
phyla and complete faunas, is a phenomenon well known to paleontol- 
ogists and biologists, and it is ‘‘so common that this has come to be 
looked upon as the normal course of evolution.’””? Some well- 
known typical examples of this phenomenon are the extinction of the 
trilobites at the end of the Paleozoic era, of the ammonites and the 
gigantic reptiles in the Mesozoic era, of the mammoth at the dawn of 
human history, and of the sea cow of Bering Strait in the eighteenth 
century. Although it is so common, extinction is, in its essentials or 
causes, very little known, or even quite unknown. The examples of 
extinction just cited have been explained in different ways, but all the 
explanations, some of which are very detailed, can not withstand 


The extinction of the trilobites has been attributed to the rise of the 
cephalopods and the fishlike animals in early Paleozoic time, and of the 
true fishes in Devonian time. These animals undoubtedly fed on the 
trilobites and forced them from the dominion of the early seas, ulti- 
mately contributing to their complete extinction, but we know that 
extermination which is brought about solely by the development of a 
higher or stronger type of life can happen only under exceptional con- 
ditions. Usually the smaller and weaker animals have time to make 
compensating adjustments to avoid extermination. We know, for 
instance, that the eggs and the young of fish are an easy prey of their 
many enemies and are destroyed in immense numbers. The chance 
of survival of an egg of the ling, for example, is 1 in 14,000,000. Yet 
the ling is not dying out, at least not under natural conditions, but, 

1 Reprinted by permission from the Bulletin of the Geological Society of America, Dec. 30, 1928. 

2W.R. Gregory, Two views on the origin of man. Science, vol. lxv. No. 1695, p. 602, 1927. 
§ Charles Schuchert, Historical geology, pp. 210 and 324. 

4R.S. Lull, Organic evolution, p. 103. 


like many another fish, it offsets its unavoidable loss by a greater pro- 
duction of eggs. Carnivorous animals and their prey inhabit the same 
territory for an indefinite time, but a balance in their proportionate 
numbers is maintained. 

As a matter of fact, the organic world of the present time, both of 
animals and plants, in sea and on land, maintains a balance so perfect 
that it is brought to our attention only when disturbed by the inter- 
vention of man. As between two animals, this balance operates for 
the benefit of both, for the extermination of the weaker by the stronger 
would mean the destruction of the source of food of the stronger, re- 
sulting in its extermination also. If the Silurian and Devonian fishes 
could have completely exterminated the trilobites, they would prob- 
ably have doomed their own existence. Moreover, the extinction of 
the trilobites was not catastrophic; it was in operation during the 
Silurian period, when their decline is first noticeable, and it continued 
through the Devonian and Carboniferous periods, or, speaking in terms 
of years, through many decades of millions of years—a time long enough 
to permit the establishment and maintenance of the natural balance. 
Then, also, the details of their dying out do not support the explana- 
tion given. In Silurian time the number of individual trilobites was 
abundant, but the number of genera and species as compared with 
those in the Cambrian and Ordovician had been greatly reduced. 
Moreover, they developed a number of features, such as spines, pro- 
tuberances, and enlargements of parts, which primarily serve, no 
doubt, as protective devices,® but some of which, by their extreme 
enlargement, eventually lost their protective value. The enlarge- 
ment of certain features was common to many extinct animals, and it 
might be considered a proof of their racial old age.” It appears to be 
a result of the heroic efforts of a race to maintain an organic stock that 
is losing its vitality. Such efforts were made by the trilobites mil- 
lions of years before they were serioulsy menaced by their enemies. 
These peculiar features of organization were not the results of the 
attack of the fishes, but were due to causes within the trilobites them- 
selves. The trilobites may have disappeared only because as a race 
they had become old, had lost their vitality, and were unable to estab- 
lish and maintain the natural balance. 


Nor can the extinction of Mesozoic reptiles and gigantic dinosaurs 
be explained satisfactorily. The animals dominated the earth more 
completely than do the mammals of to-day, and certainly they had 

5 Charles Schuchert, Historical geology, p. 210. 
6 Idem, p. 271. 

7Idem, p. 11. 

8 Idem, p. 210. 


no enemies outside of their own stock, such as menaced the trilobites. 
The low mentality of the herbivorous species was confronted with 
the similar low mentality of their carnivorous enemies. Reference 
to the simultaneous existence of more intelligent archaic mammals 
is not significant, for these small, weak animals used their higher 
inteligence or cunning to protect themselves from their enemies 
rather than to harm these gigantic reptiles, much less to cause their 
extinction. In fact, in the opinion of many paleontologists the rela- 
tions were exactly opposite—that is, the mammalian evolution was 
handicapped by the domination of reptiles, forming ‘‘an overwhelm- 
ing check against which these small creatures could not contend.’’® 
In the opinion of Osborn, only the dying out of the large reptiles 
‘prepared the way for the evolution of the mammals.”’!° The 
extinction of the gigantic land reptiles has also been explained as a 
consequence of a change of climate. The cooling of the climate and 
the obliteration of their homes in the swamps bordering the inland 
seas might have had a disastrous effect on the large beasts of Creta- 
ceous time," provided that this change had taken place rapidly; but, 
in the usual slow course of geological processes, dinosaurs had plenty of 
time to migrate to more favorable regions or to become adapted to 
new conditions. 

It has been said that the climatic changes that contribute to the 
extinction of one race at the same time contribute to the evolution 
of another.’ It might therefore be supposed that some dinosaurs 
would have survived, even if the main stock had been completely 
destroyed. In the opinion of Lull, ‘‘one of the most inexplicable of 
events is the dramatic extinction of this mighty race.” Con- 
cerning sauropods he writes: ‘“‘We know of no reason, other than 
racial old age or a restriction of their peculiar habitat, for their 
extinction.’’ '* As has just been explained, the restriction of habitat 
can not be considered an effective cause. Especially is this true in 
relation to the reptiles that lived in ‘‘the most constant of all organic 
habitats,’ ® the sea, where climatic conditions would necessarily 
have been much less noticeable and the animals could have adapted 
themselves to new conditions more readily than on land. But the 
Mesozoic reptiles, in the sea as well as on the land, died out completely 
It may be that their low mentality, which may be compared to that 
of the present-day fishes, was not so great a handicap as the corre- 
spondingly low mentality of the land reptiles. 

9R.S. Lull, Organic evolution, p. 547. 

10 H. F. Osborn, The age of mammals, p. 97. 

11 Charles Schuchert, Historical geology, p. 497. 
12 R.S8. Lull, Organic evolution, p. 690. 

13 Tdem, p. 531. 

14 Idem, p. 517. 

‘8 Charles Schuchert, Historical geology, p. 7. 


The Mesozoic land reptiles, although differing in all other respects 
from the trilobites, had many features in common with them that 
led to extinction. Exaggeration of different parts of the bodily 
structure; extraordinary size in these reptiles, which attained the 
possible limit of size for a land animal; inharmonious development 
of different parts of the body; development of spines surpassing 
imagination in form, size, and abundance—all these features in the 
Mesozoic land reptiles, as in the trilobites, point to the senility of a 
race preceding its extinction. And in the reptiles, as in the trilobites, 
these features appeared as special devices to meet real needs, but all 
of them eventually became so much exaggerated as to become handi- 
caps. <A good example is that gigantic spiniferous animal the Stego- 
saurus, which was developed as a special senile side branch and 
died out without issue.!® Specialization aiming at some end may 
become overspecialization. As now used, the term overspecializa- 
tion generally implies the idea of a tendency toward extinction. 
Overspecialization leads to extinction, according to Gregory;1 
“extreme specialization may become a cause of extinction,” says 
Osborn.’ Wieland, writing of the extinction of the dinosaurs, 
explains it by saying that ‘“‘the growth forces and the responses to 
environment were no longer in adjustment,’ !® a condition that is 
practically equivalent to overspecialization. 

We thus reach the same conclusion concerning the Mesozoic 
reptiles that we reached concerning the trilobites—that before their 
final extinction they had lost their vital racial force and were unable 
to maintain that natural balance which was especially necessary to 
adapt them to a change in environment. 


The most mysterious event of this kind is the extinction of the am- 
monites in the Mesozoic era. They had been declining rapidly during 
late Triassic time, but they recovered in Liassic time and increased in 
numbers and in varieties of form so great that in the Jurassic and Cre- 
taceous periods the seas were swarming with them. However, in the 
Cretaceous period the ammonites suffered complete extinction. The 
periodic appearance and disappearance of the ammonites has been com- 
pared with the corresponding appearance and disappearance of the sea 
reptiles by which they are supposed to have been exterminated. But 
with the ammonites as with the trilobites, such an extermination could 
not have gone on through a number of geological periods, a time long 
enough for a normal vigorous stock to establish a balance. ‘There are 

18 R.S. Lull, Organic evolution, p. 524. 

7 W. K. Gregory, Two views on the origin of man. Science, Vol. LXV, No. 1695, p. 602, 1927. 
18 H. F. Osborn, The age of mammals, p. 84. 

1G. R. Wieland, Dinosaur extinction. American Naturalist, Vol. LIX, No. 665, pp. 557-565. 


also a number of objections to the theory that the ammonites were 
completely destroyed by reptiles. Many Cretaceous ammonites were 
deep-sea forms, which were inaccessible to reptiles. It is also worthy 
of note that the squids, upon which Jurassic reptiles fed,” survived 
the ammonites, although they could have been more easily extermi- 
nated than the ammonites. 

In the history of the ammonites we see a remarkable phenomenon. 
The stock declined twice. The first time it was vigorous enough to 
escape extinction and to develop to a degree unsurpassed in the history 
of animal life; but the second time, in the Cretaceous period, it reached 
senility and died out. Overspecialization, such as exaggeration of 
parts, was expressed in the Cretaceous ammonites no less clearly than 
in the trilobites and in the Mesozoic reptiles. ‘‘ Their doom was fore- 
shadowed in the uncoiling, the unnatural twisting of the shells, and 
the straight baculites.”?! Nothing similar is known of the Triassic 
ammonites, all of which had the typical ammonite shape, worked out 
through millions of generations. This race also died out only because 
of some inner cause or causes. It was unable to establish and keep 
the natural balance and was doomed to extinction. 

Though these examples of the extinction of large ancient groups of 
animals are, perhaps, the most typical and most widely known, the 
number of examples of extinction could be increased a hundredfold. 
In addition to those already cited, there are a few isolated extinct 
forms having some aberrant structure, which appeared only for a short 
geological time, and which, being doomed to extinction from the begin- 
ning, vanished without descendants. Such were Lyttonia of the 
brachiopods and Helicoprion of the fishes. These forms, being highly 
specialized, showed sharp deviation from the standard of their group, 
which foretold for them ‘‘a relatively brief career.”” At the same 
time the special features of these aberrant creatures were probably of 
great biological importance, because, in spite of their short life, some 
of them were of widespread geographical distribution. However, they 
left no issie, because a ‘‘highly adapted or specialized form becomes 
stereotyped and incapable of racial change.” Their extinction may 
therefore be parallel to that of the large groups already considered. 

The examples here cited include two species that became extinct 
during the period of human history under fairly well-known conditions, 
and their extinction therefore has none of the mystery that is con- 
nected with the extinction of Paleozoic and Mesozoic forms. 

20 Charles Schuchert, Historical geology, p.476. 
21Tdem, p. 576. 

22R.S. Lull, Organic evolution, p. 220. 

23 Tdem, p. 293. 



The first of these species is the mammoth, which once occupied 
large areas in Europe, Asia, and North America in numbers probably 
comparable to those of the American bison. Primitive man, who was 
well acquainted with the mammoth, has left us true pictures of this 
animal. Although he used the mammoth for food, it is doubtful 
whether he was eager to hunt this huge and dangerous beast, especially 
as he had at his disposal a great variety of game that was more easily 
obtained. He could occasionally kill a mammoth that had plunged 
into a bog, fallen into a pit, or had otherwise become entrapped, but, 
as has often been suggested, he certainly did not hunt it so much as 
to exterminate it. The extinction of the mammoth has been explained 
as a result of defects in its organization or of changes in climate. A 
critical review of these explanations shows that the references to the 
defects of organization of the mammoth are either erroneous or deal 
with unimportant features, and explanations of extinction by a change 
in climate are of little significance, because the mammoth was wonder- 
fully adapted to the physicogeographical conditions, including the 
climate, under which it lived and died out. The extinction of the 
mammoth is therefore no less mysterious than the extinction of the 
trilobites, the ammonites, and the Mesozoic reptiles. But the mam- 
moth, like all animals doomed to extinction, became highly specialized 
or even overspecialized. The extreme complexity of the teeth of the 
Siberian mammoth,” which has been considered an adaptation to the 
harsh vegetation of the north, but which was probably an expression 
of extreme specialization, was accompanied by peculiarly constructed 
tusks and by 4-toed feet. The feet of other elephants are 5-toed, 
although in some species, especially in the African elephant, they show 
a tendency toward the reduction of the lateral digits of the hind foot.” 
During its long existence in an Arctic climate the mammoth also devel- 
oped a number of features as a protection against cold. Each of these 
features is highly specialized or even overspecialized. It may there- 
fore be suggested that the mammoth, having, like other extinct animals 
lost racial vitality, was doomed to extinction, owing to overspecializa- 
tion, and was therefore unable to maintain the natural balance. 


Another example of the recent extinction of a species is seen in the 
history of Steller’s sea cow. Discovered living near the shores of 
islands in Bering Strait by the Bering expedition in 1741, it was com- 
pletely exterminated during the next few years.” It was extermi- 

2% R.S. Lull, Organic evolution, p. 602. 
25 Tdem, p. 580. 
2A. Th. Middendorff, Reise in den dussersten Norden and osten Sibiriens, Bd. IV, Th. 2, S. 841. 


nated by man in a very short time, we might say instantaneously, in 
a catastrophic way. But even as to this animal we are not quite 
certain as to the real cause of extinction. It inhabited a small area in 
numbers that apparently formed a remnant of a species that was once 
abundant. Its propagation had doubtless been greatly impaired and 
its body was highly specialized with respect to its environment. It 
was probably already well advanced toward extinction and the Bering 
expedition only accelerated its end. 


In connection with the extinction of Steller’s sea cow, exterminated 
by man, let us consider the difference between extinction and exter- 
mination. The words are often used indiscriminately, the lack of dis- 
crimination ‘causing some confusion in the consideration of this ques- 
tion. Extermination is the killing by man, by other animals, or by a 
change of climate, flood, or any other outside agent—all directly or 
indirectly affecting an individual or group of individuals. Extinction 
is a dying out; and the word applies to a species or to any other larger 
or smaller taxonomic group. If the word is used in referring to a 
group of individuals, as to a number of animals of the same species 
living in .a forest, on an island, or in some other restricted area, its 
meaning would be limited geographically. With many species extinc- 
tion is the passive reaction of the organism against several different 
destructive agents, and the extinction of the species may be due to 
extermination. Some papers on extinction deal only with extermi- 
nation. A good example is a paper by Osborn, ‘‘The causes of extinc- 
tion of mammalia,’”’ 7” in which the numerous possible causes of exter- 
mination of mammals are considered in great detail. The difference 
between these phenomena has been emphasized in an article by Smith 
Woodward. In his words, ‘‘ Local extinction, or the disappearance of 
a group of restricted geographical range, may be explained by acci- 
dents of many kinds, but contemporaneous universal extinction of 
widely spread groups, which are apparently not affected by any new 
competitors, is not so easily understood.” ** He does not try to ex- 
plain ‘‘the universal extinction” except in connection with the old 
age of a race. His ‘‘local extinction” and “general extinction” cor- 
respond exactly to extermination and extinction as both these words 
have been used in the present paper. 

Extermination that might affect two species, one a prolific group 
and the other a group already in process of extinction, if it were to go 
on incessantly, would produce the same result in both species—both 
would become extinct. If, however, extermination were checked, the 

27 American Naturalist, Vol. xl, pp. 769-795, 829-859, 1906. 
2% A. Smith Woodward, Address of the President to the Geological Section of the British Association for 
the Advancement of Science. Science, Vol. xxx, p. 327, 1909. 



first species would be able to recover and make good its losses, whereas 
the second would continue to die out and sooner or later would be- 
come extinct. The fur seals of Bering Sea were nearly exterminated 
through reckless hunting by American, Japanese, and Russian trap- 
pers. A special convention held by representatives of the three 
countries resulted in the formulation of laws that restricted the 
slaughter of this valuable animal and checked its extermination. 

A contrast to the preservation of the fur seal is seen in the fate of 
the bison in Russia. <A last remnant, a herd of a few hundred of these 
animals, which had been once widely distributed in eastern Europe, 
lived in the southwestern part of European Russia, in the so-called 
Beloveshskaya Pushcha, a virgin forest covering some hundred of 
square miles. The animals were living in a reservation protected by 
strict legal regulations and were seldom disturbed, for the Pushcha was 
a wilderness and could be visited only by special permission, which 
was difficult to obtain. The animals were unmolested except during 
the rare hunting trips of the Czar, when few were killed. Further 
protection was given them against wild carnivorous animals and 
against hunger in winter, when supplies of hay were distributed to 
different parts of the forest. In spite of all these precautions the 
animals were slowly dying out, not only because of a gradual decrease 
in their number, but because the percentage of bulls among the young 
was abnormally large. Their complete extinction, which was ap- 
proaching, was accelerated during the World War by the wild hunts of 
German officers at the time of the German occupation of this part of 
Russia. Some Russian scientists suppose that their extinction is due 
to too close interbreeding among animals of the same herd, but it may 
have been a result of natural senility of the race. The number of 
bison of eastern Europe was reduced to a single herd and the extinc- 
tion of the animals was incessantly and surely approaching in spite of 
all the protection given them. 

A sharp contrast to the fate of the Russian bison is seen in that of 
the American bison, a close relative of the European, which was nearly 
exterminated by the white man after he invaded North America, A 
few hundred of these animals that had found protection in reservations 
of the United States and Canada proved to be very prolific. They 
have increased to a number so large that it has become necessary to 
kill many of them to avoid overcrowding the reservations. The 
extinction of these animals by extermination has been easily stopped 
by the protection given them. The difference between the fate of 
the American and the European bison is due to the fact that the Amer- 
ican bison was of a prolific race; its vital forces are preserved, even 
though it suffered closer interbreeding than the European bison, which 
belonged to a race that was already in process of extinction. 


A study of the extinction of animals in historical and recent time 
affords us no better understanding of this phenomenon than the study 
of the extinction of animals in Paleozoic and Mesozoic time. Some 
animals are doomed to destruction as a race; others of the same kind 
are capable of prolific propagation, although there is no apparent 
difference in their organization or in their environment. 

In the forms considered above, old and new alike, we find high spe- 
cialization in all species or groups of species which are doomed to 
extinction. Extinction is evidently dependent on some inner de- 
ficiency, although it is usually accompanied by high perfection in cer- 
tain features—by far-reaching specialization. 


The preservation of an individual and of a species does not invari- 
ably follow the same law or principle. We can even say that the 
interest of the individual and of the species may be directly opposite. 
The mechanism of evolution insures the extermination of the weak and 
the poorly adapted, and in animal breeding a rational elimination 
may be applied with good results to the race. In fish culture, for 
example, a few pike are usually placed in the pool at a certain time to 
devour the undersized fish and to create better feeding conditions for 
the larger and stronger fish. This practice is followed in the interest 
of the species. 

On the other hand, some action that might be favorable to the indi- 
vidual may be destructive to the race. Birth control, for example, is 
practiced in the interest of the individual, but if it should be applied 
widely and constantly, it would bring about the extinction of the 
human race. The destruction of the race would thus result from 
action undertaken for the benefit of the individual. 


The instinct of self-preservation protects an organism against ex- 
termination; but parental and sexual instincts care for the race. The 
violation of the law of self-preservation may mean suffering varying in 
intensity according to the degree of violation and in its extreme form 
(suicide) causing death. Against this suffering and possible death 
every living creature maintains a struggle thoughout its life, a struggle 
supported and directed by the instinct of self-preservation, which has 
been developed during countless generations. The violation of this 
instinct by self-destruction is rare among the lower animals and 
it is abnormal among human beings, although the instinct of self- 
preservation may be sacrificed to the stronger tendency arising from 
the instinct governing the preservation of the species or the race. 



General statement—The desire to preserve the species does not 
appeal to the individual so strongly as the instinct of self-preservation, 
because its effect lies beyond the period of individual existence and 
covers unborn generations. Reaction against events endangering a 
species is therefore not so immediate as reaction against events en- 
dangering the individual. The instincts governing the preservation of 
species are therefore less comprehensible and may seem mysterious. 
The parental and sexual instincts insure the preservation of a race, and 
although they differ in different groups of animals and among 
different individuals of the same group, they are usually more powerful 
than the instinct of self-preservation. 

Parental instinct—The parental instinct is developed to extreme 
perfection in the insects. A large part of the life of many adult insects 
is devoted to work done in the interest of future generations, such as 
that of seeking protected places in which to raise the young and provid- 
ing them food. No breeder has so many cares for his stock nor plans 
so carefully for future conditions. This instinct is also possessed by 
fishes, whose well-known seasonal migrations from the sea into rivers 
and upstream, in spite of rapids and waterfalls, are made for no other 
purpose than to find good breeding grounds for the next generation. 
So devoted are they to their task that, in spite of their loss of strength 
in traveling upstream, they do not stop for food, but completely dis- 
regard the instinct of self-preservation, and after having accom- 
plished their aim they perish. 

The parental instinct appears to be the very foundation of human 
society. Such institutions as marriage and the family, on which 
human society is based, have originated for the sake of future genera- 
tions. Care for children is still a leading motive in the life of com- 
munities, among barbarous tribes as well as among highly cultured 
nations. With rare exceptions, fathers and mothers are ready to 
sacrifice their lives for the sake of their endangered children. We 
thus observe that in human society, just as among fishes and insects, 
the instinct of self-preservation retreats before the parental instinct. 

Sexual instinct.—The sexual instinct among all animals is stronger 
and more mysterious than the parental instinct. The most striking 
examples are found among the insects, in which the sexual instinct 
manifests itself in different and in extremely peculiar forms. Among 
the bees, for example, the sexual instinct serves exclusively the inter- 
ests of the community. The male and female bee mate only once, 
and after the mating the male, being mortally mutilated, dies imme- 
diately. The other male bees, the drones, whose possible usefulness to 
the community is ended by that mating, are tolerated only until the 


honey harvest season is nearly at is end, and are then mercilessly 
killed and cast out by the workers. This hecatomb after the act of 
reproduction and the later care of the eggs and young by the asexual 
bees involves complete neglect of individual interests, the sexual 
instinct becoming a communal affair. 

Among spiders the female may attack and devour the male after 
mating. The male, knowing well his possible fate, is not deterred 
from mating by the instinct of self-preservation. During mating the 
female mantis often gnaws the head of the male, who neither offers real 
resistance nor tries to escape. Among copepoda some males are so 
different from the females that it is difficult to identify them as mem- 
bers of the same species. They are much smaller and, roughly speak- 
ing, consist of a sack filled with sperms, living as a parasite attached 
to the reproductive organs of the female. Here the individuality of 
the male is completely sacrified to sexual interests and reproduction. 

Among the higher animals, human beings not excepted, the sexual 
instinct is very strong, although its effects are not always recognized 
or understood. The sexual instinct is a powerful motive of many 
human actions. Three-fourths or more of the crimes committed and 
a large percentage of the suicides are directly or indirectly chargeable 
toit. The life of an individual is often sacrificed to what is termed sex 
appeal. History has preserved many stories of beautiful queens who 
had their temporary lovers put to death. Some of these men realized 
that they would pay with their lives for a short felicity; but, led by the 
sex appeal, they were willing to ignore the instinct of self-preserva- 
tion. When a present-day suitor expresses his willingness to pay for 
sexual favors with his life, he unconsciously reverts to conditions in 
former days, when such an affair was serious and might have grave 

These few examples, which could be multiplied indefinitely, show 
that not everything which is beneficial or pernicious for the individual 
is such for the preservation*of the race, and vice versa. The impor- 
tance of this fact has never been sufficiently appreciated. Most 
paleontologists and biologists who have attempted to explain the 
extinction of a race have sought causes that affect the individual and 
have cited these causes in explaining the extinction of a species. It is 
not surprising that such explanations could not withstand criticism 
and were usually complete failures. 


The existence of an individual is dependent on its ability to find food 
and transform it into body tissues by means of very complicated 
processes known as metabolism. If the metabolism of an animal is 


wrong, it becomes sick, and if the defect is not corrected the animal 
dies. Every individual, after living for a time that differs greatly for 
different animals, but that is of more or less the same duration for 
every species, will unavoidably be affected by defects of metabolism 
and will die a so-called natural death. 


The preservation of a race is dependent on the ability of the organ- 
isms composing it to reproduce. Usually this ability is conjoined 
with the physical development of the individual, which may be divided 
into three stages. The first stage is the period of greatest growth, 
when the income of the body is much greater than its expenditure. 
The stage continues until physical maturity is reached, when some 
kind of equilibrium between income and expenditure is established, 
which is maintained throughout the reproductive period. With the 
passing of the period of reproduction metabolism decreases and the 
individual gradually loses vitality. This general statement may not 
be correct for every organism or race, but as the expression of a gen- 
eral principle it may be sufficiently correct. 


The relation between reproduction and individual life is not 
invariably so simple. For no apparent reason a strong, healthy 
individual may be incapable of reproduction. The power of repro- 
duction also may not be completely lost; it may be only decreased, 
as it is when the number of births is small, or when the percentage 
of male births in a species or race is much higher than that of female 
births. This phenomenon may be considered the beginning of 
sterility. We do not know the real cause of sterility that is not 
produced by some evident abnormalitys It has been suggested that 
insanity provokes sterility in the fourth generation. Too close 
interbreeding may gradually develop into sterility, and if the stock 
is not reinvigorated with new blood it will bring about the complete 
extinction of a race, though the correctness of this statement has been 
questioned or denied by some biologists. It has been observed that 
in the first generation interbreeding gives offspring of high grade. 
In this way a breed of setters of high quality, but of short longevity, 
was obtained. The breed began to die out so quickly that the breeder 
witnessed the gradual extinction of his product. 

Sterility, even in its first stage, in no way shows a low degree of 
advancement of a species. Indeed, prolification may decrease with 
advancement, either through a diminishing number of offspring or 
an increasing period of gestation and maturity. Man has the rather 


doubtful distinction of being one of the least prolific of animals. 
It is also suggested that the higher human races are less prolific than 
the lower ones, and that a higher standard of living is usually accom- 
panied by a lower birth rate, which is not compensated by a corres- 
pondingly low death rate. The very common dying out of low human 
races that bear only a few children does not invalidate this statement, 
because this phenomenon is due to certain special causes. The 
prolification of the lower animals is enormous. According to Huxley’s 
estimate, the descendants of a single green fly, if all of them survived 
and multiplied, would at the end of one summer outnumber the 
population of China. Common house flies would in the same time 
occupy a space of about a quarter of a million cubic feet, allowing 
200,000 to a cubic foot.® These examples are by no means extreme. 
In comparison with them we find an example no less striking—that 
of the elephant, which begins to breed at the age of thirty years and 
bas a period of gestation of nearly two years. 

We do not know why high specialization and perfect adaptation 
to certain conditions is accompanied by complete sterility or by a 
decrease of fecundity, which is, probably, the first stage of sterility. 
We can only suggest that sterility has developed slowly and gradually, 
and that in the animal kingdom it begins with unconscious weakening 
of the sexual instinct. Animals whose physical and psychic forces 
are given over to a certain aim, such as the achievement of a certain 
adaptation, have not the same energy to expend in perpetuating the 
race as those whose energies are not thus expended. In succeeding 
generations this transfer of energy could gradually provoke a degrada- 
tion of the reproductive organs, very slight at first, by dulling the 
sexual instinct. These changes would be going on simultaneously 
with the final and fatal result, the loss of the power of reproduction. 


Unhappily, we are not able to discover why sterility affects some 
individuals that are apparently in perfect physical condition. In the 
solution of this problem we get much more informationfrom the 
study of plants. A great number of highly specialized cultivated 
plants seldom or never produce seeds and have to be propagated by 
cuttings. A well-known example is the garden rose. Few cultivated 
varieties of the banana * or the sugar cane produce seed.** The 
sweet potato (Batatus edulis) has been preserved only through culti- 
vation.22. Through cultivation, also, the common potato (Solanum 
tuberosum) is gradually losing its power to produce seed. Bailey 

29R.S. Lu, Organic evolution, p. 104. 

30 A. De Candolle, Origin of cultivated plants, p. 307, 

31 Idem, p. 156. 
32 Tdem, p. 33. 


says: “In the potato, as tuber production has increased, seed pro- 
duction has decreased. Now potatoes do not produce bolls as freely 
as they did years ago.” ** So-called seedless fruits belong to the same 
category. Some of these highly specialized plants, if left without the 
attention of a gardener, would perhaps restore their lost power of 
producing seed, and they would at the same time lose their acquired 
artificial qualities; but most of them would soon become extinct, if it 
were not for the intervention of man. 


The observation of highly specialized plants helps us to explain 
tentatively the alterations that are going on in highly specialized 
animals and that decrease their productivity. The parts affected are 
the genital organs, or, to speak more correctly, perhaps, the genital 
glands, the secretions of which may more or less decrease or cease 
entirely, like the production of seed ceases in highly specialized plants. 
Animals as individuals would not be harmed by this loss; they might 
even be benefited by the transfer of energy to other parts of the body, 
but for the preservation of a race the Joss would be fatal. On the 
other hand, the specialization of certain parts of the animal body to 
form reproductive or genital organs diminishes prolification. In the 
lower organisms reproduction goes on by the fission of the whole 
body. In the Infusoria such fission may even be produced mechan- 
ically by skillful dissection. But the evolution of the animal king- 
dom is paralleled by a decrease in prolification. Most of the mem- 
bers of a colony of Coelenterata may lose entirely the power of repro- 
duction, which has become a function of certain specialized individ- 
uals. In other animals reproduction through fission occurs only by 
budding in certain parts of the body. The origin of the genital 
glands of the higher animals may be traced to budding, but in greatly 
modified and highly specialized form, a form that is easily subject to 
the influence of many exterior and interior agencies. All the varia- 
tions in the reproduction of different animals and in their fertility 
must be considered in connection with the structure, function, and 
alteration of these important parts of every animal that has a some- 
what high systematic position. 

By all these considerations we are able not only to explain extinc- 
tion brought about by the great specialization and accompanying 
sterility of organisms, but to understand the origin of those peculiar 
structures that paleontologists consider indications of the old age of 
a race. Some kinds of specialization that affect the reproductive 
powers of a race may not cause immediate sterility, but may produce 

3 L. H. Bailey, Plant-breeding, p. 225. The writer feels greatly indebted to Dr. O. E. Jennings for all 
the information concerning cultivated plants, 


a gradual decrease in prolification. Such specialization releases 
energy, which is used to achieve further specialization and to increase 
structural variability, or to develop structures that may be beyond 
present needs. The energy that had been devoted to reproduction 
seems to have been diverted to the multiplication of alterations of 
bodily structure. When we consider the spines on the valves of a 
Productus; the rich ornamentation, the ribs, spines, and tubercles 
on the shells of ammonites; the peculiar armor and forbidding spines 
of the Stegosaurus; the antlers of the extinct great Irish stag; the 
gigantic but not correspondingly advantageous size of the Diplodocus, 
and other similar forms, we can only conclude that all these extremely 
developed features represent an unnecessary excess of structure and 
waste of energy. Extravagance of structure decreases the reproduc- 
tive ability of a race and diminishes its resistance to extermination, 
although at the same time the race may appear to be well prepared 
for the struggle for existence—a fact that makes its extinction inex- 
plicable and mysterious. 

Complete sterility is not the only condition determining the extinc- 
tion of a race, and it was doubtless attained only in a few extinct 
races, but partial sterility, or the decrease of reproductive power be- 
yond certain limits, is probably the axis on which the whole process 
of extinction revolves and is, perhaps, the main or only cause of this 
mysterious phenomenon. 

The relation between the extinction of a race and its fertility has been 
very little considered by naturalists. Merriam suggests ** that dimin- 
ished reproduction induced by low temperature would be a barrier to 
the geographical distribution of a certain race and would contribute 
to its extinction; but if the race had preserved its structural flexibiliity— 
in other words, if it had not been overspecialized and its productive 
ability were normal—it would gradually become adapted to new 
conditions and survive them. 


We know of only one class of animals, the parasites, in which close 
adaptation to the immediate environment, causing an unavoidably 
great overspecialization, has been accompanied by increased fertility. 
However, this apparent exception only supports the view here ad- 
vanced. In parasites the specialization is degenerative. They lose 
the organs of locomotion, and the special senses and the nervous 
system accordingly degenerates. The external skeleton becomes 
simpler or is entirely lost. Reduction of the vegetative organs, such 
as those of respiration and circulation, of the alimentary canal, and 
of the digestive glands is common. These organs therefore be- 

34H. F. Osborn, The age of mammals, p. 504. 
38 R. S. Lull, Organic evolution, p. 266. 


come of very little use, and the energy that is used by other animals 
in the specialization of bodily parts is in parasites freed and given over 
to reproduction, resulting in the preservation of the race. Conse- 
quently the genital organs of parasites are greatly enlarged, and all 
parasites are very prolific. 


Owing to extinction, the normal course of evolution has been inter- 
rupted innumerable times. There is no line of evolution to which 
this statement would not apply. Races have been preserved not by 
means of their most brilliant representatives, for great achievements 
cause some deficiency of vital racial force, but rather through mediocre 
individuals. We are even able to establish an empiric law that 
“the upwelling of future organic rulers begins in unobtrusive small 
forms,’’ *° or, as expressed by Cope, in the ‘“‘survival of the unspecial- 
ized,’’ because, as he states, the highly developed or greatly special- 
ized types of one geologic period are not the parents of the types of 
succeeding periods.*” 

Especially important and interesting in this respect are those per- 
sistent types that have gone through a number of geological periods 
without great alterations in structure. Their evolution has been 
arrested,®® and in recompense they have received a longevity that 
seems to approach immortality. 

36 Charles Schuchert, Historical geology, p. 449. 
87 [dem, p. 450, 

388 Rudolph Ruedemann, Paleontology of arrested evolution. New York State Museum Bulletin, 
No, 196, pp. 107-184, 1918. 


By H. A. MarmMER 

U. S. Coast and Geodetic Survey 

Maury’s The Physical Geography of the Sea, which appeared in 
1855, is frequently referred to as the first textbook of modern oceanog- 
raphy. In that work the author devotes the first chapter to the 
Gulf Stream, introducing it thus: 

There is ariver in the ocean. In the severest droughts it never fails, and in the 
mightiest floods it never overflows. Its banks and its bottom are of cold water, 
while its current is of warm. The Gulf of Mexico is its fountain, and its mouth is 
in the Arctic Seas. Itis the Gulf Stream. There is in the world no other such 
majestic flow of waters. Its current is more rapid than the Mississippi or the 

Even in matters scientific, customs change. It is altogether un- 
likely that an oceanographer nowadays would speak of the Gulf 
Stream as rhetorically as did Maury. ‘The magnitude of this current, 
however, is such that even later students make use of superlatives in 
describing it. The most comprehensive investigation of the Gulf 
Stream was carried out between the years 1885 and 1889 by Lieut. 
(later Rear Admiral) J. E. Pillsbury, United States Navy, while at- 
tached to the Coast and Geodetic Survey. And when he came to write 
up the results of his observations and studies he described it as “‘the 
grandest and most mighty * * * terrestrial phenomenon.’ ® 

Of all the currents that make up the systems of oceanic circulation, 
the Gulf Stream has received the greatest amount of study and is the 
best known. Its discovery, or more accurately the first notice on rec- 
ord, came shortly after the discovery of the new world. Early in 
March of 1513, Ponce de Leon set sail from Porto Rico with three 
ships on a voyage of exploration. Setting a northwesterly course the 
expedition discovered Florida, a landing being made on the eastern 
coast somewhere in the general vicinity of Cape Canaveral. Sailing 
southerly then they encountered on April 22, as related in a chronicle 
of the expedition, ‘‘a current such that, although they had a great 

1 Reprinted by permission from the Geographical Review, July, 1929. 
2M. fF. Maury: The Physical Geography of the Sea, p. 25, New York, 1855. 
tJ. E. Pillsbury: The Gulf Stream: Methods of the Investigation, and Results of the Research, Appen- 
dix No. 10 of Rep. of the Supt. of the Coast and Geodetic Survey for 1890, pp. 459-620, Washington, 
D. C., 1891; reference on p. 472. 


wind, they could not proceed forward, but backward, and it seemed 
that they were proceeding well; and in the end it was known that it 
was in such wise the current which was more powerful than the 
wind.” * Thus was the Gulf Stream first noted. 

Apparently the Spaniards soon learned that this northerly flowing 
current was not merely a local current but one of wide extent; for 
six years later, when Antonio de Alaminos set out for Spain from Vera 
Cruz, he sailed northward with the Gulf Stream for a number of 
days before turning east toward Europe. This same Alaminos was 
pilot of Ponce de Leon’s expedition of 1513 when the Gulf Stream was 
first noted. It is therefore quite proper to credit the discovery of 
the Gulf Stream to Alaminos. 


For two and a half centuries following its discovery the growth of 
knowledge regarding the Gulf Stream was slow. The story is told 
in detail by Kohl * and more briefly by Pillsbury. During this period, 
to be sure, the mariner, and more especially the whaler, became 
acquainted with the Gulf Stream throughout the greater part of its 
course. Much of this information, however, was kept as a professional 
secret, and it was not until after the middle of the eighteenth century 
that the course of the current was depicted on a chart. The story of 
how this came about is not without interest, especially as it illustrates 
nicely the effect of the Gulf Stream on navigation. 

About 1770, complaint was made to the London officials that the 
English packets which came to New York took about two weeks longer 
in crossing than did the Rhode Island merchant ships which put in 
at Naragansett Bay ports. Benjamin Franklin, being in London at 
the time, was consulted about the matter. To quote his own words: 

It appearing strange to me that there should be such a difference between two 
places, scarce a day’s run asunder * * * JI could not but think the fact 
misunderstood or misrepresented. There happened then to be in London a 
Nantucket sea captain of my acquaintance, to whom I communicated the affair. 
He told me he believed the fact might be true; but the difference was owing to 
this, that the Rhode Island captains were acquainted with the Gulf Stream, 
which those of the English packets were not * * * When the winds are 
but light, he added, they are carried ‘back by the current more than they are 
forwarded by the wind * * * J then observed that it was a pity no notice 
was taken of this current upon the charts, and requested him to mark it out for 

me, which he readily complied with, adding directions for avoiding it in sailing 
from Europe to North America.® 

4L. D. Scisco: The Track of Ponce de Leon in 1513, Bull. Amer. Geogr. Soc., Vol. 45, pp. 721-735, 1913; 
reference on p. 725. 

5J. G. Kohl: Geschichte des Golfstroms und seiner Erforschung von den iltesten Zeiten bis auf den 
grossen amerikanischen Biirgerkrieg, pp. 1-114, Bremen, 1868. 

6 A letter from Dr. Benjamin Franklin, to Mr. Alphonsus le Roy, Member of Several Academies, at 
Paris: Containing Sundry Maritime Observations, Trans. Amer. Philos. Soc., Vol. 2, pp. 294-329, 1786; 
reference on pp. 314-815. 


Franklin goes on to relate that he had the information engraved 
“fon the old chart of the Atlantic, at Mount and Page’s, Tower-hill; 
and copies were sent down to Falmouth for the captains of the packets 
who slighted it however; but it is since printed in France, of which 
edition I hereto annex a copy.” (Fig. 1.) 

As evidenced by Franklin’s letter in the Transactions of the Ameri- 
can Philosophical Society, the Gulf Stream towards the end of the 
eighteenth century became a subject of scientific investigation and 
discussion. Franklin himself made observations on the temperature 
of the sea water during a number of voyages and noted with regard to 
the Gulf Stream “‘that it js always warmer than the sea on each side 
of it.” By the middle‘of the nineteenth century, when systematic 


Eskimiux’s br A 5 

= Poupard , ew (peer 
=F cae oupar Sealp 
SS — 

FIGURE 1,—Franklin’s chart of the Gulf Stream 

observations were begun, a fund of information had been gathered 

from navigators’ logs and from the observations of scientifically 
minded travelers. ? 


Systematic observations in the Gulf Stream were begun in 1845 by 
the Coast Survey under the superintendency of Alexander Dallas 
Bache, a great grandson of Franklin. At different times up to the 
year 1889 specially equipped vessels were detailed for the work, the 
results being published as appendixes to the annual reports of the 
Superintendent of the Coast and Geodetic Survey, the last one being 


that by Pillsbury cited in footnote 3. In passing, it is to be noted 
that this systematic work was confined almost wholly to the Gulf 
Stream along the coast of the United States. 

The published material on the Gulf Stream is extensive. Here 
it will be sufficient to direct attention only to the more authoritative 
recent work. Kriimmel, in what is still the standard treatise on 
oceanography,’ gives a brief but critical summary of the hydrographic 
features of the Gulf Stream as developed to the end of the first decade 
of the present century, and Schott ® brings the discussion up to the 
present time. And, while dealing with but a restricted part of the 
Gulf Stream, Wiist’s study ® should be mentioned here because it 
represents a successful attempt to correlate and elucidate the phenom- 
ena involved in the Gulf Stream by means of mathematical, or more 
accurately perhaps, dynamical methods. 

It is customary to trace the last remnant of the Gulf Stream into 
the Arctic waters north of Norway. From its place of origin in the 
Gulf of Mexico, therefore, this current traverses a route of more than 
6,000 miles. But it is not as a “river in the ocean” that it mani- 
fests itself throughout its course. The phenomena presented are 
much more involved, and the stream is to be regarded rather as a 
complex system of currents than as a single current. We may arrive 
at an understanding of the nature of the forces and factors involved 
by a brief consideration of jts characteristics in the region in which it 
has been most carefully studied. 


It is in its first reach, through the Straits of Florida, that the 
characterists of the Gulf Stream are most marked. Here its waters 
have the highest temperature and salinity and the swiftest flow. And 
because it is here confined within a restricted channel it lends itself 
more readily to investigation. Observations have here been made 
across a number of sections; and with this stretch, too, Wiist’s study 
mentioned above is concerned. 

Figure 2, which is adapted from Coast and Geodetic Survey Chart 
1007, visualizes the hydrographic features of the Gulf Stream for the 
first 400 miles of its course. The region where the Gulf of Mexico 
narrows to form the channel between Florida Keys and Cuba may be 
regarded as the head of the Gulf Stream. Here the width of its 
channel is 95 nautical miles. Eastward the channel becomes nar- 
rower, reaching its least width in the so-called narrows, abreast of 
Cape Florida, where it is but half its original width. From here it 
widens somewhat until it meets the open sea north of Little Bahama 

T Otto Kriimmel: Handbuch der Ozeanographie, 2 vols., Stuttgart, 1907-1911. 
§ Gerhard Schott: Geographie des Atlantischen Ozeans, 2nd edit., pp. 180-205, Hamburg, 1926. 
§Georg Wiist: Florida und Antillenstrom, Veréffentl. Inst. fiir Meereskunde, No. 12, Berlin, 1924. 


While the chart shows that in its first reach the Gulf Stream flows 
between banks like a river, it is to be noted that this channel is in two 
respects markedly different from that of a river. In a river, as a 
rule, the channel increases in width from head to mouth. But in the 


(Adapted from U.S. Coast and Geodetic Survey Chart 1007) 



A” Ne 








Biniyat -_ 
g ie 
E : i 
e 8 @b eg * 
z UP Sui ihn et 
(=) hoes 3 m4 
{Fin ye cs 
Ee ae § 
a Eaeoer 

FiGuRE 2.—Hydrographic features of the Gulf Stream within the Straits of Florida. 


Gulf Stream, as we have just seen, the width of the channel decreases 
seawards. Furthermore, a river deepens as it goes seaward; an 
examination of the chart, however, shows that the channel of the Gulf 


Stream becomes shallower asit goesseaward. Atits head, asshown in 
Figure 2, the stream shows depths of a thousand fathoms or more; 
but the depths gradually decrease, and when the channel approaches 
the sea the greatest depth is but little more than 400 fathoms. 

Nautical charts are issued primarily for the mariner, to whom the 
shoal areas are critical. Hence in hydrographic surveys, as a rule, 
shoal areas are much more closely developed than areas of deep water. 
So that it may be assumed that the relief of the bottom of the Straits 
of Florida is indicated only in its larger features on the chart. It is 
quite likely that a detailed hydrographic survey of the straits would 
bring out interesting local features that now are masked. 

Throughout the whole stretch of 400 miles shown in Figure 2, 
the Gulf Stream flows with considerable velocity. It is clear, how- 
ever, that the whole mass of water is not moving with a uniform 
velocity. Confining our atten- 
tion for the present to the velocity 
of the current at the surface we 
find at its head, say abreast of 
Habana, the velocity in the axis 
of the stream (shown by arrows 
in fig. 2) to be about 2% nautical 
miles per hour, or 2% knots on 
the average. Seaward, the veloc- 
ity increases gradually as the 
cross-sectional area of the stream 
decreases until abreast of Cape 
Florida the velocity becomes 
about 3 knots. As we shall see 
Figure 3.—Velocity of Gulf Stream within Straits later, the current is subject to 

anes i variations; and it is therefore to 
be emphasized that the velocities given above are approximate average 
or normal velocities. 

With regard to the current within the depths of the Gulf Stream the 
observational data are in general fragmentary. Pillsbury during his 
investigation carried out several series of current observations in the 
Straits of Florida, but these were generally confined to depths less than 
1,000 feet. From these observations and from general considerations 
it is known that the swiftest thread of the current lies in the axis of the 
stream, just below the surface, and from ere the velocity decreases 
with increasing depth. In the axis of the Gulf Stream, off Habana, 
Pillsbury found the current setting easterly with a velocity of a knot 
at a depth of 130 fathoms. 

Within the narrows of the strait, abreast of Cape Florida, the 
velocity distribution may be considered relatively well known. Figure 
3, adapted from Wiist, shows the velocity distribution across the section 

Nautical Miles 



just south of Cape Florida. In constructing the velocity curves Wiist 
made use of Pillsbury’s observations; and for the deeper parts, for 
which no observations are at hand, he derived the necessary data from 
a consideration of the temperature and salinity observations, which 
here extend from the surface to the bottom. 

Within the Straits of Florida the Gulf Stream is generally pictured 
as a swiftly moving stream with but little variation in velocity from 
surface to bottom. Figure 3 shows, however, that only within a layer 
of about 200 fathoms (1,200 feet) does the velocity exceed 1 knot. 
Moreover, near the bottom, Pillsbury found the current setting south- 
erly, that is, in a direction opposite to that of the mainstream. This 
was taken to indicate a southerly flowing current, deriving perhaps 
from the Labrador Current. It appears, however, that it is more 
reasonably to be ascribed to eddies brought about by the upward- 
sloping bottom within the Straits of Florida. 

With the details of the velocity distribution known, it becomes 
possible to compute the volume of water discharged by the Gulf Stream 
through the Straits of Florida. A rough estimate is easily made 
from Figure 3. In round numbers the channel eastward of Cape 
Florida has a width of 42 (geographical) miles and an average depth 
of 2,000 feet, or approximately one-third of a mile. This gives the 
area of the cross section here as 14 square miles. In round numbers, 
also, the velocity of the current through this section may be taken 
as 1 knot. Each hour, therefore, the Gulf Stream carries 14 cubic 
miles of water past this section into the sea. Since a geographical 
mile has a length of 6,080 feet and a cubic foot of sea water weighs 
approximately 64 pounds, we find that each hour the Gulf Stream 
catries 100 billion tons of water past Cape Florida into the sea. 

The above calculation is clearly no more than a rough estimate; 
but it demonstrates that the hourly volume of the Gulf Stream is to 
be reckoned in scores of billions of tons. On the basis of his observa- 
vations Pillsbury calculated the hourly volume of the Gulf Stream 
through the Straits of Florida as 90 billion tons. More recently 
Wiist, on the basis of data furnished by the observations and amplified 
by dynamical considerations, derived for this volume 89.96 cubic 
kilometers, or 14.1 cubic miles, which equals 101% billion tons. In 
round numbers we may therefore take the average hourly volume of 
the Gulf Stream through the Straits of Florida to be 100 billion tons. 

We may perhaps appreciate better the enormous volume of water 
that the Gulf Stream pours into the sea by comparing it with the 
volume discharged by the Mississippi River, which drains more than 
40 per cent of the area of continental United States. On the average 
the Mississippi discharges about 664,000 cubic feet of water into the 
Gulf of Mexico each second. At extreme flood stage this volume 
becomes multiplied about threefold, mounting to about 1,800,000 



cubic feet per second.’© On converting these figures into cubic (geo- 
graphical) miles per hour they become, respectively, 0.01 and 0.03 
cubic mile. The 14 cubic miles which the Gulf Stream hourly pours 
into the sea is thus more than 1,000 times the average discharge and 
very nearly 500 times the extreme flood discharge of the Mississippi. 


With regard to the water poured so prodigally by the Gulf Stream 
into the sea through the Straits of Florida, the generally accepted 
notion is that it is of an unusually high temperature from top to 
bottom. Figure 4 shows the temperature of the water, in degrees 
Fahrenheit, across the section in the straits from Cape Florida east- 
ward. This is adapted from Wiist, who made use of observations 
taken in May, 1878, and in 
ae Neues ees March, 1914. Since, in general, 

the sea in the Northern Hemi- 
sphere is coldest in February 
and warmest in August, it may 
be taken that the temperatures 
shown in Figure 3 are approxi- 
mately average temperatures. 

Obviously the Gulf Stream in 
the straits is not a homogeneous 
body of warmwater. At the sur- 
face, in the center of the channel, 
the temperature is about 80°, and 
at the bottom it is 45° or even 
FIGURE 4.—Temperature of Gulf Stream waters less. The fall in temperature is 

within Straits of Florida 5 c 
fairly rapid, a temperature of 50° 
being attained at about 200 fathoms, so that only a relatively shallow 
layer of the water is warm. 

Figure 3 brings to light the fact that for any given depth the 
water on the eastern side of the channel is considerably warmer than 
that on the western. Thus at a depth of 100 fathoms the water on the 
Florida side of the straits has a temperature of about 50°, while on 
the Bahama side the temperature is about 70°. Furthermore, while 
the change in temperature with depth is approximately uniform on the 
Bahama side, it is decidedly not uniform on the Florida side, where a 
rapid change of 20° in temperature takes place between the depths 
of 50 and 100 fathoms. As regards temperature therefore, the water 
of the Gulf Stream is decidedly not homogeneous. 

The prevailing conception of the Gulf Stream as an unusually warm 
body of water can be shown as erroneous from another point of view, 

J. L. Greenleaf: The Hydrology of the Mississippi, Amer. Journ. of Sci., Ser. 4. Vo}. 2, pp. 29-46 1896; 
reference on p. 42. 


namely, by comparison with other bodies of water in the same latitude, 
for example, with the Sargasso Sea. The surface waters of the Gulf 
Stream in the Straits of Florida have about the same temperature as 
the surface waters of the Sargasso Sea. But within the depths the 
Sargasso Sea is much warmer. At a depth of 200 fathoms the tem- 
perature of thelatter is between 60° and 65°," while in the Gulf Stream 
at that depth the temperature, as shown by Figure 4, averages 
about 55°. 

With regard to other characteristics there is a like tendency to 
overrate the waters of the Gulf Stream. Highly saline these waters 
are, but not exceptionally so. On the customary salinity scale, in 
which each unit represents one part of salt in a thousand parts of 
water, the surface waters within the straits have a salinity of about 
36. Below the surface the salinity increases gradually until a maxi- 
mum of 3644 is reached at a depth of about 100 fathoms, after which 
the salinity decreases to about 35 at 300 fathoms, which salinity 
is then maintained to the bottom. In round numbers we may take the 
salinity of the waters within the straits as a whole to be 36. Compared 
to the average salinity of 34%4, which is accepted as the figure for the 
sea as a whole, the water within the straits is highly saline; but 
toward its eastern end the Sargasso Sea is more saline, having a 
salinity of 37% on the surface and of about 36 at a depth of 300 
fathoms. In depth of color and transparency, the waters in the 
Sargasso Sea likewise exceed those of the Gulf Stream. 

In general, however, the Gulf Stream as it issues into the sea 
through the Straits of Florida may be characterized as a swift, highly 
saline current of blue water whose upper stratum is composed of 
warm water. 


On issuing into the sea north of Little Bahama Bank the Gulf 
Stream loses the relatively great velocity which characterized it 
within the straits. From 3% knots along the axis within the narrows 
of the straits, there is a gradual decrease to a velocity of about 2 
knots off St. Augustine, Fla., in latitude 30° N. Here the Gulf Stream 
is joined by the Antilles Current, which flows northwesterly along the 
open ocean side of the West Indies before uniting with the Gulf 

North of the thirtieth parallel of latitude, therefore, the Gulf 
Stream is a current to which two branches have contributed. It is no 
longer merely a continuation of the current that flows through the 
Straits of Florida. The latter current, for distinction, is frequently 
referred to as the Florida Current. As to the relative importance of 
the two branches of the Gulf Stream widely varying opinions have been 

11 Schott, op. cit., Pl. XIV, following p. 144 


entertained. Formerly it was thought that the Antilles Current 
furnished both the greater quantity of water as well as the greater 
quantity of heat transported by the Gulf Stream. Kriimmel, for 
example, credits the Antilles Current with contributing about 234 
times as much water and heat as the Florida Current. Wiist’s study of 
the question, however, makes it appear that the réles of the two cur- 
rents must be reversed; for he finds on the basis of later data, that the 
Florida Current contributes about twice as much water and heat as the 
Antilles Current. , 

The Antilles Current, like the Florida Current, carries warm, highly 
saline water of clear indigo blue. The union of the two currents gives 
rise to a broad current possessing about the same characteristics as 
the Gulf Stream within the straits except that the velocity is much 
reduced. The combined current, under the influence of the deflecting 
force of the earth’s rotation and the easterly trending coast line, turns 
more and more easterly, so that off the coast of Georgia the Gulf 
Stream bears northeast, maintaining this general direction past Cape 


From within the straits the axis of the Gulf Stream runs approxi- 
mately parallel with the 100-fathom curve as far as Cape Hatteras, a 
distance of about 800 geographical miles. Since this stretch of coast 
line sweeps northward in a sharper curve than does the 100-fathom 
line, the axis lies at varying distances from the shore. Within the 
straits it is about 10 miles offshore; in the bight off the coast of Georgia 
this distance is about 100 miles; and at Cape Hatteras it is about 35 
miles. In Figure 5 the axis is shown as compiled from Coast and 
Geodetic Survey Charts 1007 and 1001 and Hydrographic Office 
Chart 1411. On these charts the axis bears the following legends: 
‘‘approximate axis of maximum strength’? (Chart 1001); ‘‘approxi- 
mate location of axis of Gulf Stream’ (Chart 1007); ‘‘mean position 
of axis of Gulf Stream” (Chart 1411). 

Even with a qualifying phrase directing attention to the fact 
that its location is only approximate, the axis of the Gulf Stream as it 
appears on a chart tends to convey a sense of definiteness and precision 
wholly at variance with the observed facts. The channel of the Gulf 
Stream is so wide and is characterized by so many irregularities that 
the simple flow postulated can be but the roughest approximation. 

Strictly, we should distinguish between the temperature axis and 
the velocity axis of the Gulf Stream. The earlier systematic observa- 
tions on the Gulf Stream dealt with the temperature of the water 
rather than with its motion. Hence the axis was taken to be the 
line along which the highest temperatures obtained. Later, the axis 
was taken to mark the line of greatest velocity. Ordinarily it is 




mot eee 7 SETS 

As : 
C Canaveral ; 


ae I 

Nae 7] oe 
int * Muni SS dS I 

80° 1S 

FIGURE 5.—The axis of the Gulf Stream. The dotted line represents the 100-fathom line 


assumed that the two axes coincide; but this is by no means certain, 
and only systematic observations over a considerable period can solve 

this problem. 

Within the straits the lateral boundaries of the Gulf Stream can 
be fixed with considerable precision. But when the stream issues into 
the sea, how are these boundaries to be determined? On the west- 
ern side, to be sure, it is not difficult to define limits, since the waters 
of the stream differ in color, temperature, salinity, and flow from 
the inshore coastal waters. But on the east the Antilles Current 
comes to reinforce the Gulf Stream, so that its waters here merge 
gradually with the waters of the open Atlantic. In terms of color, 
temperature, and salinity it would be difficult to define the eastern 
limits of the Gulf Stream. With regard to direction of flow, however, 
we may fix the limits to include all the water flowing parallel to the 
axis. These limits vary with the seasons and with changing condi- 
tions of wind and weather. Furthermore, our knowledge of currents 
in the open sea is not yet sufficient to enable us to fix such limits with 
precision. Nevertheless, from such charts of the currents of the 
Atlantic as Schott’s ” and Meyer’s ® we may arrive at some approxi- 
mately accurate estimate of the lateral extent of the Gulf Stream. 

It has generally been taken that the inner edge of the Gulf Stream, 
from its outfall into the sea to Cape Hatteras, is defined by the 100- 
fathom curve. But recent observations by the Coast and Geodetic 
Survey indicate that it lies closer inshore. Systematic current obser- 
vations made on board Diamond Shoals Light Vessel, which is anchor- 
ed in 30 fathoms of water off the coast of North Carolina about 14 
miles southeast of Cape Hatteras, give an average surface current 
here of 0.4 knot setting N. 58° E., which proves that along this stretch 
of the coast the inner edge of the Gulf Stream lies nearer the 20- 
fathom curve than the 100-fathom curve. Taking the inner limit 
of the Gulf Stream as far as Cape Hatteras to be defined by the 
50-fathom curve, and the outer edge to be defined by a line along which 
the current is still approximately parallel to the axis of the Gulf 
Stream, the width of the stream northward of its outfall is as follows: 
Off Cape Canaveral, about 70 miles; off the coast of Georgia after 
its union with the Antilles Current, about 150 miles; off Cape Hat- 
teras about 200 miles. 


The region off Cape Hatteras has been called the ‘‘delta” of the 
Gulf Stream, for here the widespreading current separates into a 

12 Schott, op. cit., Pl. XV, following p. 144. 
13H. H. F. Meyer: Die Oberflichenstrémungen des Atlantischen Ozeans im Februar, Veréffentl.Inst. 
fiir Meereskunde, No. 11, Berlin, 1923, 


number of bands. This is most clearly evidenced by the juxtaposi- 
tion of warm and cold bands of water of varying widths. This feature 
is also noted below Cape Hatteras but not in so marked a degree. 

North of Cape Hatteras the Gulf Stream flows with a velocity 
averaging a little less than a knot, turning more and more eastward 
under the combined effects of the deflecting force of the earth’s rota- 
tion and the eastwardly trending coast line, until the region of the 
Grand Bank of Newfoundland is reached. Here it comes into conflict 
with the southerly flowing Labrador Current which carries cold water 
of relatively low salinity. 


At an early stage of the investigations it was found that on its 
western or inner side the Gulf Stream was separated from the coastal 
waters by a zone of rapidly falling temperature, to which the term 
“‘cold wall” was applied. It is most clearly marked north of Cape 
Hatteras but extends, more or less well defined, from the straits to 
the Banks of Newfoundland. The abrupt change in the temperature 
of the waters separated by the cold wall is frequently very striking. 
Ward refers to an occasion in 1922 when the U. S. Coast Guard cutter 
Tampa, which is about 240 feet long, was placed directly across the 
cold wall, and the temperature of the sea at the bow was found to be 
34° while at the stern it was 56°.4 

In the vicinity of the Banks of Newfoundland the cold wall rep- 
resents the dividing line between the warm waters of the Gulf Stream 
and the cold waters of the Labrador Current; and it seemed reasona- 
ble to invoke the cold waters of this current in explaining the existence 
of the cold wall and the relatively low temperatures of the coastal 
waters to the southward and westward. It was largely on this account 
that the waters of the Labrador Current were assumed to flow all 
along the eastern coast of the United States. 

Recent observations, however, do not bear out this explanation. 
Current observation on various light vessels along the Atlantic coast 
of the United States made in recent years by the Coast and Geodetic 
Survey give no evidence of a predominant southerly movement of the 
water along the coast. From the observations made by the Inter- 
national Ice Patrol, Smith concludes that there is no southwest flow 
of the Labrador Current across the Great Bank, but that it “‘turns 
sharply, between parallels 42 and 43 and meridians 51 and 52, to flow 
easterly, parallel with the Gulf Stream.’ In his study of the Gulf 
of Maine, Bigelow gave careful consideration to this question. His 

4 R. DeC. Ward: A Cruise with the International Ice Patrol, Geogr. Rev., vol. 14, pp. 50-61; 1924. ref- 
erence on p. 54. 

16 Edward H. Smith: Oceanographic Summary, in ‘‘ International Ice Observation and Ice Patrol Service 
in the North Atlantic Ocean, Season of 1922,” U.S. Coast Guard Bull. No. 10, pp. 93-97; Washington, 1923, 
reference on p. 97. 


conclusion is that he has “no hesitation, therefore, in definitely asssert- 
ing that the Labrador Current does not reach, much less skirt, the 
coast of North America, from Nova Scotia southward, as a regular 

Several agencies appear to be responsible for the cooler coastal 
waters along the eastern coast of the United States. In the first place 
into this area the rivers bring their drainage waters from the land, 
these waters being for the greater part of the year much colder than the 
open ocean waters. Another contributory cause is the deflection by 
the earth’s rotation of cold water from the Gulf of St. Lawrence 
against the American coast. Then, too, the coastal waters are closer 


Stability of Current 
¢———— over 15% 

Velocity of Current 

@emee over | knot 
is fy — | 

FIGURE 6.—Surface currents of the North Atlantic Ocean 

to the low winter temperatures of the land and are thus made colder 
than the open ocean waters. A further cause is found in the winds, 
which along the coast of the United States are prevailingly from the 
land. ‘This tends to drive the warmer surface water seaward, its place 
being taken by the cooler subsurface waters. 

When we come to a study of the horizontal circulation of the North 

Atlantic Ocean we find a complex system of interrelated currents, as is 
evident from a glance at Figure 6. In this figure, which is adapted 

16 H. B. Bigelow: Physical Oceanography of the Gulf of Maine, U. S. Bur. of Fisheries, Doc. No. 969, 
p. 828, Washington, 1927. See also H. B. Bigelow: Exploration of the waters of the Gulf of Maine, Geogr. 
Rev., Vol. 18, pp. 282-260, 1928. 


from Schott, three characteristics of the currents are indicated. The 
direction of the current at any point isshown by the direction of the 
arrow at that point; the strength of the current or its velocity is in- 
dicated by the width of the arrow; and the stability of the current is 
indicated by the length of the arrow. The stability of the current at 
any point is expressed as a percentage and is a measure of the constancy 
of direction of the current at that point. The derivation of the 
numerical value of the stability involves technical details !? which 
need not detain us here. 

In a very real sense the circulation indicated by Figure 5 constitutes 
a single-current system; for a movement of the water at any point 
implies corresponding movements and return currents at other points, 
all these movements together forming a system of circulation. How- 
ever, the large area covered by the North Atlantic Ocean and more 
particularly the different characteristics of the moving masses of 
water as regards temperature, salinity, and velocity make it convenient 
to designate various parts of the system by distinctive names, as for 
example the North Equatorial Current or Canary Current. 

Starting at any given point various circuits may be traced on a 
current chart. ‘The one which, under the name of Gulf Stream, we 
have followed from the Straits of Florida as far as the Banks of 
Newfoundland may be traced further eastward and northeastward 
to the coastal waters of northwestern Europe, as shown in Figure 6. 
Shall this current circuit from the eastern coast of the United States 
to northwestern Europe be designated by the single name Gulf Stream? 
Or shall we limit the name Gulf Stream to the stretch from the Straits 
to the Banks of Newfoundland, since in this stretch the characteristics 
of the current are much the same? If it is the northeasterly transport 
of warm water across the Atlantic that one has in mind, a single name 
like Gulf Stream or North Atlantic Current has many advantages. If, 
however, the causes and details of the movement of the water are 
being studied, the phenomena are more clearly apprehended by ~ 
giving the current eastward of the Banks of Newfoundland some such 
name as Gulf Stream Drift or North Atlantic Drift. It is a slow cur- 
rent, the velocity averaging less than half a knot, and its movement 
is due in large part to the westerly winds which prevail over this 
stretch of the ocean. 

The validity of the conception underlying the representation of 
the movement of the waters in the Gulf Stream and in the North 
Atlantic Drift by current charts like Figure 7 has been assailed in 
recent years by Dr. E. Le Danois. In a paper published in 1924 
he elaborates the thesis that the movement of the waters of the 

7 Kriimmel, op. cit., Vol. 2, p. 441. 
18K. Le Danois: Etude hydrologique de l’Atlantique-Nord, Annales Inst. Oceanographique, Vol. 1 
(N.8.), pp. 1-52 ,1924, 


North Atlantic consists of two currents—a circumpolar current and 
an equatorial current—and various so-called transgressions, by which 
name he denominates slow periodic movements of the water of the 
nature of long-period tidal movements. The Gulf Stream in parti- 
cular he reduces to a mixture of the equatorial current with the 
tidal current from the Gulf of Mexico, which tidal current he men- 
tions as being violent. ‘‘This tidal current—the true Gulf Stream— 
is compelled to move into the open sea by the presence of the last 
waters of the Labrador Current which skirt the coast of the United 
States”? (p. 19). 

Now there are data at hand, as we shall see later, which completely 
disprove the existence of violent tidal currents in the Gulf of Mexico. 

Moreover, in characterizing the current in the Straits of Florida as a 
tidal current Le Danois must have in mind something quite different 
from what is commonly understood by the term, namely, a periodic 
forward and backward movement of the water with a period of half 
adayoraday. And in invoking the presence of the Labrador Current 
along the coast of the United States he surely does not strengthen his 
case; for, as we have seen, the view that the Labrador Current 
reaches the coast of the United States is no longer tenable. 

The reality of the movement of the water from the lower latitudes 
of the western North Atlantic to the higher latitudes of the eastern 


North Atlantic is not only evidenced by a chart of the currents but 
is also clearly indicated by the temperature of the surface waters. 
In Figure 7 the isotherms of the surface waters of the North Atlantic 
are shown for each five degrees Fahrenheit. The northerly sweep of 
the isotherms in the eastern North Atlantic points clearly to the 
existence of a current moving easterly and northerly across this 
oceanic basin. 


Ocean currents may arise from any one or more of a number of 
causes. Some of these causes reside within the sea itself, others 
originate without. Differences in level between two regions of an 
ocean basin, brought about by whatever agencies, will result in a 
surface current from the higher to the lower level. Differences in 
density, whether arising from difference in temperature or in salinity 
or both, will bring about a subsurface current from and a return sur- 
face current to the region of greater density. Differences in atmos- 
pheric pressure between two regions will, in the same way, bring in 
their train a subsurface current from and a return surface current 
to the region of greater pressure. And in the wind we have at once 
the most obvious and the most familiar of the agencies that bring 
about ocean currents. 

In a current traversing so long a course as that of the Gulf Stream 
it is plain that all the agencies enumerated above enter as factors. 
Clearly, too, the relative importance of the different agencies must 
vary in different parts of the course. But various problems of an 
hydrodynamic character must yet be solved before a numerical 
evaluation of the relative importance of the agencies concerned in the 
movement oi the Gulf Stream is possible. 

A century and a half ago Franklin thought that the Gulf Stream 
‘as probably generated by the great accumulation of water on the 
eastern coast of America between the tropics, by the trade winds 
which constantly blow there.’”’? And in the trade winds, which bring 
about a westerly flow of the waters in the equatorial regions of the 
Atlantic Ocean, is still found the primary cause of the Gulf Stream. 
As appears from Figure 6, the waters of the South Equatorial Current 
are the first to strike the coast, the greater part being directed north- 
westward into the Caribbean Sea where they reinforce the flow of 
the North Equatorial Current. From the Caribbean the combined 
flow comes into the Gulf of Mexico whence it issues as the Gulf 
Stream into the Straits of Florida. 

Now while the Gulf Stream is traced to the trade winds, the stream 
is not a wind or drift current as are the North and South Equatorial 
Currents. The accumulation of water resulting from the trade winds 
brings about a gradient current. This means that a higher level of 


the water must obtain in the Gulf of Mexico than out in the open sea 
north of the Straits of Florida. Agassiz quotes Hilgard as regarding 
the Gulf of Mexico ‘‘as an immense hydrostatic reservoir rising to 
the height of more than 3 feet above the general oceanic level, and 
from this supply comes the Gulf Stream, which passes out through 
the Straits * * * the only opening left for its exit.”1® Andina 
footnote he adds, ‘‘By a most careful series of levels, run from Sandy 
Hook and the mouth of the Mississippi River to St. Louis, it was 
discovered that the Atlantic Ocean at the first point is 40 inches lower 
than the Gulf of Mexico at the mouth of the Mississippi.” In a 
paper published in 1914 Hepworth states, ‘‘As regards the Gulf 
Stream, and its causation, it was found by the officers of the United 
States Coast Survey that the Atlantic Ocean at Sandy Hook was 3 
to 4 feet lower than the waters of the Gulf of Mexico at the mouth 
of the Mississippi.’’ 7° 

It should be remembered that leveling of even the highest precision 
is subject to instrumental errors which, while very small for moderate 
distances, may become relatively large between widely separated 
points. More recent results reduce very much the difference in level 
between the Gulf of Mexico and the Atlantic and bring to light the 
fact that this is a highly involved matter. Avers recently studied 
this question in connection with the broader question of the deviations 
of local sea level from a level surface.* His results, which are based 
on the best available data, may be summarized as follows: From 
Galveston, Texas, to Cedar Keys, on the west coast of Florida, the 
level of the Gulf slopes downward, the difference between the two 
places being 0.43 foot. The level of the Gulf at Cedar Keys is 0.36 
foot higher than the level of the Atlantic Ocean at St. Augustine on the 
eastern coast of Florida. But from St. Augustine northward there is 
an upward slope of sea level all along the Atlantic coast of the United 
States; so that in the vicinity of Sandy Hook sea level is actually 
0.62 foot higher than at St. Augustine and but 0.16 foot below the 
Gulf level at Galveston. 

This upward slope of sea level along the Atlantic coast of the United 
States does not necessarily mean that the Gulf Stream is moving 
uphill. For the main body of the Gulf Stream is a number of miles off 
the coast, and there may well be a downward slope of sea level out- 
ward from the coast. The question of sea level itself is one compli- 
cated by many factors, and the exact determination of the difference 
in level between the Gulf and the open sea bristles with numerous 
unsolved problems. 

19 Alexander Agassiz: Three Cruises of the United States Coast and Geodetic Survey Steamer ‘‘ Blake’’ 
Vol. 1, p. 249, Boston and New York, 1888. 

20M. W. Campbell Hepworth: The Gulf Stream, Geogr. Journ., Vol. 44, pp. 429-452 and 534-553, 1914; 
reference on p. 435. © 

21H. G. Avers: A study of the Variation of Mean Sea-Level from a Level Surface, Bull. Natl. Research 
Council, No. 61 (=Trans. Amer. Geophys. Union, 1927), pp. 56-58, Washington, 1927. 


The Gulf Stream manifestly must be subject to fluctuations as 
regards location, velocity, and temperature. Heavy winds will not 
only carry its waters into regions which at other times it does not 
invade but will also accelerate or retard its velocity. Variations in 
barometric pressure likewise will bring about fluctuations in the move- 
ment of the waters of the stream. Seasonal variations in temperature 
in the regions through which it flows will be reflected in somewhat 
similar seasonal variations in the temperature of its waters. A further 
cause for its fluctuation is found in the fluctuations of the currents 
which feed it or which, like the Labrador Current, come into conflict 
with it. 

Fluctuations in the velocity of the Gulf Stream are noted by Pills- 
bury. He refers to an occasion, while he was at anchor in the Straits 
of Florida, when the velocity of the current at the surface increased 
from 3.3 knots to 4.6 knots in less than an hour. He speaks, too, of 
‘a regular daily variation in velocity which amounts in some instances 
to nearly 24 knots” (p. 546). This regular daily variation he regarded 
as of the nature of a tidal effect. His observations were later sub- 
jected to harmonic analysis by Harris, who found the principal con- 
stituent of the tidal current to have a velocity of less than a quarter 
of a knot.” The tidal current in the Straits of Florida is therefore 
of negligible velocity, and the fluctuations noted by Pillsbury are 
undoubtedly irregularities which accompany the flow of water in 
large masses. 

Pillsbury was also of the opinion that, in addition to this so-called 
regular daily variation and to fluctuations arising from changes in 
wind and weather, the Gulf Stream within the Straits of Florida was 
subject to periodic monthly variations in both temperature and 
velocity which depend on the declination of the moon. The observa- 
tions are not, however, sufficiently extensive to settle this question 
definitely. The reality of such variations is still in question, and it 
would not be at all surprising if further investigation should disprove 
any such relationship. 

In a paper before the American Meteorological Society on Tem- 
perature Variations in the Gulf Stream in the Straits of Florida, 
1917-1921,7 Hazel V. Miller presented the results of a study of 
several thousand readings of surface-water temperature made by 
observers on the Key West-Habana car ferries across the Straits of 
Florida for the 4-year period 1917-1921. The temperature was 
found to range from a minimum of about 76° in January to about 86° 

2 R.A. Harris: Manual! of Tides, Part V: Currents, Shallow-Water Tides, Meteorological Tides, and 
Miscellaneous Matters, U. S. Coast and Geodetic Survey Rep. for the Year Ending June 30, 1907, Appen- 
dix 6, pp. 231-545 Washington, 1907; reference on pp. 411-412. 

23 Abstract in Bull. Amer. Meteorol. Soc., Vol. 7, pp. 87-88, 1926. 


in September, while variations of as much as 4° from week to week 
under the influence of a strong wind were noted. A comparison of 
weekly temperatures with winds brought out clearly immediate and 
persisting effects of the wind as regards both direction and velocity. 

From the nature of the agencies concerned, fluctuations from day 
to day in the flow and temperature of the Gulf Stream may be taken 
for granted. Seasonal variations likewise are unquestionable, as are 
smaller fluctuations from year to year. Vilhelm Pettersson studied 
the temperature data derived from ships’ logs, covering the Gulf 
Stream up to latitude 33° N., for the 14-year period 1900-1913. He 
found that the temperature of the surface waters varies from year to 
year, generally by less than 1° but sometimes by more than a degree.”* 
Whether these yearly variations are, in large or small part, of a periodic 
nature is at the present time, for lack of sufficient data, an open 

The difficulties involved in securing systematic observations on 
the temperature and flow of the Gulf Stream to determine the nature 
and extent of its fluctuations are obvious. The observations recorded 
in navigators’ log books furnish valuable information, but such 
observations are not sufficient of themselves. More hopeful is the 
slowly growing use of sea-water thermographs aboard ships. From 
the records furnished by these instruments definite information 
regarding fluctuations in the temperature of the Gulf Stream waters 
should result. 

In the light of the preceding considerations the question of whether 
there has been any permanent change in the course or in the temper- 
ature of the Gulf Stream since it has been known to civilized man, may 
be answered shortly. Manifestly, without extensive observations 
which would permit comparisons, no categorical answer can be given. 
But it is clear that any decided change in an ocean current of the 
magnitude of the Gulf Stream can come only as the result of extensive 
changes in such features as the bottom of the ocean, the configuration 
of the coast line, or the prevailing winds. Since no such extensive 
changes appear to have taken place, it is highly improbable that any 
decided change in the course of the Gulf Stream has occurred since 
it has become known. 


A host of problems lie covered by the question of the climatic 
effects of the Gulf Stream. That its warm waters have an ameliorat- 
ing effect on the lands near which they flow is a strongly held opinion; 

*V. I. Pettersson: Etude de la statistique hydrographique du Bulletin Atlantique du Conseil Inter- 
national pour l’Exploration de la Mer, Svenska Hydrogr.-Biol. Komm. Skrifter, Hydrografi I (N.S.), 
p. 4, 1926. 


and now and again schemes are seriously proposed to change the course 
of the Stream with a view to moderating the winter climate of our 
Northeastern States. 

A moment’s consideration is sufficient to show that the direct 
influence of the Gulf Stream on the climate of the greater part of the 
eastern coast of the United States is altogether negligible. For, aside 
from latitude, our climate depends mostly on the direction from which 
the winds come and the force with which they blow. In winter the 
winds along the northeastern coast of the United States are prevailingly 
from the northwest, that is from the land. Hence the warm waters 
of the Gulf Stream lying several hundred miles to the leeward can in 
no way moderate our winter climate. 

These considerations are sufficient also to prove the absurdity 
of the proposals for changing the course of the Gulf Stream in the 
interests of a more equable climate. Furthermore, the forces that 
give rise to the Gulf Stream are of such magnitude that they are not 
yet amenable to control by man. But even if the Gulf Stream could 
be brought nearer our shores, the climate could be moderated only if 
the winter winds could be made to blow from the south or the south- 

Indeed, there are good reasons for believing that if the Gulf Stream 
were to shift closer to the coast the climate of our Northeastern States 
would become more extreme rather than moderated—colder and more 
stormy in winter, hotter and more humidinsummer. For, with warm 
air near the coast in winter, a greater flow of air from the northwest 
would result, bringing severer storms and colder weather. In summer, 
the winds along the coast are more or less sea breezes, bringing the 
cooler air from the sea to moderate the heat. With warmer air nearer 
shore, the sea breezes would become weaker and less frequent, thus 
giving wider scope for the hot land winds. 

While the moderating effect of the Gulf Stream on the climate of 
North America is negligible, there is no question as to its beneficent 
effects on the climate of northwestern Europe. Scandinavia and 
southeastern Greenland face each other across the intervening waters 
of the Atlantic Ocean along the same parallels of latitude. Contrast 
the populous and prosperous lands of the one with the bleak and 
inhospitable shores of the other! 

It is to be observed that the tempering influence of the Gulf Stream 
on the climate of northwestern Europe is effected through the agency 
of winds. In winter the winds are there prevailingly from the south- 
west. Blowing over the relatively warm water which the Gulf Stream 
(using the term as embracing also the North Atlantic Drift) has 
brought to the northeastern rim of the Atlantic, they carry warm air 
onto the coast. It is through this mechanism that the heat exchange 


in winter between the Gulf Stream and the air of northwestern Europe 
takes place. 

How great the influence of the Gulf Stream on the climate of north- 
western Europe is, becomes evident from the fact that the average 
temperature for the month of January in northern Norway is about 45° 
above the January temperature normal for that latitude.” Hammer- 
fest, on the north coast of Norway in latitude 70° 40’ N.—well within 
the Arctic Circle—is an important harbor and sea-fishing center dur- 
ing the winter, while the port of Riga, about 800 miles farther south is 
obstructed by ice throughout the season. 

Since the climate of northwestern Europe is so strongly influenced 
by the Gulf Stream, should not fluctuations in the latter find reflection 
in changes in the climatic conditions of this region? At first glance 
the differences in temperature of the Gulf Stream from year to year— 
something like 1°—might appear insignificant in such a connection. 
But the fact is not to be overlooked that the capacity of water for 
heat is so great that when a given volume of water gives off the heat 
represented by a fall of 1° in temperature, a mass of air more than 
3,000 times that volume will have its temperature raised 1°. 

A direct attack on this problem is difficult because of the lack 
of systematic observations on the temperature and flow of the Gulf 
Stream. Otto Pettersson studied the temperature variations of the 
water at several places along the Norwegian coast and found that these 
variations were reflected by corresponding variations in various cli- 
matic phenomena.” The problem clearly is a involv- 
ine the question of the mutual interaction of ocean and atmosphere. 
A considerable literature has grown up around this, which is sum- 
marized by Helland-Hansen and Nansen.” 

One phase of this problem links with the question of long-range 
weather forecasts. It is a long circuit that is traversed by the Gulf 
Stream from.its place of orgin in the subtropical regions to the coasts 
of northwestern Europe. How long a period intervenes between 
fluctuations in the stream and the resultant climatic effects in Europe? 
This problem, too, can not yet be attacked directly, because of the lack 
of systematic observations. Such investigations as have been made 
show this to be a promising field. Thus Otto Pettersson found that 
the date when spring plowing could commence near Upsala depended 
on the temperature of the water of the Atlantic off the coast of Norway 
about two months previous. Vilhelm Pettersson found that the sum- 

25 J. W. Sandstrém: Uber den Einfluss des Golfstromes auf die Winter-temperatur in Europe Meteorol. 
Zeitschr., Vol. 43, pp. 401-411 1926; reference on p. 401. 

26 Otto Pettersson: Uber die Reziehungen zwischen hydrographischen und metorologischen Phinomenen, 
Meteorol. Zeitschr., Vol. 13, pp. 285-318, 1896. 

27 Bjorn Helland-Hansen and Fridtjof Nansen: Temperature Variations in the North Atlantic Ocean 
and in the Atmosphere, Smithsonian Misc. Coll., Vol. 70, No. 4, pp. 26-51, Washington, 1920. 


mer temperature of the water in the region between Newfoundland and 
Ireland gave an indication of the rainfall in Ireland and Great Britain 
in the following year. 

Obviously the problem of unraveling the relationship between 
changes in the Gulf Stream and weather conditions several months 
hence is not a simple one. Climatic conditions in any given region of 
the North Atlantic result from the interplay of a number of factors. 
Similarly, the temperature of the stream at any given time is brought 
about by the interaction of a number of agencies. Nevertheless it 
appears that in the study of the fluctuations of the Gulf Stream lies 
the possibliity of long-range weather forecasts for a considerable part 
of Kurope. 



By F. G. Donnan, F. R. 8. 

During the last 40 years the sciences of physics and chemistry 
have made tremendous strides. The physicochemical world has 
been analyzed into three components—electrons, protons, and the 
electromagnetic field with its streams of radiant energy. Concur- 
rently with these advances astronomy has progressed to an extent 
undreamed of 40 years ago. The distances, sizes, masses, tempera- 
tures, and even the constitutions of far-distant stars have been ascer- 
tained and compared. The evolution of the almost inconceivably 
distant nebule and their condensation into stars and star clusters 
have been unraveled with a skill and knowledge that would have 
been deemed superhuman a hundred years ago. Amidst the vast 
cosmos thus disclosed to the mind of man, our sun winds its modest 
way, aN unimportant star, old in years and approaching death. 
Once upon a time, so the astronomers tell us, its surface was rippled 
by the gravitational pull of a passing star, and the ripples becoming 
waves, broke and splashed off. Some drops of this glowing spray, 
held by the sun’s attraction in revolving orbits, cooled down and 
became the planets of our solar system. Our own planet, the earth, 
gradually acquired a solid crust. Then the water vapor in its atmos- 
phere began to condense, and produced oceans, lakes and rivers as 
the temperature sank. It is probably at least a thousand million 
years since the earth acquired a solid crust of rock. During that 
period living beings, plants and animals, have appeared, and, as 
the story of the rocks tells us, have developed by degrees from small 
and lowly ancestors. The last product of this development is the mind 
of man. What a strange story! On the cool surface of this little 
planet, warmed by the rays of a declining star, stands the small 
company of life. One with the green meadows and the flowers, the 
birds and the fishes and the beasts, man with all his kith and kin 
counts for but an infinitesimal fraction of the surface of the earth, and 
yet it is the mind of man that has penetrated the cosmos and dis- 
covered the distant stars and nebule. Truly we may say that life 

1 Evening discourse before the British Association for the Advancement of Science at the Glasgow Meet- 
ing, 1928. Reprinted by permission of the association. 


is the great mystery and the study of life the greatest study of all. 
The understanding of the phenomena of life will surely be the crowning 
glory of science, toward which all our present chemical and physical 
knowledge forms but the preliminary steps. 

Observing the apparent freedom, spontaneity and, indeed, way- 
wardness of many forms of life, we are at first lost in amazement. Is 
this thing we call life some strange and magical intruder, some source 
of lawless and spontaneous action, some fallen angel from an unknown 
and inconceivable universe? That is indeed the question we have to 
examine, and we may begin our examination in a general way by 
inquiring whether living things are subject to the laws of energy that 
control the mass phenomena of the inanimate world. The first of 
these laws, known as the law of the conservation of energy, says that 
work or energy can only be produced at the expense of some other 
form, and that there are definite rates of equivalence or exchange 
between the appearing and disappearing forms of energy. In a closed 
system we can make up a balance sheet, and we find that the algebraic 
sum of the increases and decreases, allowing, of course, for the fixed 
rates of exchange, is zero. That was one of the great discoveries of 
the nineteenth century. The physiologists have found that living 
beings form no exception to this law. If we put a guinea pig or a man 
into a nutrition calorimeter, measure the work and heat produced and 
the energy values of the food taken in and the materials given out, we 
find our balance sheet correct. The living being neither destroys nor 
creates energy. One part of the apparent freedom or spontaneity of 
which I spoke is gone. Energy-producing action must be paid for by 
energy consumed. The living being does not break the, rules of 
exchange that govern the markets of the nonliving and the dead. 

Another great discovery of the nineteenth century, the so-called 
second law of thermodynamics, restricts the direction of energy 
transformations. Thus a large tank of hot water at an even tempera- 
ture will not be found to cool itself and the disappearing heat energy 
to appear as the kinetic energy of a revolving flywheel or as the 
increased potential energy of a raised mass of metal, no other changes 
of any sort having taken place. Such a transformation need not, 
however, in any way conflict with the law of conservation. Unco- 
ordinated energy in statistical equilibrium, i. e., of even potential, 
does not spontaneously transform itself into coordinated energy. 
Now it would be a discovery of tremendous importance if plants or 
animals were found to be exceptions to this rule. But, so far as is 
known, the facts of biology and physiology seem to show that living 
beings, just like inanimate things, conform to the second law. They 
do not live and act in an environment which is in perfect physical and 
chemical equilibrium. It is the nonequilibrium, the free or available 
energy of the environment which is the sole source of their life and 



‘activity. A steam engine moves and does work because the coal and 
oxygen are not in equilibrium, just as an animal lives and acts be- 
cause its food and oxygen are not in equilibrium. As Bayliss has so 
finely put it, equilibrium is death. The chief source of life and 
activity on this planet arises from the fact that the cool surface of the’ 
earth is constantly bathed in a flood of high-temperature light. If 
radiation in thermal equilibrium with the average temperature of the 
earth’s crust were the only radiant energy present, practically all life 
as we know it would cease, for then the chlorophyll of the green plants 
would cease to assimilate carbonic acid and convert it into sugar and 
starch. The photochemical assimilation of the green plant is a fact of 
supreme importance in the economy of life. This transformation of 
carbonic acid and water into starch and oxygen represents an increase 
of free energy, since the starch and oxygen tend naturally to react 
together and give carbonic acid and water. Such an increase in free 
energy would be impossible if there existed no compensating running 
down or degradation of energy. But this running down or fall in 
potential is provided by the difference in temperature between the 
surface of the sun and the surface of the earth, a difference of some 
five or six thousand degrees. All living things live and act by utilizing 
some form of nonequilibrium or free energy in their environment. 
The living cell acts as an energy transformer, running some of the free 
energy of its environment down to a lower level of potential and 
simultaneously building some up to a higher level of potential. The 
nitrifying bacteria investigated by Winogradsky and recently by 
Meyerhof utilize the free energy of ammonia plus oxygen. By 
burning the ammonia to nitrous or nitric acid they are enabled to 
assimilate carbonic acid and convert it into sugar or protein. Other 
bacteria utilize the free energy of sulphuretted hydrogen plus oxygen. 
Fungi and anerobic bacteria utilize the free energy available when 
complex organic compounds pass into simpler chemical compounds. 
The close study of these energy exchanges and transformations is 
becoming a very important branch of cellular physiology, and in the 
hands of Warburg and Meyerhof in Germany and of A. V. Hill in 
England—to mention only a few eminent names—has already yielded 
results of the greatest value and importance. It would be a great 
thing if one of these investigators were to find a case where the second 
law of thermodynamics broke down. Up to the present, however, it 
appears that all these energy transformations of the living cell conform 
with the second law as it applies to the inanimate world. Thus 
another part of the apparent freedom or spontaneity of life, of which 
I spoke before, disappears. A living being is not a magical source of 
free energy or spontaneous action. Its life and activity are ruled and 
controlled by the amount and nature of the free energy, the physical 
or chemical nonequilibrium, in its immediate environment, and it 


lives and acts by virtue of this. The cells of a human brain continue 
to act because the blood stream brings to them chemical free energy 
in the form of sugar and oxygen. Stop the stream for a second and 
consciousness vanishes. Without that sugar and oxygen there could 
be no thought, no sweet sonnets of a Shakespeare, no joy, and no 

To say, however, that the tide of life ebbs and flows within the limits 
fixed by the laws of energy, and that living beings are in this respect no 
higher and no lower than the dead things around us is not to resolve 
the mystery. Consider for a moment a few of the phenomena exhib- 
ited by living things. The fertilization of the ovum, the growth of the 
embryo, the growth of the complete individual, the harmonious organ- 
ization of the individual, the phenomena of inheritance, of memory, 
of adaptation, of evolution. Viewing these phenomena in the light of 
the facts known to physics and chemistry, it is little wonder that some 
modern philosophers have followed in the steps of certain older ones 
and seen in the phenomena of life the operation of some strange and 
unknown vital force, some ‘‘entelechy,’”’ some expanding vital impulse; 
or at least some new and undiscovered form of ‘‘biotic”’ or ‘“‘nervous”’ 
energy. It is difficult to resist the comparison of the developing 
embryo with the building of a house to the plans of an invisible archi- 
tect. Growth and development seem to proceed on a definite plan 
and apparently purposeful adaptation confronts us at many stages of 
life. How can the differential equations of physics or the laws of 
physical chemistry attempt to explain or describe such strange and 
apparently marvelous phenomena? ‘The answer to this question was 
given more than 50 years ago by the great French physiologist, Claude 
Bernard. We must patiently proceed, he said, by the method of gen- 
eral physiology. This is the fundamental biological science toward 
which all others converge. Its method consists in determining the 
elementary condition of the phenomena of life. We must decompose 
or analyze the great mass phenomena of life into their elementary unit 
or constituent phenomena. That was the great answer given by 
Claude Bernard. It is worthy of a Newton or an Einstein. It 
sounded the clarion note of a new era of biological science. To-day 
general physiology in its application of physics, chemistry, and physical 
chemistry to the operations of the living cell is the fundamental science 
of life. Patiently pursued, and step by step, it is unraveling the mys- 
tery. The late Professor Bayliss was one of the greatest of the pioneer 
successors of Claude Bernard in England. Another of the greatest 
ones was Jacques Loeb in America, whose death we all so deeply de- 
plore. Although it is always invidious to mention the names of living 
men, it is good to think that in England to-day we possess three of the 
ereatest living exponents of general physiology, namely, Barcroft, Hill, 
and Hopkins, while in America the great work of Jacques Loeb is 


carried on by distinguished men of the high caliber of Lawrence Hen- 
derson, Osterhout, and van Slyke. In Germany we have such great 
names as Meyerhof, Warburg, Bechhold, and Héber, to mention only 
afew. What are these men attempting? Just what Claude Bernard 
set out in his program, namely, by a patient, exact, and quantita- 
tive application of the facts and laws of physics and chemistry to the 
elementary phenomena of life, gradually to arrive at a synthesis and 
understanding of the whole. That was precisely how Newton was 
able to determine the motions of celestial objects, namely, by going 
back to the elementary or fundamental law of gravitation. Through 
fine analysis to synthesis is indeed the only true scientific method. I 
do not mean that general physiology in the pursuit of its studies will 
not discover many things as yet unknown tous. The future findings of 
this science might be as strange to the investigators of to-day as the 
relativity theory of Einstein and Minkowsky was to the physicists of a 
few years ago. What I do mean is that the future discoveries and 
explanations of general physiology will be continuous and homologous 
with the science of to-day. Should, indeed, a new form of energy, “a 
vitalistic nervous energy,” be discovered, as predicted by the eminent 
Italian philosopher, Eugenio Rignano, it will be no twilight will-o’-the- 
wisp, no elusive entelechy or shadowy vital impulse, but an addition to 
our knowledge of a character permitting of exact measurement and of 
exact expression by means of mathematical equations. 

To give you the barest outline of the progress made by general 
physiology since the death of Claude Bernard 50 years ago (his statue, 
together with that of Marcellin Berthelot, stands in front of the 
Collége de France) would require at least a hundred lectures and the 
encyclopedic knowledge of a Bayliss. Permit me, however, to 
mention one or two examples, and those with all brevity. The chem- 
istry and energy changes of muscle have been discovered recently by 
Meyerhof in Germany and by A. V. Hill and Hopkins in England. 
When the muscle tissue contracts and does work it derives the nec- 
essary free energy, not from oxidation, which is not quick enough, 
but from the rapid exothermic conversion of the carbohydrate glyco- 
gen into lactic acid. When the fatigued muscle recovers it recharges 
its store of free energy; that is to say, by oxidizing or burning some of 
the carbohydrate, it reconverts the lactic acid into glycogen. Thus 
in the recovery stage we have the coupled reactions of exothermic oxida- 
tion and endothermic conversion of lactic acid into glycogen. Every- 
thing proceeds according to the laws of physics and chemistry. The 
story of the mode of action and recovery of the muscle cells forms 
one of the most fascinating chapters of general physiology. Here we 
see one of the elementary phenomena of life already to a great extent 
analyzed and elucidated. How this would have rejoiced the heart of 
Claude Bernard! That is one of the examples which I wished to 


mention. Another is what I may call the blood equilibrium. The 
red blood cells are inclosed in a membrane which does not allow the 
hemoglobin to escape, and only permits the passage of inorganic 
anions, though water and oxygen can pass freely in and out. Between 
the red cells and the external blood plasma in which they are sub- 
merged there exists a whole series of delicate exchange equilibria, such 
as water or osmotic equilibrium, ion-distribution equilibria, etc. The 
entrance of oxygen, which combines with the hemoglobin, converts 
it into a stronger acid and ejects carbonic acid from the bicarbonate 
ions within the cell. Any disturbance of one of these equilibria 
produces compensating changes in the others. The whole series of 
equilibria can be written down in a set of precise mathematical equa- 
tions. Thus two of the most important elementary phenomena of 
many forms of life, namely, respiration and the exchanges of the red 
blood cells, have been analyzed, subjected to exact measurement 
and described by exact mathematical equations. The laws of physics 
and chemistry have again been found to hold good. The beautiful 
story of this blood equilibrium we owe to the labor of many dis- 
tinguished physiologists, but chiefly to Lawrence Henderson and van 
Slyke in America and to A. V. Hill and Barcroft in England. That 
is the second example I wished to mention. These two will suffice for 
my present purpose. What is the lesson to be drawn from them? No 
less than that the elementary phenomena of life are deterministic, that 
is to say, that events compensate or succeed each other just as in the 
physicochemical world of inanimate things, and that their compensa- 
tions and successions can be exactly measured and expressed in the 
form of precise mathematical equations. Determinism exists just as 
much or, if you please, just as little, in the elementary phenomena of 
the living asin those of the nonliving systems familiar to physics and 
chemistry. Claude Bernard maintained that this was so. To the 
imperishable luster of his name be it said that 50 years of exact 
research have borne witness to the truth of his faith. Do not mis- 
understand me here. True science should have no dogmas. It would 
have been a wonderful and a fine thing if recent research in general 
physiology had led to a nondeterministic sequence of phenomena in the 
elementary condition of life. During the last 15 years theoretical 
physics, which has been undergoing a period of unexampled and 
daring advance, has dropped many a hint of the existence of appar- 
ently nondeterministic systems. The audacious springs of the electron 
within the atom from one energy level to another have often appeared 
to be ruled by considerations of relative probability rather than by any 
exact determinism in the ordinary sense of this word. But we can not 
as yet be sure of anything in modern theoretical physics. Just as 
we now hear little of the jumping frog of Calaveras County, so modern 
wave mechanics has overwhelmed the discontinuously jumping elec- 


tron, and seems to offer more promise of determinism than did that 
uneasy ghost. Thus determinism in the rigorous sense of the word is 
no infallible dogma of science. It would not be surprising if it did 
not exist in the minute phenomena of the world, since the apparent 
determinism of events on a greater scale is often only the result of a 
very high degree of statistical probability. Be that as it may, the 
investigations of general physiology, so far pursued, indicate that the 
elementary phenomena of life are quite as fully deterministic as 
phenomena on a corresponding scale of magnitude in the inanimate 
physicochemical world. 

Let us now make the daring supposition that general physiology, 
following the lead of Claude Bernard, has eventually succeeded in 
quantitatively analyzing every side and every aspect of the elementary 
condition of life. Would such a supposedly complete and quantitative 
analysis give us a synthesis of life? That is one of the most funda- 
mental and difficult questions of biological science. A living being is 
a dynamically organized individual, all the parts of which work har- 
moniously together for the well-being of the whole organism. The 
whole appears to us as something essentially greater than the sum 
total of its parts. This aspect of the living individual was fully recog- 
nized by Claude Bernard. It has been emphasized recently by General 
Smuts in his remarkable book on Holism and Evolution. Life, as 
seen by General Smuts, is constantly engaged in developing wholes, 
that is to say, organized individualities. We may indeed learn how 
the regulative and integrating action of the nervous system, so beauti- 
fully and thoroughly investigated by that great physiologist, Sir 
Charles Sherrington, serves to organize and unite together in a har- 
monious whole the varied activities of acomplex multicellular animal. 
We may learn, too, how those chemical substances, the hormones, 
discovered by Bayliss and Starling, are secreted by the ductless glands 
and, circulating in the miliew intérveur of an animal, act as powerful 
means for harmoniously regulating and controlling the growth and 
other activities of the various organs and tissues. Nevertheless, in 
spite of these great discoveries, the harmonious and dynamic correla- 
tion of the various organs and tissues of a living organism ever con- 
fronts us as one of the great mysteries of life. In an inanimate physico- 
chemical system we think, if we know the situations, modes of action 
and interrelations of the component parts, whether particles or waves 
(or both), together with the boundary conditions of the system, that 
we have effected a complete synthesis of the whole. Though very 
crudely expressed, some such view as that lies at the basis of the New- 
tonian philosophy which rules our thought in the inanimate physico- 
chemical world. Is the organized dynamical unity of a living organ- 
ism something fundamentally new and different? Confronted by a 
problem of this order of difficulty, it behooves us to be patient and to 


await the future progress of scientific research. Perhaps if we could 
actually witness and follow out the varied motions and activities of 
a single complex chemical molecule in a reacting medium we might 
find something not so very different from life. Or perhaps the organic 
unity of a living organism requires for its understanding some such 
explosion of human thought and inspiration as that which occurred 
when Einstein and Minkowsky discovered the true relations of what 
we call space and time. We may, however, be sure of this. The under- 
standing, when it comes, will consist in something that permits of 
exact measurement and of precise expression in mathematical form, 
even though for the latter purpose a new form of mathematics may 
have to be invented. 

Leibnitz once remarked that ‘‘the machines of nature, that is to say, 
living bodies, are still machines in their smallest parts ad infinitum.” 
Anatomy and histology have progressively disclosed the structure of 
living things. Histology has revealed to us the cell with its nucleus 
and cytoplasm as the apparently fundamental unit of all the organs 
and tissues of a living being. What is contained within the membrane 
of a living cell? Here we approach the inner citadel of the mystery of 
life. If we can analyze and understand this, the first great problem— 
perhaps the only real problem—of general physiology will have been 
solved. The study of the nature and behavior of the living cell and 
of unicellular organisms is the true task of biology to-day. 

The living cell contains a system known as protoplasm, though as 
yet no one can define what protoplasm is. One of the fundamental 
components of this system is the class of chemical substances known 
as proteins, and each type of cell in each species of organism contains 
one or more proteins which are peculiar to it. Important components 
of the protoplasmic system are water and the chiorides, bicarbonates 
and phosphates of sodium, potassium, and calcium. Other sub- 
stances are also present, especially those mysterious bodies known as 
enzymes, which catalyze the various chemical actions occurring 
within the cell. Strange to say, the living cell contains within itself 
the seeds of death, namely those so-called autolytic enzymes, which 
are capable of hydrolyzing and breaking down the protein components 
of the protoplasm. So long, however, as the cell continues to live, 
these autolytic enzymes do not act. What a strange thing! The 
harpies of death sleep in every unit of our living bodies, but as long 
as life is there their wings are bound and their devouring mouths 
are closed. 

This protoplasmic system exists in what is known as the colloid 
state. Roughly speaking, this means that it exists as a rather 
fluid sort of jelly. There is something extraordinarily significant in 
this colloid state of the protoplasmic system, though no one as yet 
eansay what it really means. Recollecting the statement of Leibnitz, 


one may be sure that the protoplasmic system of the cell constitutes 
a wonderful sort of machine. There must exist some very curious 
inner structure where the protein molecules are marshaled and arrayed 
as long mobile chains or columns. The molecular army within the 
cell is ready for quick and organized action and is in a state, during 
life, of constant activity. Oxidation, assimilation and the rejection 
of waste products are always going on. ‘The living cell is constantly 
exchanging energy and materials with its environment. The appar- 
ently stationary equilibrium is in reality a kinetic or dynamic equilib- 
rium. But there is a great mystery here. Deprive your motor car 
of petrol or of oxygen and the engine stops. Yes, but it doesn’t die, 
it does not begin at once to go to pieces. Deprive the living cell of 
oxygen or food and it dies and begins at once to go to pieces. The 
autolytic enzymes begin to hydrolyze and break down the dead 
protoplasm. Why is this? What is cellular death? The atoms and 
the molecules and ions are still there. Meyerhof has shown that 
the energy content of living protein is no greater than that of dead 
protein. Has some ghostly entelechy or vital impulse escaped 
unobserved? Now it is just here, at the very gate between life and 
death, that the English physiologist, A. V. Hill, is on the eve of a 
discovery of astounding importance, if indeed he has not already 
made it. It appears from his work on nonmedullated nerve cells 
and on muscle that the organized structure of these cells is a chemo- 
dynamic structure which requires oxygen, and therefore oxidation, 
to preserve it. The organization, the molecular structure, is always 
tending to run down, to approach biochemical chaos and disorgani- 
zation. It requires constant oxidation to preserve the peculiar 
organization or organized molecular structure of a living cell. The 
life machine is therefore totally unlike our ordinary mechanical 
machines. Its structure and organization are not static. They are 
in reality dynamic equilibria, which depend on oxidation for their 
very existence. The living cell is like a battery which is constantly 
running down, and which requires constant oxidation to keep it 
charged. It is perhaps a little premature at the present moment to 
say how far these results will prove to be general. Personally, I 
believe that they are of great importance and generality, and that 
for the first time in the history of science we begin, perhaps as yet a 
little dimly, to understand the difference between life and death, 
and therefore the very meaning of life itself. Life is a dynamic 
molecular organization kept going and preserved by oxygen and 
oxidation. Death is the natural irreversible breakdown of this 
structure, always present and only warded off by the structure- 
preserving action of oxidation. 

The last great problem which I shall venture to consider in this 
brief sketch concerns the origin of life. It might indeed be argued 


with much justice that such considerations are so far beyond the 
present stage of science that they are entirely without value. That, 
I think, is a bad argument and a worse philosophy. But, in any 
case, a dealer in mysteries is entitled to carry on his dealings as far 
and as best he may. 

There appear to be two schools of thought in speculations of this 
character. The late Professor Arrhenius supported the theory or 
doctrine of Panspermia, according to which life is as old and as 
fundamental as inanimate matter. Its germs or spores are supposed 
on this view to be scattered through the universe and to have reached 
our planet quite accidentally. You will remember that Lord Kelvin 
suggested they were carried here on meteorites. But against this 
idea the objection has been urged that meteorites in passing through 
our atmosphere get exceedingly hot through friction with the air. 
Arrhenius brought forward the very ingenious idea that the motion 
in and distribution through space of these germs or spores were 
caused by the pressure of light, which in the case of very minute 
bodies can overcome the attraction of gravitation, as is often seen 
in the tails of comets. Many objections have been brought against 
this theory of Panspermia. It has been argued that either the cold 
of interstellar space or the ultra-violet light which pervades it would 
be sufficient to kill such living germs or spores. Certainly ultra- 
violet light is a very powerful germicide, though many spores can 
withstand very low temperatures for long periods of time. Perhaps 
the chief objection to this doctrine of Panspermia is that it is a hopeless 
one. Not only does it close the door to thought and research, but it 
introduces a permanent dualism into science and so prejudges an 
important philosophical issue. 

If the living has arisen on this planet from what we regard as the 
nonliving, then various extremely interesting points arise. It is 
already pretty certain that it originated, if at all, in the primeval 
ocean, since the inorganic salts present in the circulating fluids of 
animals correspond in nature and relative amounts to what we have 
good reason to believe was the composition of the ocean some hundred 
million years ago. The image of Aphrodite rising from the sea is 
therefore not without scientific justification. We have seen that life 
requires for its existence a certain amount of free energy or nonequi- 
librium in the environment. In the early atmosphere there was plenty 
of carbon dioxide, and probably also some oxygen, though nothing like 
so much as at present. Volcanic action would provide plenty of 
oxidizable substances, such, for example, as ammonia or sulphuretted 
hydrogen. As we have seen previously, certain bacteria could 
therefore, in all probability, have lived and assimilated carbon dioxide, 
producing organic substances such as sugar and proteins. This argu- 
ment, though very interesting from the point of view of Panspermia, 


has a serious flaw in it from the present point of view, since the bodies 
of these bacteria would necessarily contain the complicated organic 
proteins of the protoplasm. When the earth cooled down to a tem- 
perature compatible with life, it is probable that the ocean contained 
little, if any, of such organic substances or their simpler organic 
components. There was likewise no chlorophyll present to achieve 
the photochemical assimilation of carbon dioxide. Hence the neces- 
sity of considering how organic substances could have arisen by 
degrees in a primeval ocean originally containing only inorganic con- 
stituents. The late Prof. Benjamin Moore took up this question and 
endeavored to prove that colloidal iron oxide in the presence of light, 
moisture, and carbon dioxide, could produce formaldehyde, a sub- 
stance from which sugar can be derived. This work of Moore’s has 
been actively taken up and developed by Professor Baly in recent years. 
He has conclusively proved that, in the presence of light, moisture, and 
carbon dioxide, formaldehyde and sugar can be produced at the surface 
of certain colored inorganic compounds, such as nickel carbonate. We 
may therefore conclude that the production of the necessary organic 
substances in the primeval ocean offers no insuperable obstacle to 
science. But there is still a very great difficulty in the way, a difficulty 
that was pointed out by Professor Japp, I think, at a former meet- 
ing of the British association in Dover. The protein components 
of the protoplasmic system are optically active substances. As is well 
known, such optically active substances, i. e., those which rotate 
the plane of polarization of polarized light, are molecularly asymmetric 
and always exist in two forms, a dextrorotatory and a levorotatory 
form. Both these forms possess equal energies, and so their forma- 
tions in a chemical reaction are equally probable. As a matter of 
fact, chemical reaction always produces these two forms in equal 
quantities, and so the resulting mixture is optically inactive. How, 
then, did the optically active protein of the first protoplasm arise? 
In spite of many attempts to employ plane or circularly polarized 
light for this purpose, chemists have not, so far as I know, succeeded 
in producing an asymmetric synthesis, i. e., a production of the 
dextrorotatory or levorotatory form, starting from optically inactive, 
that is to say, symmetrical substances. The nut which Professor Japp 
asked us to crack has turned out to be a very hard one, though there 
is little reason to doubt that it will be cracked sooner or later. Even 
were this accomplished, very formidable difficulties still remain, for 
we have to imagine the production of the dynamically organized and 
regulated structure of living protoplasm. Professor Guye of Geneva 
has in recent years offered some very interesting considerations 
concerning this difficult problem. According to the statistical 
theory of probability, if we wait long enough, anything that is pos- 
sible, no matter how improbable, will happen. All the ordinary 


events of life happen frequently because they are very probable, 
whilst the improbable things happen on an average relatively rarely. 
The celebrated problem of the ‘“‘typewriting monkeys” may be 
cited as an example. If six monkeys were set before six typewriters 
and allowed to hit the keys at their own sweet will, how long would it 
be before they produced—by mere chance—all the written books in 
the British Museum? It would be a very long, but not an infinitely 
long, time. 

Now the second law of thermodynamics, to the scrutiny of which we 
subjected the phenomena of life, is purely a law of statistical proba- 
bility. The odds against Mr. Home, the celebrated medium of former 
days, levitating without any compensating work or energy effect, are 
enormously heavy. The uncoordinated energy in and around Mr. 
Home might indeed spontaneously convert a part of itself into the 
coordinated energy of Mr. Home rising majestically into the air, but 
the safe odds against that happening are simply terrific. The ordi- 
nary large-scale happenings of the world, with which we are so familiar, 
are simply events where the odds on are gigantically enormous. The 
coming down of Mr. Home with a bump is an event on which we 
could safely bet, with an assurance of success quite unknown in racing 
or roulette. The theory of probability tells us that there always exist 
fluctuations from the most probable event. In the physicochemical 
world of atoms, molecules, and waves these fluctuations are ordinarily 
imperceptible, owing to the enormous number of individuals con- 
cerned. In very small regions of space, however, these fluctuations 
become important, and the second law of thermodynamics ceases to 
run. We have seen that the structure of living protoplasm is extra- 
ordinarily fine and delicate. Do events happen here which are to be 
classed as molecular fluctuations, or even as individual molecular 
events, rather than as the mass probabilities which have led men to 
formulate the second law? Something of that sort was probably in 
the mind of Helmholtz when he doubted the application of this law to 
the phenomena of life, owing to the fineness of the structures involved. 
The reasoning of Guye bears rather on the origin of life. Is the spon- 
taneous birth of a minute living organism, he asks, simply a very rare 
event, an exceedingly improbable fluctuation from the average? 
This is a fascinating point of view, but it possesses one drawback. 
What is there to stabilize and fix this rare event when it occurs? 
Guye has himself realized this difficulty, but it may not be an insur- 
mountable one. Such rare fluctuations may occasionally cause matter 
and energy to arrive at peculiar critical states where and whence the 
curve of happening, the world space-time line, starts out on a different 
path, and a new adventure arises in the hidden microcosmos. 

If life has sprung from the nonliving, its earliest forms must have 
been (or must be?) excessively minute. We must look for these, if 


anywhere, in those queer things that the bacteriologists call the 
‘‘filtrable viruses.”? These are living bacteria so exceedingly small 
that not only are they invisible in the finest microscopes, but they pass 
easily through the minute pores of a Chamberland porcelain filter. 
D’Herelle has recently discovered the occurrence in certain bacterial 
cultures of what he calls the ‘‘bacteriophage.’’ These seem to be 
excessively minute organisms which can hydrolyze certain ordinary 
bacteria. They constitute an extremely fine and filtrable ‘virus.’ 
Quite recently Bechhold and Villa, in the Institute for Colloid 
Research at Frankfurt, have devised a new and ingenious method 
whereby these minute organisms can be rendered visible and measured. 
The process consists in depositing gold on them, strengthening up 
these gilded individuals as one enlarges the silver particles in an 
insufficiently exposed negative, and obtaining as end result a sort of 
metallic skeleton of the original organism. It appears that the 
individuals of D’Herelle’s bacteriophage are small disks whose diam- 
eter lies between 35 wu and 100 wy. Now the diameter of an ordi- 
nary chemical molecule is of the order of 1 wy,i. e., one-millionth of a 
millimeter. Colloid particles are much bigger than that. If it be 
proved beyond all doubt that they are really living organisms, then the 
individuals of D’Herelle’s bacteriophage are comparable in size with 
known colloid aggregates of nonliving matter. This result gives rise 
to strange hopes. If we can find a complete continuity of dimensions 
between the living and the nonliving, is there really any point where 
we can say that here is life and there is no life? That would be a dar- 
ing and perhaps a dangerous theme to dwell on at the present time. 
But where there is hope there is a possibility of research. And who 
will set a limit to the discoveries that are possible to science in the 

I hope no reader of this meager sketch of mine will call me a mate- 
rialist ora mechanist. All I have endeavored to show, however briefly 
and inadequately, is that the sincere and honest men who are advanc- 
ing science whether in the region of life or death are those who measure 
accurately, reason logically, and express the results of their measure- 
ments in precise mathematical form. A hundred or a thousand years 
from now mathematics may have developed far beyond the extremest 
point of our present-day concepts. The technique of experimental 
science at that future date may be something undreamed of at the 
present time. But the advance will be continuous, conformal, and 
homologous with the thought and reasoning of to-day. The mystery 
of life will still remain. The facts and theories of science are more 
mysterious at the present time than they were in the days of Aristotle. 
Science, truly understood, is not the death, but the birth, of mystery, 
awe, and reverence. 

roe, ee 


ae ttel 


By A. E. Boycott, D. M. 

Rutherford was an example of the danger and folly of cultivating thoughts and 
reading books to which he was not equal. It is all very well that remarkable 
persons should occupy themselves with exalted subjects which are out of the 
ordinary road, but we who are not remarkable make a very great mistake if we 
have anything to do with them.—W. Hate Wuits, preface to the second edition 
of The Autobiography of Mark Rutherford. 

Pathologists are such practical people that I feel that I am straining 
the privilege of a presidential address about as far as it will go in 
attempting to discuss such a topic as the relation between things 
which we call alive and things which we call dead. But, though we 
seldom have opportunities of talking about them, we all have our 
speculative moments when we wonder about things in general and try 
to put together some sort of lay figure on which we can hang the facts 
which interest us and-see how they fit, and I should like to take this 
chance of getting rid of some of my own imaginings and sketching the 
Jemima on which they seem to look fairly presentable. And I do this 
in a gathering of pathologists because a good deal of light is thrown 
on the whole question of ‘‘live” and ‘‘dead”’ by the “‘filtrable viruses,” 
‘“acents,” ‘“‘bacteriophages,” and what not, in which we have been so 
much interested in recent years. 

I do not propose to enter at length on the old controversy between 
vitalism and mechanism. Pathologists might with advantage have 
taken a greater share in it than they have, for it would take a hardened 
mechanician to maintain his faith in face of our daily experience of 
repair adaptation and all the other purposive compensations for injury 
of which the body is so abundantly capable. Unfortunately our 
facts have not been widely known to those who have felt inclined to 
discuss the question. As far as I can see, the attempt to ‘‘explain life 
by chemistry and physics” has completely failed. It was thought at 
‘one time that if only the microscope could be made to magnify 

1 President’s address, section of pathology, Royal Society of Medicine. Reprinted by permission from 
the Proceedings of the Royal Society of Medicine, November, 1928. Published also, abridged and revised, 
in supplement to Nature, Jan. 19, 1929. 

82322—30——_22 323 


enough, we should see life going on; the present contempt for histol- 
ogy is, I suppose, a sort of revenge on the wretched limitations of the 
instrument. Hope was then transferred to biochemistry, which has 
done just what the microscope did—it has helped us enormously to 
understand the mechanisms of live things and not at all to explain 
life; let us hope that it will not sink to the same degraded position. 
But if vitalism has had the best of the argument, it has not led to a 
very profitable or a very satisfactory position. Vitalism is often 
mysticism, and (which is why mechanism has been so popular) any 
dualistic interpretation of the world is always repugnant to natural 
human instincts. But it is possible to escape dualism in another way, 
and I suggest that the vitalistic controversy in anything like the form 
it has taken during the last 40 years is out of date, that instead of 
emphasizing the differences between live and dead things we should 
make as much as we can of their similarities, and that instead of divid- 
ing the world into two distinct categories we should regard it as being 
made up of one series of units with properties which differ more in 
degree than in kind. This is not the mechanistic view, for we come to 
it, not by explaining live things by dead things, but by realizing that 
the characteristics of live organisms appear also in dead matter. While 
we have been waiting for life to be explained in terms of chemistry 
and physics, a good deal has been done toward stating chemistry and 
physics in terms of life. Of course, no ‘‘explanation” of either live or 
dead has been given; the behavior of an atom is just as mysterious as 
the behavior of a wasp, and neither ‘‘explains” the other any more 
than a trypanosome explains a whale. But it is something of a 
comfort if we can believe that at bottom they both behave in much 
the same way; we can have one lay figure instead of two, and if its 
coat and trousers are not made of exactly the same stuff we may find 
them in reasonable harmony with one another. 

Picking up such rumors as he might of what is going on in other 
lines than his own, every biologist must have been struck by the 
curious familiarity of several of the conceptions which in this century 
have gone to start the revolution in atomic physics which has pulled 
the universe in pieces and has perhaps not yet quite succeeded in 
putting it together again. The ideas are familiar because they were 
originally biological—derived from the study of live things and applied 
to their explanation. Let me illustrate what I mean by some 

(a) It is one of the characteristics of life that it is exhibited by 
discrete units which we know as organisms. As Powell White says, . 
there is no such thing as living matter, there are only live organisms, 
and in so far as they are alive 0.1 cow or 1.35 cabbage are impossi- 
bilities. The enterprising surgeon could, of course, easily make some- 
thing which was structurally about three-quarters of a cow, and I 


dare say, even less, but what was left after he had done with it would 
be either a cow or not a cow—its essential cowness can not be other 
than integral. The live world is made up of such discontinuous 
pieces; so, we now learn, is the dead world. The notion that all 
matter is particulate is of immemorial antiquity, and as we go further . 
in its ultimate analysis we come always to particles of ever-decreasing 
size; fractional atomic weights are as impossible as fractional animals; 
the quantum theory tells us that energy is also parceled out in bits; 
light consists of particles and, though the ether dies hard, the belief 
that there is anywhere a continuum—something without a grained 
structure—has been almost entirely abandoned. Discontinuities—in 
the structure of atoms and in the sizes of the stars—are now as char- 
acteristic of the dead world-as of the live. 

(6) When Rutherford and Soddy made people believe that one 
element really could be derived from another, they did for dead 
things what Darwin had done for live things; indeed they did rather 
more, for they backed their proposal with experimental proof which 
neither Darwin nor anyone else had produced in the biological sphere. 
In neither instance was the idea wholly new; suggestions of various 
kinds had adumbrated the change. ‘Evolution’ was originally 
used in reference to the cosmos, but it was from zoology and botany 
that it spread through the descriptions of all human experience 
before it was applied to what had been supposed to be the ultimate 
verities of matter. And now, neglecting the time factor, chemical 
elements are not necessarily more stable than zoological species. 
For practical purposes lead is lead and a dog is a dog, but now we 
have to apply to both the reservation that they have not always been 
so, and can not be trusted to be so indefinitely in the future. 

The disintegration of the radioactive elements takes place auto- 
matically: it can not be started, stopped, controlled, or modified; 
its progress is simply a question of the lapse of time. The modes by 
which organic evolution has been supposed to take place are beyond 
our discussion, but it is not impossible that it follows the same plan. 
Osborn and other experts hold that the course of any evolutionary 
sequence of animals is predetermined from the beginning; this 
“‘orthogenesis’’ may be interfered with by circumstances and oppor- 
tunities, for live organisms are obviously liable to meet conditions in 
this world which they can not resist, and which may deflect them 
from a predestined track or bring them to an end altogether; dead 
elements meet their difficulties elsewhere in the universe. 

(c) The classification of the eleménts which have developed by this 
evolutionary process recalls the familiar schemes of botanists and 
zoologists which show at once the affinities of animals and plants to 
one another and (though here there is of course a certain amount of 
guess work) their phylogenetic relationships. Animals were originally 


classified by characters which we now believe to be largely immaterial— 
size, shape, habitat, and any other obvious features; Mr. Gladstone 
thought whales were fishes and bats birds, and plenty of people still 
suspect a slowworm of being a snake. About 150 years ago compara- 
- tive anatomy began to get them into more natural groups, and evolu- 
tion added the criterion of descent in determining the system which 
prevails at present. Much the same has happened in classifying the 
elements into something better than a series of arbitrary pigeonholes. 
Their discovery was the first step, much more difficult than the 
apprehension of animal species. The progress of chemistry then 
showed that they fell into groups akin to vital genera or families or 
phyla (we can not guess at what level the analogy is closest), and the 
discovery of inorganic evolution and isotopes has brought their 
relationships to a suggestively biological position. Atomic weights 
are no longer of any great importance; what matters in classifying 
an element is its atomic number which determines its position in the 
periodic table and is a summary of its comparative anatomy and a 
clue to its history. An element (e. g., lead) may arise by more than 
one line of descent, which is what a biologist would call ‘“‘evolution by 
convergence.’ The isotopes into which Aston has dissected many of 
the elements correspond to the groups of closely allied species which 
embarrass the systematist and with which bacteriologists are familiar 
enough. Perhapsif they had sugar reactions or could be agglutinated, 
or indeed had a few more perceptible characters of any sort they 
might be easier to distinguish. 

(dq) If a man and a bicycle are smashed up together in a common 
catastrophe, the man mends himself, the bicycle does not. This 
capacity of self-repair 1s one of the greatest characteristics of live 
organisms; indeed, if one wishes to define shortly the subject matter 
of pathology I doubt if one can do it better than by saying that it 
is the study of how organisms resist and repair injury. They repair 
themselves in two ways. In the larger, more complicated animals 
we find very highly developed a capacity for individual repair which 
we see daily in the post-mortem room and experience continually 
in our own persons; it is so common that we are not impressed by it 
as much as we should be. Simpler things, such as bacteria, have 
little of this power of personal repair; indeed, I doubt whether a uni- 
cellular organism under natural conditions can effectively repair and 
recover from a substantial injury any more than can the individual 
cells of higher animals. But they achieve the same ends by other 
means, and owing to their numerical abundance and their high capac- 
ity for reproduction they can allow the injured individual to perish 
and readily replace him with a new one. Individually or racially, 
therefore, organisms repair themselves. Atoms seem to be able to 
do the same. All gross matter is made up of atoms, each of which 


has a definite structure according to its species; as nucleus there are 
so many hydrogen atoms with their attendant electrons and outside 
are so many planetary electrons. Electrons are continually being 
detached from atoms by various means, e. g., whenever electrical 
energy is manifested. Presumably an atom of, e. g., iron which 
has lost an electron is no longer of its normal nature and substance, 
i. e., it has ceased to be perfect iron, and such a process would in the 
end lead to the iron becoming manifestly something which was 
not iron unless some restorative process was at work. It seems clear 
that injured atoms must be able to pick up electrons from some- 
where to replace those which have been lost, a method of individual 
repair which appears to be efficient enough. 

(e) Another of the great characteristics of live things is their 
variability. Any measurable quantity of any organism varies, and 
the values are distributed in some mode akin to the normal curve. 
Crookes suggested long ago that atoms vary in a similar way, Karl 
Pearson has imagined a world where contingency replaces cause and 
effect, and Donnan has emphasized that our chemical and physical 
constants are statistical, derived from the measurement of an infinite 
number of individuals, and summarizing, perhaps, the average values 
of a variable population. If biological measurements were made on the 
same scale, zoology and botany and even pathology might be ‘“‘exact 
sciences” too. When we say that the atomic weight of one of the 
chlorines is 35, or that the mass of the hydrogen atom is 1.650 x 10 —* 
germ., it may tell us no more about the individual atoms than a 
statement that the height of the members of this section of the 
Royal Society of Medicine was 5 feet 8 inches would give us a view 
of the range of sizes which we represent. Whether atoms and mole- 
cules vary like organisms, therefore, we do not know—nor is it easy 
to imagine how we could find out. The possibilities of variation 
evidently become greater as structure becomes more complex—as 
we go, that is, from electrons to elaborate chemical compounds. 

(f) Cane sugar boiled with dilute hydrochloric acid is progressively 
hydrolyzed till practically none of it is left. Analysis of the course of 
the reaction shows that (say) one-fifth of the original quantity is 
decomposed in the first five minutes, one-fifth of what remains in the 
next five minutes, one-fifth of what remains in the next five minutes, 
and so on until the amount left is inappreciable. This strange be- 
havior is accounted for by assuming that the molecules of cane sugar 
go through some sort of regular rhythmical change, so that at any 
moment only a certain proportion of them are susceptible to the action 
of the water at the instigation of the acid. There is, I believe, no other 
justification for the assumption than that it fits the facts, and it can not 
fail to remind us of the rhythmical alternations of rest and activity 
which are common, perhaps universal, in live organisms. If, as Chick 


has shown, bacteria sometimes succumb to heat or disinfectants on the 
same kind of plan, it is legitimate to say that they behave like the 
molecules of cane sugar. But it is equally correct to say that the 
molecules of cane sugar behave like bacteria. We can not tell which 
_ is imitating the other; all we see is that the behavior of both is sim- 
ilar. The conduct of the bacilli could hardly have been predicted 
from a knowledge of what happened to the cane sugar. The natural 
supposition would have been that the molecules of which each bacil- 
lus was made up would have been destroyed logarithmically, so that 
the death point of all the bacilli would have been reached simultane- 
ously—a reflection which illustrates particularly clearly the consid- 
erable truth that the discrete unit which is comparable with the mole- 
cule of cane sugar is the whole bacillus and not one of its constituent 

Now, I do not want to push these analogies between atoms and 
organisms too far, nor indeed to claim more than that they are sug- 
gestive to an imagination which is not afraid to have its wilder 
moments. Atoms are very much smaller, and necessarily of much 
simpler structure and functions, and one would no more expect to 
find in them all the qualities-of organisms fully developed than one 
would look for all that goes to make a human being in the tubercle 
bacillus. However, it is only because we are used to it that we 
accept, without emotion, the idea that an amceba is analogous to an 
elephant; it must have been an amazing notion when it was new. 
There are two general objections which will probably occur at once 
to most biologists: (1) That dead elements do not show the multi- 
plying reproduction characteristic of organisms; (2) that organic 
evolution on the whole progresses from the simple toward the com- 
plex, whereas what I have called the evolution of the elements proceeds 
uniformly in the opposite direction. The two difficulties are rather 
closely related. 

Organic reproduction does two things: It produces a fresh version 
of the old organism and it gives an opportunity for numerical increase; 
its final effect is to leave organisms very much where they were. 
Each foxglove plant in my garden goes to immense trouble to produce 
about 500,000 seeds, and the wasps toil earnestly all the summer to 
increase from 1 to about 1,000. But next year there will be just 
about as many wasps’ nests as this and just about as many self- 
sown foxglove plants. Darwin taught us the qualitative importance 
of this superabundance, but, quantitatively, it is made use of only if 
conditions alter; it then enables organisms to fill up any gap in the 
environment. If my wife interferes with the natural competition 
among the young foxgloves we may have more or less than last year; 
the vacant spaces in Bloomsbury have given us more willow herb 
than we had before the houses were pulled down, and when some phil- 


anthropist enables the university to put up Dr. Maxwell Garnett’s 
skyscraper we shall have less; we make a gap for bacilli in our cul- 
ture tubes and they multiply as they never did outside. Man alters 
his own circumstances. These catastrophic alterations in numbers are 
flaring examples which attract attention. Slower secular changes 
in environment have the same effect, some sorts increase, others 
diminish, and on the whole there may be a tendency for a few large 
organisms to be replaced by many small ones. But, taking the facts 
as a whole, the capacity for reproduction does not result in more 
organisms than there were before; it merely enables them to adapt 
themselves to varying conditions. If organisms were less complicated, 
more stable and enduring, less easily injured, and if natural selection 
turned out to be a fact of experience without perceptible significance, 
the reproduction of organisms in general might be reduced to the level 
at which it runs in men in England to-day—numbers are just main- 
tained. And if they lived longer it might be a still less important 
feature of their activities; an elephant does not bother about repro- 
duction till it is 40 years old or thereabouts, a bacillus does it at an 
age of about 25 minutes. It will, however, need a vast increase in 
longevity if any approximation is to be made to the position in the 
dead world as we see it on this earth. It is indeed possible that there 
is here a real qualitative distinction between live and dead, but it 
seems more likely that the difference is one of mechanism rather than 
result, and, as we learn from biology, it is results rather than mecha- 
nisms which areimportant. With increasing complexity we get dimin- 
ishing stability, which is presumably why there is no known element 
heavier or with a more elaborate structure than uranium. Units 
which are more complex can not maintain themselves without the 
periodical remaking which we call reproduction; those which are 
less complex do not reproduce, because they have no need to do so. 

There is no reason to suppose that anything so like organisms as 
to deserve the same name exists anywhere in the universe except on 
the earth; as far as live things are concerned there is no need to look 
further. But we can not confine our speculations about dead things 
within the same limits. The stars are made of much the same ele- 
ments as the earth, and material transfers take place in both directions; 
meteorites come and nearly all the hydrogen and methane which 
arises from the decomposition of cellulose by bacteria and strepto- 
thrix flies off to celestial bodies which are dense enough to secure 
their permanent adherence. The relevant habitat of the elements is 
therefore the universe and, taking this into consideration, it is not 
altogether clear that something like reproduction does not go on in 
dead things. 

Though the elements seem inert and stable enough here and nothing 
much happens to them except the slow decomposition of those which 


are, in our environment, radioactive, in the immense heat of the 
stars atoms not only come to pieces and are dissociated into protons 
and electrons, but their basic structure is destroyed, positive and 
negative electrons fall into one another, and matter is converted into 
radiation. In the heavens the elements disintegrate more com- 
pletely than a dead cat does on earth, and unless there is somewhere 
some reconstruction the cosmos is coming to a material end. Lodge 
and Millikan think that in the depths of interstellar space, under 
conditions of intense cold, energy may once again become matter, 
radiation be reconverted into electrons which in their turn are recom- 
bined again into atoms, and so the various elements are reproduced; 
Jeans doubts any such regeneration. The duty of a pathologist 
does not call upon him to interpose his private judgment in so nice 
and important a controversy, and it would be impudent to say more 
than that some such process would enable us to have a comfortable 
faith in the maintenance of the material universe. If reconstitution 
is shown to take place, one can not help thinking of the nitrogen 
cycle, and how it was once held as certain (J was taught it as a student) 
that combined nitrogen was continually and irretrievably leaving the 
live world which must therefore inevitably come to an end; we had 
not appreciated nitrifying bacteria and attached more importance 
to academic argument than to Moses’s directions for fallowing arable 

If the elements do go through such a cycle, it is possible that what 
we call their ‘‘evolution”’ is more analogous to the death and repro- 
duction of organisms than to the progressive appearance of more 
complex forms. Very little of the cycle takes place in our own par- 
ticular corner of the universe, to which the organismal cycle is limited, 
and it is conditioned by very different circumstances of time and 
space, but it has much the same result in that it leaves things where 
they were. Protozoa are the better for reconstitution without multi- 
plication; perhaps atoms are too. On the other hand, the recon- 
stituted atoms may easily be of different species from those out of 
whose débris they have been built up, and under conditions where 
any reconstitution can occur it is possible that atoms are made which 
are more complex than any of which we have direct knowledge. 
Perhaps, too, the inorganic cycle is more nearly parallel to the appear- 
ance, progressive evolution, and final disappearance of a group of 
animal forms which some writers have imagined to be the birth, 
growth, and death of an organism drawn out on an extended scale. 
I do not know. 

Such are some of the ideas familiar in biology which have appeared 
in the explanations of our experience of what is not alive. As Ihave 
stated them, they are to some extent inconsistent with one another 
and they lead to no certain conclusion; they furnish, however, an 


assemblage of concurring and converging probabilities which encour- 
age one to think it possible that things which are alive and things 
which are not alive constitute in effect one series, beginning with 
hydrogen atoms and reaching up to man, and perhaps on to angels, 
not arranged in a continuous linear succession but on a scheme 
resembling the phylogenetic line of the animal kingdom. The units 
(or ‘‘wholes”? as Smuts would call them) which make up the series 
are of progressively increasing complexity, structural and functional, 
and must be compared against one another as they stand, irrespec- 
tive of their composition. A hydrogen atom, a molecule of albumin, 
a bacillus, a dog are comparable as such, and it is not necessarily of 
any moment that hydrogen is the basic stuff of all matter, that pro- 
teids are essential constituents of all live organisms, or that a mam- 
mal is made up of many bits, each of which is more or less like a 
unicellular organism; in no case is the behavior of the more complex 
whole simply the sum of the behavior of its constituents. Such a 
view satisfies our natural antipathy to a dualistic explanation of the 
universe and makes the old controversy about vitalism and mecha- 
nism largely unnecessary. It tells us nothing about the nature of 
life; by indicating that organisms are analogous to elements, it en- 
courages us to think of life as being as insoluble as gravitation, to give 
up the attempt to make out what it is and, as Lovatt Evans recom- 
mends, to spend our time more fruitfully in studying its phenomena. 
If you like to be paradoxical, you can say that live things are dead, 
or if you prefer it, that dead things are alive. Both at bottom have 
much the same characters, and it is unlikely that any sharp distinc- 
tion between them can be drawn. 

We pose to ourselves the question: Is the bacteriophage (or Gye’s 
cancer agent, or the virus of plant mosaic, or any other ‘‘virus’’) 
alive or dead? in the belief that we are asking a crucial question to 
which there is a definite obtainable answer which would solve our 
troubles. In doing so we put up one of those false antitheses which 
so often lead us astray. The difficulty in most scientific work lies 
in framing the questions rather than in finding the answers, and by 
the time we are in a position to know what the crucial question really 
is we have generally pretty well got the answer. In this case “live 
or dead” is a stupid question because it does not exhaust the possi- 
bilities. Our general notion of the structure of the universe leads us 
to expect that we shall meet with things that are not so live as a sun- 
flower and not so dead as a brick, and a consideration of what we 
know about “‘filtrable viruses” and similar ‘‘agents” brings us to the 
conclusion that they represent part of this intermediate group. Let 
us see how far they conform with what are, in ordinary language, 
admittably ‘“‘live” and ‘‘dead.” 


Size —Kssentially they are very small though just how small it is 
impossible to say. They must be ultimately particulate because all 
matter is so arranged, and from the readiness with which they are 
adsorbed on to appropriate surfaces the particles are presumably much 
larger than the molecules of simple salts. Passage through filters 
with pores of different sizes turns out to be a complicated and dubious 
method of measurement, and the effects of centrifugalization may 
depend more on the specific gravity than the size of the particles. 
They are invisible, and ultramicroscopy shows nothing in the infec- 
tive blood of polyhedral caterpillar disease, at least down to 50up 
(and probably down to 15uu), which qualitatively and quantitatively 
can not be seen in normal blood. Levaditi says (in error according to 
Bedson) that herpes virus goes through membranes which hold back 
complement and tetanus toxin; it is possible to concentrate solu- 
tions of hemoglobin in the centrifuge. Taking one thing with another 
and reckoning that some viruses are doubtless larger than others, an 
average diameter of about 25 uy (0.025 uw) seems a reasonable assump- 
tion, about o the diameter of the smallest bacillus, about the same 
size as the colloidal aggregates of dissolved hemoglobin and with 
room for 200 to 400 proteid molecules. 

Now it is characteristic of all groups of animals and plants that they 
have upper and lower limits of size.2 There is no mammal, fish, 
mollusk, or insect which is not perceptible to the bare eye any more 
than there is any bacillus which can be seen without a magnifying glass. 
It is also in a general way true that there is nothing which has the 
properties which we commonly associate with bacteria which is not 
at some stage in its life visible with the highest powers of the ordinary 
microscope or en masse in culture, though of course, if rules of this 
kind were too absolute, they would imply a more anthropomorphic 
world than most people nowadays are prepared to flatter themselves 

Frank bacteria and protozoa may have minute phases: Leishman 
showed long ago that the spirochete of African relapsing fever might 
in the tick be invisible and filtrable and we can not reject the evidence 
that even the tubercle bacillus may exist in a similar state. But no 
definite bacillus is known which is much smaller than pneumosintes, 
and it seems likely that at a diameter of something like 0.25 p (250 py), 
i. e., somewhere about the limit of direct microscopic vision, there is a 
break in the series which runs continuously downward from the larg- 
est bacilli (which would be visible to the naked eye if they were 20 
times as big as they are) just as the series of mammals stops at a weight 
of about 5 grams and the series of beetles at a length of about 0.5 mm. 
The largest Bacillus megaterium is some 25,000 times the bulk of Dial- 

2 See the table in Animal Biology, by J. B. S. Haldane and J. Huxley 1927 276, and Contributions to 
Medical and Biological Research (Osler Memorial), 1919, i, 226, 


ister pneumosintes, which is a relative difference of the same order as 
that between a pigmy shrew and a big man or between a laboratory 
guinea pig and a large elephant. D. pneumosintes is about 400 times 
the bulk of what we imagine to be an average virus, and if there are no 
large viruses (the organism of cattle pleuropneumonia being prob- 
ably bacillary) there may be more than seems at first sight in our 
definition of the agents we are discussing, by the facts that they 
can not be seen and that they will pass through filters with very small 
holes—a system of classification which has often been laughed at, 
though it could be applied well enough to many animal groups. 
Composition.—A diameter of 0.025 » does not give much room or 
many facilities for complicated vital actions. We do not know what 
occupies that tiny bulk; we do not even know that viruses are mainly 
proteid. There would be room for a larger number of simpler mole- 
cules though it is doubtful whether in any simulacrum of life this 
would compensate for the absence of the unique combination of 
chemical flexibility and physical stability which proteids possess and 
without which, as far as we know, “‘life’’ does not exist. The anti- 
genic quality of viruses is our only evidence that they contain proteid. 
Clinically and experimentally they confer a resistance to reinfection 
which is, in comparison with antibacterial immunities, singularly 
intense and durable, and is associated with antiviral properties in the 
blood serum. As against this we have, (1) that antiviral serum con- 
tains only a simple neutralizing principle like an antitoxin (and pos- 
sibly not actually effective in vitro) and has no specific agglutinin 
precipitin or (this is very doubtful) complement-fixing immune body; 
(2) that it is doubtful (though hardly, I think more than that at 
present) whether it is still true to say that all antigens are proteid 
in nature; (3) that substances like diphtheria toxin and the substance 
which Murphy has separated from the Rous sarcoma seem to be pro- 
teids of rather a special and simple kind. Another point which may 
be germane is that the dose of virus used for infection makes much less 
difference in the result than it often does with bacteria. The infective 
units are evidently present in enormous numbers in, e. g., the vesicle 
fluid in foot-and-mouth disease which may be diluted 1 in 10,000,000 
and still carry on infection. There is a minimum infecting dose, 
which shows that infection is due to something definite and not to 
magic, but once this is passed the rate at which the resultant illness 
develops and the degree to which it reaches are not much affected by 
giving 1,000 or 10,000 times asmuch. The big doses of bacteria which 
are often administered to animals contain bacterial substance by whole 
milligrams by which the symptons and course of the infection may be 
greatly influenced. The absence of such poisoning effects with large 
doses of virus may, of course, be due to the small quantity of virus 
substance which is given, but it quite possibly follows from its quality. 


There is indeed no evidence that viruses contain or produce poisonous 
substances as do so many bacteria. 

We can not, therefore, affirm that viruses differ radically in com- 
position from, e. g., the typhoid baccillus—nor that they donot. We 
probably have no business to make an assumption either way. 

Metabolism.—The attempts which have been made to demonstrate 
the production of carbon dioxide by viruses have failed, but the quanti- 
ties involved are small and the technical difficulties large, so that we 
can not regard the evidence as conclusive. It seems, however, that 
if they have any respiratory exchange it must be at a much slower rate 
per infective dose than that of ordinary bacteria. 

Stability and resistance to harmful agents —Some viruses at any rate 
can retain their activity in vitro for several years. Some bacterio- 
phages endure for a long time in bacteria-free filtrates; the Rous tumor 
virus can be kept almost indefinitely in dried tumor tissue. Others 
are more labile and are difficult to keep over a period of days. There 
is much the same variability as there is with bacteria and bacterial 
toxins; viruses as a class are not characteristically unstable, evanescent 

A good deal has been made from time to time of their resistance to 
heat and protoplasmic poisons. Here again the results are very 
various and differ with the sort of virus and the conditions of experi- 
ment; there are uo general rules. But there are a remarkable number 
of instances of viruses which have resisted temperatures up to 75° C., 
and treatment with chloroform, alcohol, ether, toluol, phenol, acids, 
alkalies, and so forth. Formalin destroys many of them quickly, 
which is curious, for its action in coagulating proteids is much slower 
than that of alcohol, which they often resist. As a whole they are 
certainly more resistant than vegetative bacteria, but it is not certain 
that they differ markedly from bacterial spores. In several parti- 
culars this resistance recalls that of enzymes, and their peculiarities 
may be another reason for suspecting that they are not made of quite 
ordinary proteids. There is nothing in their size per se which should 
protect them. 

Capacity for independent life and multiplication —There is no con- 
vincing evidence that any virus has grown and multiplied in artificial 
culture, though successes have been reported, and the observations 
of the Maitlands on vaccinia are difficult to explain away; they would 
have been more impressive if animal cells could have been kept out of 
the medium altogether. Living cells are in all cases necessary, which 
may be supplied by living bacteria, living animals or plants or tissue 
cultures. That they really do multiply under these conditions seems 
beyond question; indefinite serial passage of an infective virus (e. g., 
foot-and-mouth disease) through experimental animals (e. g., guinea 
pigs), indefinite subculture of the bacteriophage, quantitative tissue 


culture of the Rous agent—indeed all the evidence we have is con- 
clusive on that point. Viruses are certainly not enzymes. Apart 
from living cells they may for a long time survive, i. e., remain in 
such a state that, on altering the conditions, they can give rise to their 
characteristic effect—vaccinia, a sarcoma, bacteriolysis, etc. But 
there is no evidence that they multiply under these conditions, and 
multiplication at the expense of the environment is probably regarded 
by most of us as the most important criterion of life. 

For their multiplication, young growing cells are especially suitable, 
and it may be quite necessary. The bacteriophage multiplies only 
with the multiplication of the associated bacteria, and vaccinia, 
herpes, Rous sarcoma, etc., develop and multiply especially in con- 
nection with the growth of cells which results from local injury. 
Cell injury and cell growth are so intimately related that I know of no 
case where cell growth can certainly be excluded, but at present we 
can not be quite certain that it is necessary. It seems also to be true 
that viruses multiply only in the course of the production of their 
specific effect. 

But though the fact of multiplication is plain, it is by no means 
proved that it is effected in the way which is familiar in bacteria and 
living organisms generally. We put in so much virus and we get out 
more: We have no evidence, nor, I think, the right to assume, that 
the particles which we get out are the direct descendants of those 
we put in. 

It may be that these facts are best explained by supposing that 
viruses are obligatory intracellular parasites, and that the difficulty 
of cultivating them on artificial media will be solved when we can 
imitate sufficiently closely the essential features of the intracellular 
environment; pathogenic protozoa were not cultivated at the first 
trial. Very few bacteria live inside animal cells, and it is perhaps 
significant that those that do (e. g., Brucella abortus and Bactervum 
tularense) are among the smallest of the group. Viruses have, of 
course, not been seen inside cells, but their dependence on living cells, 
and the considerable regularity with which their presence is indicated 
by cytoplasmic and intranuclear “‘bodies”’ (some of them of specifi- 
cally characteristic appearances) make it quite likely that such a 
position is their natural habitat, in which they multiply and from 
which they spread, as they do, to other places, liquids, and secretions. 
This habitat might have something to do with the peculiarities of 
their immunological relations. Living within cells it is perhaps 
unnecessary for them to produce any definite toxins; mechanical 
disorganization of the cellular anatomy might well be the effective 
cause of the injuries they produce. The general symptoms of infec- 
tions (headache, fever, prostration) are caused, as in bacterial infec- 
tions, mostly by substances derived from the injured cells of the host, 


and these would also account for part at any rate of any local inflam- 
matory response. 

Such an explanation would do quite well for the viruses that accom- 
pany infectious diseases and would cover the facts for the bacterio- 
phage. But phenomena are known which are surely more or less 
analogous, and which it is hardly possible to regard as due to parasites 
of any kind. 

There is, for instance, the agent which induces cells to become 
malignant, indicated years ago by the Imperial Cancer Research 
Fund (Haaland and Russell) when they showed that close contiguity 
with malignant epithelial cells might cause normal connective tissue 
to grow into a transplantable sarcoma—one of the great discoveries 
of pathology. People had known that they met with tumors occa- 
sionally which seemed to be mixtures of carcinoma and sarcoma; 
they knew, too, that the cells at the edge of small epitheliomas looked 
as if they were being transformed and were on the way to become 
malignant, though the prevalence of a curious dogma to the effect 
that this could not really be so generally prevented them talking 
aboutit. The experimental mouse work explained these appearances; 
without it they could have carried no serious inference that cancer 
cells might influence normal cells towards malignancy. Unless we 
suppose that tumor cells pervert neighboring normal cells by argu- 
ment, persuasion, example, or some other sort of immaterial com- 
munication, we naturally assume that some substance passes out 
from the one to affect the other. All attempts to demonstrate this 
substance in dead tumor cells or in extracts of them uniformly failed 
until Rous came across his fowl sarcoma and showed that it could 
be transmitted indefinitely from bird to bird by dried dead cells or 
by filtrates which contained nothing that could be seen or cultivated. 
This particular tumor produces the substance in a form so stable that 
it can be examined and played with when it is detached from live cells. 
With most transplantable tumors it is present in such small amounts, 
or more likely in such a labile unstable form that its clear demon- 
stration is not possible; the carcinoma-sarcoma experiment comes 
off only with a minority of ‘mouse carcinomas. Gye has shown that 
its activity may be modified, enhanced, or depressed, by various 
conditions, which helps to explain the difficulties and apparent incon- 
sistencies which are met with in its experimental investigation. 
But a fair number of tumors have now been transmitted by filtrates, 
and there is, I think, no reason to doubt that the production of this 
carcinogenic substance is a common property of all malignant growths. 
We believe that all pathogenic bacteria, or at any rate all the larger 
ones, produce extracellular toxins; there is no other way in which they 
can injure the tissues. But in many instances they are so unstable 
that it is at the best difficult to demonstrate their presence apart 


from the bodies of the bacilli, and impossible to investigate them in 
detail. Nor should we, I think, be too shy of drawing general con- 
clusions from such specially easy and demonstrative examples as 
Providence has provided for our learning and pushes under our noses, 
till even our stupidity is bound to take notice; diphtheria and tetanus 
for toxins, the guinea pig’s peculiar bronchial musculature for ana- 
phylaxis, mice and tar for tumors, radium are such signposts; the 
Rous tumor is another, 

Another analogous phenomenon takes us, I think, a step further. 
The products of autolysis of dead cells in the body, in suitable con- 
centration, stimulate tissue growth. It is a beautiful self-regulating 
mechanism in which the amount of stimulus is proportionate to the 
amount of cell destruction, and therefore to the amount of cell growth 
required, and it is obviously of the highest importance for survival— 
a far more potent factor in selection and evolution than any disease 
has ever been. As it normally operates in healing our cut fingers, 
the final result is simply the restoration of the cells which were de- 
stroyed. But if the normal restraint exercised by neighboring tissues 
is evaded and use made of tissue cultures, the products of autolysis 
or metabolism (in the form of extracts of tissues, tumors, or embryos) 
stimulate growth indefinitely and a much larger quantity of tissue 
may be obtained than we started with. From the autolysis of this a 
larger amount of stimulating substance may be obtained, and there 
seems no reason why this process of multiplication should have any 
limit. Normal tissues in the physical isolation of tissue cultures are as 
immortal as malignant tissues in their physiological isolation from the 
rest of the body. 

No one would, I think, pretend that these products of autolysis 
are alive in any ordinary sense of the word. They have not received 
nearly as much attention as they deserve, but they are probably of 
relatively simple and discoverable constitutions. Yet applied to cells 
they cause growth, and in so doing potentially increase their own 
quantity; this is very much what the Rous agent does. ‘There are, 
too, these further minor similarities: The Rous agent stimulates one 
particular type of cell (white fibrous connective tissue) to malignancy, 
some extracts of normal tissues stimulate fibroblasts in tissue culture 
while others act specially in epithelial cells; the activity of the Rous 
agent may be encouraged or depressed by the simultaneous presence 
of other tissue extracts, some tissue extracts inhibit growth instead of 
encouraging it. 

But the chief importance of the analogy is, I think, in throwing 
light on the nature and origin of the Rous virus. If we agree to put 
the products of autolysis in the category ‘‘dead,’”’ by what difference 
are we to separate the Rous virus as being ‘‘alive”? It can not be 



cultivated apart from live cells, it multiplies only under conditions 
where its specific activity is displayed, its inactivation by chloroform 
and other protoplasmic poisons does not take it nearer life than are 
toxins or enzymes or indeed simple metallic catalysts, and its reten- 
tion of activity after the drastic methods of purification recently 
described by Murphy seems to definitely exclude it from “live.” As 
to its origin, all the evidence seems to concur in indicating that the 
Rous virus arises de novo in each tumor. There is no epidemio- 
logical evidence that cancer comes into the body from outside; 
everything we know supports the classical view that it is a local 
autochthonous disease. Most of the experimental work with the 
virus has started with an actual tumor, and it is therefore just possible 
that an agent might be carried along through the whole series which 
originated somewhere else than in a tumor. But experimental 
sarcomas produced by embryo extract and indol, arsenic, or tar have 
been transmitted by filtrates, and if others have failed to reproduce 
Carrel’s results I would only remark that in a question like this one 
positive experiment is worth more than a great many negative ones. 
Epitheliomas are easily produced in mice by tar and in men by 
chronic irritation, and if we believe that all malignant tumors contain 
more or'less of a carcinogenic agent akin to the Rous virus, it follows 
that we can with a considerable degree of certainty stimulate normal 
tissues to produce virus. It is, therefore, not very remarkable that 
Murphy, Leitch, and Brebner have at any rate occasionally demon- 
strated a carcinogenic agent in preparations of normal tissues (testes, 
pancreas, and embryo plus placental extract). 

It is difficult to escape the conclusion that the Rous virus arises in 
the tumor. There is no doubt that it is a means by which a tumor 
may be experimentally dispersed through any number of available 
animals, and it is apparently responsible for some, at any rate, of the 
metastases which occur in the course of the natural disease. But 
there is no evidence that such a virus ever naturally causes a fresh 
tumor, and we learn the important lesson that the means by which a 
disease is propagated may not be the same as that by which it was 
originally started. . 

This consideration becomes particularly interesting when we try to 
bring a frankly infectious disease such as foot-and-mouth disease, mea- 
sles, or smallpox into comparison. Brought up as we all have been in 
the heyday of bacteriology, it is a little difficult for us to get an unprej- 
udiced view of the situation. Because an agent is constantly asso- 
ciated with and, as we believe, is the cause of a disease very similar 
to others which we feel assured are caused by bacteria, we naturally 
assume that its natural history is more or less similar to that of bac- 
teria. We might have been in a better position to take a just view of 
the facts if we had lived in prebacteriological days, or if we could put 


on some of the complexion of Charles Creighton’s outlook and do our 
best to imitate his learning and industry. 

The chief way in which the virus of, e. g., foot-and-mouth disease 
differs from the Rous agent, and, going, a step further back, from the 
products of autolysis (or metabolism) which stimulate growth, is that 
it seems to spread about pretty easily from one individual to another; 
chiefly, I think, from the parallel of bacteria we take this to imply 
the possibility of independent life and probably independent multi- 
plication. But we have no direct evidence of this; all we know is 
that, like the Rous agent, it can be deliberately dispersed through any 
number of individuals indefinitely, and that it multiplies only when 
and where it produces its specific effect. The blister which is deter- 
mined on the foot of an inoculated guinea pig by slight local injury 
is preeminently the place in the body where the virus is found in the 
largest amount, and, trying to be as open-minded as we can, we must 
allow that this may be due either to the lesion being produced where 
the agent is present in greatest quantity, or to the agent being pro- 
duced in greatest quantity where the lesion is. You may say that 
if the guinea pig is inoculated with a filtrate, 1. e., with nothing but 
virus, the lesion must be due to the virus. No doubt that is in a 
general way true, but it does not follow that the whole of what we 
call the lesion is due to the immediate and direct action of the virus. 
Local effects at the site of inoculation (Gf they occur) prove nothing; 
they may well be determined by the concomitant injury. Putting 
aside all bacteriological analogy, we have no proof that the particles 
of virus which we get out of the lesion are directly descended from 
those we put in. In other words, we have to reopen the question 
which most of us regard as settled: Is the agent the cause of the disease 
or is the disease the cause of the agent? Another stupid antithesis, 
for the alternatives are not mutually exclusive; both might be true. 

From the time when Pasteur first began to persuade the world that 
microorganisms might be something more important and effective 
than microscopical curiosities, there have never been wanting noncon- 
formists who have held that microbes were the result rather than the 
cause of putrefaction, fermentation, and disease. It is very dif_fi- 
cult—indeed, it seems impossible—to believe in this thesis in respect of 
bacteria which can be shown to have an independent life by cultivation 
and which can be inoculated into an animal with the production of a 
definite disease (e. g., tuberculosis); the bacteria which we get out of 
the experimental lesion may without undue credulity be supposed to 
be the direct descendants of those which we have put in to produce it. 
But, as Hamer and Crookshank remind us, we have quite possibly 
gone too far in identifying a “‘disease”’ with its accompanying microbe 
and ‘defining diseases in terms of what we believe to be their causative 
agents. If it is sound to do this (as it’certainly appears to be) with 



some epidemic diseases, it does not follow that the method can prop- 
erly be applied to allof them. After all ‘‘similarity’’ between diseases 
is hable to be superficial; most of the clinical symptoms of infections 
are due to the reaction of the body, and on a priori grounds one 
would expect resemblance between diseases of quite diverse etiology. 
I conclude, therefore, that we have to admit the possibility that, as in 
the Rous sarcoma, the viruses which we associate with certain 
diseases are not their original causes though they may be the means by 
which they are propagated and carried on. 

You will probably say—and I think with a good deal of justifi- 
cation—that it is contrary to all common sense to suggest seriously 
that the viruses of diseases like smallpox, measles, or rabies arise 
anew in each infected person. And it may indeed be nonsense. It 
is evidently more conformable with our general experience and with 
the epidemiological dogma to which we subscribe to lay stress on the 
definite way in which each case can be traced to a preceding case and 
that to another, and so on, explaining such examples of apparently 
spontaneous origin as we meet with by carriers and the imperfections 
of our data rather than by the concurrence of a favorable epidemic 
constitution of the atmosphere. With that point of view I quite 
agree; the evidence that in an epidemic something is passed on from 
one case to the next seems extremely strong. But at the same time I 
can not altogether get rid of the uneasy suspicions which intrude when 
I think of, e. g., foot-and-mouth disease, distemper, or labial herpes. 

Distemper seems to be everywhere where there are susceptible 
animals, and if the stock of dogs at Mill Hill can be kept free from it 
indefinitely it will be a point of much more than technical interest. 
As to foot-and-mouth disease, in which no material connection be- 
tween one outbreak and another can be discovered, I think that the 
unbiased man in the street would say that the facts showed either that 
the virus was universally dispersed, possibly in some common animal 
(such as the hedgehog *) other than the cow, or that the disease was 
continually beginning afresh. Labial herpes seems in much the same 
position. Epidemics may be found by ransacking the literature but 
they are certainly not common. Not only has herpes no connection 
with itself but it has a definite association with other diseases—pneu- 
monia and severe catarrhs; its possible relation to human encephalitis 
does not help us—both are blind men. It is possible that the virus is 
an offshoot from the pneumococcus, though when Perdrau looked for 
it in pneumonic lungs he found instead another “‘agent’”’ which could 
be transmitted through rabbits in series. 

3 Mr. Charles Oldham tells me that at the end of the eighteenth and beginning of the nineteenth century 
churchwardens in Hertfordshire put as high a price (4d.) on the head of a hedgehog as on that of a polecat. 
*“Urchins’”’ were supposed to do something to cows which diminished the yield of milk and this was trans- 
lated into a belief, still extant, that they sucked the cow’s udders when they were lying down. Such ex- 
penses were not lightly incurred in those days, 


I daresay, however, that some simple explanation will be found 
for these epidemiological difficulties and that any suspicions that 
we may have about the origin of these viruses will be allayed. Viruses 
can remain dormant in live animals for a long time and carriers might 
be activated by a variety of incidents. But what are we to make 
of such a phenomenon as Virus III? Virus III is made manifest 
by inoculating a filtrate of an emulsion of a rabbit’s testis into the 
testis of another rabbit. Ths procedure is sometimes followed by 
an inflammatory reaction and the production of intranuclear “bodies,” 
and if this inflamed testis is emulsified and the filtrate inoculated 
into another fresh rabbit the inflammatory condition is reproduced; 
thereafter the ‘‘disease’’ can be carried on indefinitely. It is not 
fatal, and after his attack has subsided a rabbit is refractory to 
further inoculations and his blood serum can prevent infection with 
active virus. If we knew nothing of bacteriology, should we not 
conclude that the virus had been generated by our procedures from 
the tissues of the normal testis? The only evidence to the contrary 
is analogy, and the slender fact that the phenomenon comes off 
more easily in New York than in London rabbits. I do not know 
how many people have tried similar experiments with other appar- 
ently normal tissues; if they had been positive we should certainly 
have heard about them; Leitch’s, Brebner’s, and Murphy’s successes 
with sarcoma have already been mentioned, and _bacteriolysins 
transmissible in series have been extracted from normal organs. 

It might be expected that what we know of immunity to these 
viruses would throw some light on their origin and nature, but as a 
matter of fact it does not seem to give us much help; as far as it goes, 
it is perhaps against their autochthonous origin. Two points are 
certainly clear. In susceptibility to reinoculation and in the neutral- 
izing properties of the blood-serum, the immune reactions are at 
least as sharply specific as they are with most bacteria; some viruses 
show immunological races as bacteria do. The facts of natural 
immunity are also very similar; a virus may affect one, two, or several 
species of host and have special affinities for certain tissues. We 
might use this analogy, and the general proposition that immune 
reactions occur only if the antigen and the reacting animal are of 
different species, to argue that viruses must come from outside the 
affected animal, and to say, e. g., that if virus III originates from 
rabbit tissues it ought not to stimulate a rabbit to an antiresponse 
as it does. The argument seems to be rather a strong one, but it 
is not conclusive. It is easy to suppose that the virus, whatever 
its origin, would not have on it the stamp of complete rabbitness; 
considering its size and its other peculiarities it would perhaps be 
rather remarkable if it had. We know, too, now that the general 
immunological rule about specific differences and specific identities 


has many exceptions. The lens of the rabbit’s eye is antigenic to 
the rabbit and in common with such preteids as casein and egg 
albumin it is not species specific; a mother reacts to the blood cor- 
puscles of her foetus if they happen to belong to a different blood 
group; the development of one tar cancer makes all the rest ofa 
mouse’s skin refractory to the development of another, though 
whether the resistance is to the mouse’s own malignant tissues or 
to a virus which has developed in them we do not know. One can 
hardly, then, I think, be sure that a virus has an extraneous origin 
because an animal treats it as an antigen. 

Whatever filtrable virus we look at we meet with the same difficul- 
ties. A good many people are willing to believe that the bacteriophage 
is generated by its bacillus—which is probably the truth. And they 
would explain the way in which each bacteriophage more or less fits its 
own bacillus by its having originated from that bacillus. Others see in 
their multiplicity evidence that bacteriophages are really live organ- 
isms with the characteristic variability and adaptability. Itis perhaps 
more than a coincidence that it is in another group of plants that the 
same difficulty has arisen: the agents of plant mosaic diseases have 
never been found apart from affected plants; they have not been 
cultivated; no one can be sure whether there is one virus or many 
viruses. lysozyme is another phenomenon about which one would 
like to know more. It is widely distributed in animals and plants and 
is abundant in egg white; withstands drying, alcohol, chloroform, 
etc.; acts on dead as well as live bacteria, and would pass for an 
enzyme were it not increased in amount by dissolving Micrococcus 
lysodeikticus. Such multiplication during the exhibition of its activity 
seems to connect it with the viruses, but Fleming says that it can not 
be carried on by serial cultures. 

If viruses do originate in tissue cells, what are we to imagine that 
they are? Béchamp’s ghost would answer ‘“‘microzymes, as I told you 
70 years ago.”” Altmann would say bioblasts, others micelle and even 
mitochondria, and all the people who have imagined that cells are 
made up of much smaller essential elementary live particles would see 
in the present development the fulfillment of their prophecies. They 
can not all have been exactly right; bioblasts are quite big, and mito- 
chondria (which some have supposed to be symbiotic organisms) are 
also visible, and not only to the elect. But it may well be that they 
were making as shrewd guesses at the truth as Prout did when he 
suggested that all elements were ultimately compounded of hydrogen. 
Till Harrison did it we had not suspected that the cells of warm-blooded 
animals could be cultivated in vitro. If they can live and multiply, 
divorced from their proper community, is it altogether impossible that 
parts of cells might have something of a separate existence also just as 
electrons may operate apart from atoms? Granting that they might 


why should they have such injurious effects? To which there are two 
answers: First, we apprehend only such disembodied parts of cells as 
produce some definite effect which we can observe, and, as it happens 
we have perceived only those which do damage; second, believing as 
the fundamental proposition of morbid anatomy that structure and 
function go hand in hand, we should naturally expect such gross aber- 
ration of structure to result in such a departure from the normal course 
of function as, in this so nicely adapted world, would manifest itself 
as injurious. 

What to make of all this confused mass of facts and speculation I do 
not know. We seem to have a fairly definite group of things which, 
(a) are very small; (6) can multiply; (c) have no independent life; (d) 
are of uncertain origin. Of their multiplication we know that the 
association of live cells is necessary, and that it occurs when the specific 
effect of the agent is manifested; we do not know that direct multipli- 
cation is possible at all. Of their origin, we have strong grounds for 
thinking that some are derived from live cells and we can not exclude 
this ancestry for any of them. They seem, too, to form a series: 
(1) The growth-promoting substances from tissues show indirect mul- 
tiplication but make no other suggestion of life; (2) lysozyme would 
pass for an enzyme except that it can multiply; (3) the Rous agent 
and the bacteriophage arise repeatedly in malignant tumors and bac- 
teria, respectively, and may be in some sense alive, but they are not 
independent species of animals or plants; (4) the pathogenic viruses 
represent a further step toward being wholly alive. Taking one thing 
with another, I am inclined to think that they are both the cause and 
the result of their diseases as Sanfelice suggested for epithelioma con- 
tagiosum. Somehow or other a virus arises in an animal or plant and 
by its action on the tissues causes them to produce more of itself. Some 
viruses (e. g., smallpox) acquire a considerable capacity of spreading 
from infected to normal individuals and the majority of cases of the 
disease are so caused; the virus is on the way toward independence. 
Others (e. g., herpes) have little or no power of dispersion and most 
cases are due to the virus arising de novo under the appropriate stimu- 
lus (whatever that may be). You may say that if that is so it is 
strange that one case of herpes is so like another and that epidemic 
virus diseases are so uniform in their characters and so “‘true to type.’ 
It is, indeed, rather curious, but the circumstances which lead to the 
generation of a virus are presumably often repeating themselves, the 
possibilities of parts of cells having a separate existence are very likely 
limited, and after all the specific characters of infectious diseases are 
not always very sharply defined. However, these are difficulties which 
I am not prepared to solve; my object has been to ask questions rather 
than to answer them. 

I have made no attempt to acknowledge the many sources, printed 
and verbal, from which I have derived facts and ideas. 

Su. tay = 



University of Texas 

Biological evolution is composed of a succession of individual vari- 
ations, which, being heritable, become accumulated to form an in- 
creasingly complex living fabric. The long-disputed questions con- 
cerning the method of evolution can therefore be decided only through 
a study of the mechanism whereby these individual variations are 
produced. What is needed here is more precise and analytical data 
regarding the nature of those differences which distinguish one gener- 
ation of individuals from its predecessors, and which they in turn tend 
to transmit as a heritage to their descendants. We must not remain 
content to view evolution from afar, but must view close up, as through 
a microscope, the transitions now occuring out of which the evolution- 
ary story is pieced together. The science which essays this study is 


During the present century genetics, building upon the earlier dis- 
coveries of Mendel, has practically solved the problem of the method of 
inheritance of the differences referred to, once they have arisen. All 
modern genetic work converges to show that the heritable differences 
between parent and offspring, between sister and sister, in fact between 
any organisms which can be cross